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Workforce planning is challenging and complex process for any company in current business world. The future workforce is difficult to predict: social and technological changes mean that some skills will become redundant while demand for others will suddenly increase. Basic staff numbers are hard to forecast and problems are exacerbated by the length of time required to train staff. However, workforce planning is a vitally important process and about 70% of companies funding is spent on staffing costs and so the effectiveness of its workforce in large part determines the effectiveness of the business. Workforce planning is the key means for any company operating its business in current business climate to understand and anticipate the impact of demographic, technological and policy trends on future service requirements. It is also an important way of improving the efficiency of the overall performance of the company. In short, changing and improving the workforce depends on effective workforce planning.
Many companies do not implement their strategic workforce planning systematically even though they consider this management tool a main factor in sustainable business success. 81 percent of companies rate the importance of strategic workforce planning as high; however only 35 percent are satisfied with their workforce planning results. These are the findings of the "Strategic Workforce Planning" study conducted by the HR consulting company Hewitt Associates and the Institute for Executive and Human Resource Management at the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
The demand for new talent is so high that most of companies are forced to modify their corporate strategies. Because of this, companies already attribute a high degree of importance to strategic workforce planning and expecting its significance to rise considerably in the coming three to five years.
Today although more than 70 percent of businesses implement strategic workforce planning as a management tool to save the company from shortage of skills or talent at every level, they tend to do so in a rather unstructured manner, in part isolating the process from other HR activities. This leaves them only partially content: Around two thirds are satisfied with short-term workforce adjustments and operational workforce planning on an annual basis; however with workforce planning for key positions and forÂ the company overall, the satisfaction rate is only 35%. "Companies have considerable backlog demand in implementing their strategic workforce planning.Â Only when this planning is implemented systematically can businesses profit from the advantages of this management tool," said Ursula Knorr, head of Human Resource Management at the University of St. Gallen.
Sometimes company cannot properly plan due to the non systematic market and its trends. Today's the factors such as continuous changing business environment and recession are where the motives to plan the workforce these are also big hurdles in workforce planning. Customer attitude toward business (company's product), company policy & image and nature of business also have deep impact on workforce planning.
Question No. 2
Recruitment Process & its requirements
BBC Recruitment Process
BBC has its own recruitment website, where candidates are able to see what the BBC can offer for them andÂ search the latest vacanciesÂ to see if the company has a role that would suit the candidates' skills and needs.
Before deciding to apply, it is very important that you read through the job details to ensure that candidate meets all of the minimum criteria as outlined in the skills and experience section and within any job advert. If candidate does not meet these requirements, then chances are he/she would not be invited for an interview.
If the candidate likes the sound of working with BBC and feels that he/she meets the minimum requirements of the role, he/she can then apply online for jobs at the BBC and also register to be notified of any future jobs by email.
Next candidate is needed to complete an online application form for the chosen job. For hints on completing the application full guideline is also provided on the website.
Once a candidate has submitted his/her application form it will be assessed against the essential criteria of the job. If the skills and experience closely meet the job requirements, then he/she will be invited to attend an interview and possibly an assessment. The assessment techniques that BBC uses are designed specifically for each individual job, with the aim of objectively and fairly measuring the core requirements of that particular job. The company will explain what the assessment is measuring when it invites candidate to attend. If the candidate skills and experience do not match the requirements of the job BBC will inform candidate also. Candidate will not be invited in to attend an interview or assessment, but the company would encourage candidate to re visit the current jobs section on website to see if there are any more suitable jobs.
If candidate is short listed for interview or assessment for a management role at the BBC, he/she will be required to complete an online leadership questionnaire. He/she can complete this from a work or home computer and it will last approximately 45 minutes.
If he/she is successful at interview/ assessment then the company will contact him/her to offer a job with the BBC. If this is the case then the candidate may want to find out more about the benefits of working with BBC.Â
If the candidate is not successful at interview/ assessment, he/she may ask the BBC for feedback. BBC is always happy to provide feedback and can also talk to candidate about other opportunities at the BBC which may be more suited to his/her skills and experience.Â
Question No. 3
Training and Development Program
BBC Training Academy
BBC academy puts training and development at the heart of the broadcast industry by equipping companies and service providers with the skills they need for a lifetime of employability in the ever-changing media landscape. As well as training BBC's own staff, the BBC's Charter Agreement confirms the responsibility to train the industry and BBC Academy do this in a number of ways:
Academy works with Skill-set, the Government-licensed, UK-wide Sector Skills Council for the audiovisual industries to offer subsidised training to the UK Freelance community
Academy offers complete portfolio of courses and development solutions to individuals and organisations worldwide for not only BBC employees but anyone interested in relevant programs can register and get training.
Academy acts as development consultants to work with you and your organisation offering a complete service from training needs analysis to evaluation.
This website and the services BBC Academy offers are separate but complementary to the BBC's licence fee funded activities.
BBC Academy offers practical, expert advice on the right training for individuals and details of funding packages available to help them with the cost.Â
For broadcast organisations
BBC Academy provides an account management service which gives the candidates day-to-day support alongside any or all of the following:
Design and carrying out of training needs assessments
Working with candidates to create an effective training strategy to meet their needs
Advice on the best training delivery options
Our extensive range of scheduled courses available to candidates
Designing and delivering bespoke training packages
Implementing a rigorous evaluation process so that a candidate can clearly demonstrate the value received by his/her organisation
Combining all the above elements to help the candidates to maximise their training budget.
So BBC has established a separate academy to train its staff at all level. This independent academy runs its own business to train the entire employees of BBC and other individuals interested into similar field by offering different courses, online programs and workshops. These programs related to news, radio, television, journalism, broadcasting and several other categories. So this is a good way to develop the employees by sending them into the same kind of culture which they face at their job places as the BBC academy provides them the same kind of environment where candidates can learn more easily and productively. A list of courses is given below offered by BBC Academy for its candidates:
Core Learning Craft Editing
Core Learning Desktop Editing
Editing, Post-production & Vision Mixing
Writing and Storytelling
Question No. 4
Examine Human relations school of management in relation to motivating staff?
The human relations school of management has been around for quite some time, enjoying fairly wide acceptance. And while, even today not every company or manager embraces this management model, there's little doubt that it has changed overall management practice for the better. Often referred to as motivational theory, human relations management theory views the employee differently than the more autocratic management theories of the past. Based on Douglas McGregor's X and Y Theories, HR management theory (Theory Y), assumes that people want to work, that they're responsible and self-motivated, that they want to succeed and that they understand their own position in the company hierarchy. This is the exact opposite of Theory X, which presumes that employees are lazy and unmotivated, that they seek nothing more from their jobs than security and that they require discipline from without. In short, human relations theory, rather than viewing the worker as merely one more component in the company wheel, asserts that the organization will prosper as it helps the employee prosper. According to human relations management theory, some positive management actions that lead to employee motivation and improved performance are these:
Treating employees as if work is as natural as play or rest, just as motivational theory states. If the company does not provide them the best working conditions and proper breaks employees might lose their attentions and motivation towards their jobs
Sharing the big-picture objectives toward which their work is aimed. Without communicating the goals which company wants to achieve through workforce a company cannot prosper. These goals should be measureable, achievable and realistic. It is also management's responsibility that not only to communicate these goals properly but also show the big picture to the employees how their contributions will increase the productivity of the company and how company will be rewarding them against this.
Empowering employees to innovate and make as many independent decisions as they can handleÂ which will provide them satisfaction and motivate them towards their job tasks.
Training and developing them, increasing freedom and responsibility as their capabilities grow and they can perform more productively by feeling the free at their job places.
Providing appropriate recognition and rewards when they achieve company goals which are very strong motivation factors.
Using any other helpful theories of human relations that will keep them motivated toward excellence.
Question No. 5
Explain Motivational factors that influence the Organization and employees' performance?
Before a manager can effectively rouse motivation within his workforce, he must be aware of the factors that affect motivation. Employees get involved in organizations in order to fulfil certain feelings, values, interests, or needs; such as recognition, approval, security issues, acceptance, seeking new experiences, meeting new people, or building their self-esteem, etc. If management does not allow its workers to address their needs then they will not stay motivated enough to maintain the high levels of performance needed within the organization.
Why workers lose their Interest:
Little or no chance for personal development or growth
Unclear group goals or discrepancies between workers expectations in organization and the reality of the situation
Lack of praise, rewards or recognition for their involvement towards their jobs and job performances
Feelings of inadequacy or that they are powerless to make a difference in the organization. Which can be a result of lack of guidance, communication or no uplifting from management
Job tasks are too routine; there is no variety offered
Lack of support from colleagues and managers or conflict among them
Lack of prestige related to the job tasks
Lack of opportunities to demonstrate initiative and creativity
The factors that affect both personal and group motives within the organization and what are the expectation that management has from its manager to motivate individual, teams and groups working into the organization. What type of leadership presence should managers maintain? The factors of motivation are:
Expect a great deal from organizational members. They will either live up or live down to the management's expectations.
Explain exactly what the management expect from organization members/workers, especially if the organization is in the early stages of group development.
Communicate frequently with the groups, individuals and teams.
Emphasize the importance of good work habits and time management.
Lead by example. Be a role model and practice what the managers preach.
Manager should look to himself first if trouble occurs. Don't blame others or get angry with its staff directly.
Managers should show appreciation both publicly and privately for employees' good work. Praise even the smallest accomplishments when appropriate.
Keep the organization members/workers aware of the opportunities that exist for them within the organization (i.e., leadership positions).
Let the workers/members have a good time while the work gets done; and don't forget to join them.
Question No. 6
Compare and contrast classical and scientific schools of management?
The classical or traditional approach to management was generally concerned with the structure and the activities of formal organization. The utmost importance in the achievement of an effective organization was seen to be the issues such as the establishment of a hierarchy of authority, the division of work, and the span of control. The classical management focuses on the efficiency and includes scientific, bureaucratic and administrative management.Â
Henry Fayol's Classical Organisational theory attempted to identify principles of management that would apply to all organisations. He defined management as having five functions; "planning (examining the future and drawing up plans of actions), organising (building up the structure of the undertaking), commanding (maintaining activity among the personnel), co-ordinating (unifying and harmonizing activities and efforts) and controlling (seeing that everything occurs in conformity with policies and practices)". His study showed the idea that the principles of organisational and administrative effectiveness depended on the positional power held and discouraged any ideas of rigidity.
The scientific approach required several major principles in its application to management: firstly develops a science for each operation to replace opinion and rule-of-thumb. Secondly it suggests that workers should be scientifically selected based on their qualifications and trained to perform their jobs in the most optimal manner. Thirdly it advocates genuine cooperation between workers and management based on mutual self-interest. Fourthly it suggests that management should take total responsibility for planning the work and that worker's primary responsibility should be achieving management's plans.
Scientific management is a series of approaches aimed at improving the performance of individual workers through the use of analytical procedures to lift workplace efficiency". The system was developed by Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915), in hope of providing the workplace with greater productivity and efficiency, which in turn gave individuals a greater understanding of management. Fredrick Taylor defined his theory as "the one best way for a job to be done". Scientific management brought many improvements to productivity, which was much needed and impressive. Highly repetitive jobs were re-designed, with remarkable increases in output, which contributed to the workplace greatly.
In spite of focusing only on the internal structure of the organization scientific schools of management is majorly focused on the aligning processes, selecting the right employees with right skills at right time for the right jobs, analytical techniques to improve the job places further better, workforce planning, guiding employees by developing their job plans (through job targets), and focusing on both employees and the processes of the company. Both classical and scientific schools of management help to bring high productivity within the company.
Question No. 7
Explain Maslow's theory and today's relevance?
The basis of Maslow's theory of motivation is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be addressed. There are general needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) which have to be fulfilled before a person is able to act unselfishly. These needs were called "deficiency needs." While a person is motivated to fulfil these desires, they continue to move toward growth, and eventually self-actualization. The satisfaction of these needs is quite healthy. While preventing their enjoyment makes us ill or act evilly.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Chart
As a result, for adequate workplaceÂ motivation, it is important that management understands which needs are active for individual employee motivation. In this regard, Abraham Maslow's model indicates that basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfilment are pursued. As depicted in this hierarchical diagram, sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle', when a need is satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place.
These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met which is applicable today.
These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs but can be demanding up to some extent. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighbourhoods and shelter from the environment which is also compulsory for any human in today's world.
These include needs for belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than physiological and security needs but is important in business context though. Relationships such as friendship with colleagues and management fulfils this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or religious groups.
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment. When above needs fulfilled at this stage of need workers perform their jobs with self-motivation and show their best at their own by feeling own responsibility.
This is the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Â Self-actualizingÂ people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
Question No. 8
Explain Change implementation through autocratic and democratic ways?
InÂ Autocratic management style,Â managementÂ gives instruction to staff to perform certain job tasks without getting opinionÂ orÂ making consultation.Â If the management likes toÂ control an office situation, thenÂ it tends to use this autocratic style. As the autocratic style means employees has to follow management and the guideline provided by the management. Change is necessary into every business now the implementation of change is equally important. Since autocratic style is imposition of decision from the management and no freedom for employees to work according to their wish and no participation in decision making which may produce little dissatisfaction among employees. As it is human nature mostly they resist against change and if the change is implemented without involving them into decision of making change regarding their work places it becomes more severe and the consequences may be not in favour of the company. Although decisions made areÂ fast and prompt without involving others,Â work is usually completed on time. However this type of style may create a work environment where staffs are lessÂ motivated and build up a "wait for boss instruction" condition. In longer term, autocratic management style tends to drive away staff henceÂ increase staff turnover and new working conditions which can be bringing by management may face the high resistance
AÂ Democratic Management styleÂ encourages a manager to delegate work tasks toÂ his staffs. This style involves other people to get things done. A democratic styleÂ of management must come alongÂ with responsibility and it work more effectively when authority to perform the task is granted atÂ theÂ same time.Â Normally involving staff into change implementation process brings positive results. One important characteristic of this style of management is the staff who are been delegated the task must be given authority and must be competent enough to perform the task otherwise consequences may be very unfavourable for company. When the company practices the democratic style of management it informs the whole workforce which may affect by the new change then involve them into this decision by communicating the new benefits which the entire workforce would get after implementation and then start implementation of that certain change into the company. So this participation and pre-information involve the entire workforce into change implementation process which shows the positive results for the company and also maintain the satisfaction level among the workforce which motivates them to perform their best by accepting the new changing conditions of their jobs.
Question No. 9
Relationship between management style and motivational programs
Participative management involves sharing information with employees and involving them in decision-making. Employees are encouraged to run their own departments and make decisions regarding policies and processes. It has often been promoted as the quick cure for poor morale and low productivity. It is not, however, appropriate in every organization and at every level.
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a company-wide process in which employees actively participate in setting goals that are tangible, verifiable and measurable. Participation of employees makes them feel that they are important and targets set by their own motivate them to perform in a better way on their job places.
Employee empowerment is a style of management that puts managers in the role of coach, adviser, sponsor, or facilitator. Decision-making is being pushed down to the lowest levels of the organization. The way work is designed and the way organizations are structured are changing. Empowerment involves delegating the decision-making authority regarding the action to be taken on a task that is considered to be important to both the manager and employee. The main reasons for implementing an empowerment program are to provide fast solutions to business problems; to provide growth opportunities for employees and; to lower organizational costs while allowing the manager to work on multiple projects.
Employee empowerment led to the development of self-managed work teams. This management style delegates the authority to make decisions such as how to spend money, whom to hire, and what projects to undertake. Self-managed work teams are generally composed of 10 to 15 people and require minimal supervision. Xerox, General Motors, PepsiCo, Hewlett-Packard, and M&M/Mars are just a few organizations that have implemented self-managed work teams. According to Stephen P. Robbins, one in every five companies uses self-managed work teams.
Management by Walking Around (MBWA) is another technique of managing staff to motivate them. A classic technique used by good managers who are proactive listeners. Managers using this style gather as much information as possible so that a challenging situation doesn't turn into a bigger problem. Listening carefully to employees' suggestions and concerns will help evade potential crises and improve their working conditions hence to become the solid reason to motivate them. MBWA benefits managers by providing real-time information about processes and policies that is often left out of formal communication channels. By walking around, management gets an idea of the level of morale in the organization and can offer help if there is trouble.
So all above management styles explain how workforce can be motivated to bring the efficiency into organizational processes and satisfying the entire workforce.