Work Stress Conflict And Overload Work Commerce Essay

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Work stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker.0"[ For workers everywhere, the troubled economy may feel like an emotional roller coaster. "Layoffs" and "budget cuts" have become bywords in the workplace, and the result is increased fear, uncertainty, and higher levels of stress..

I think that the issue of (stress at work ) is mess . because A mess is a set of conditions that produces dissatisfaction. It can be conceptualized as a system of problems or opportunities; a problem or an opportunity is an ultimate element abstracted from a mess. There is no straightforward way of predicting what will cause harmful levels of stress, since different people respond to different types of pressure in different ways at different times, according to their personality, experience, motivation and the support they receive from managers, colleagues, family and friend

Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. The following factors may lead to workplace stress:(1)Pressure from investors, who can quickly withdraw their money from company stocks. (2)The lack of trade and professional unions in the workplace. (3)Inter-company rivalries caused by the efforts of companies to compete globally

Workplace stress can result in physical, psychological, behavioral and emotional changes that can ultimately result in a poor performance, job loss, monetary issues and other health related issues as well. Workplace stress can leave you overwhelmed. When you are overcome with a feeling of an impending disaster that seems to be looming large over you, you feel anxious, irritable or depressed. There is a sudden feeling of apathy and lack of enthusiasm and you suddenly loose interest in your work that you may have enjoyed earlier.

2- Conflict at wok

Conflict is an inevitable element of any organization. It is increasing in the workplace because of factors like increasing diversity, organizational complexity, downsizing and decreasing resources. Conflicts occur when the needs and goals of the individual are not in harmony with the needs and goals of the organization. Many organizations view conflict as an embarrassing anomaly that is not talked about in polite society. This attitude forces conflict underground, where it festers and spreads. Instead, conflict should be accepted as a normal part of human interaction.

In my opinion that conflict is mess . as it is a difficult situation from which you would like to extricate, but there is no obvious way out. A mess is a set of conditions that produces dissatisfaction. It can be conceptualized as a system of problems or opportunities System thinking is very helpful in dealing with messy situations. Conflict is considered a wicked problems or frustrating puzzles where the overall complexity involved appears overwhelming. We are human, though, and it is almost impossible for us to divorce ourselves of feelings, beliefs, and values. We create, or get involved in, conflict, and we possess predispositions as to how it ought to be addressed or handled Conflict is often destructive. Unresolved conflict can lead to increasing tension, fragmentation and absenteeism; and decreasing cooperation, morale and productivity. On the other hand, not all conflict is bad. "Conflict is the oxygen of creativity"; without creative contention, innovative solutions to new problems will not be found. Conflict can be negative when it creates resistance to change, establishes turmoil in organization or interpersonal relations, fosters distrust, builds a feeling of defeat, or widens the chasm of misunderstanding. (1R2SKPB_enKW357&q=inauthor:"Jeremy+W.+Stranks"&sa=X&ei=6LTqTI_SOo_QcbinregK&ved=0CD8Q9Ag"Jeremy W. Stranks , 2005 )

3- The overload work at jobs

We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. We can choose to ignore this, and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. The risks here are that we become exhausted, that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job, and that we neglect other areas of our life. Each of these can lead to intense stress

I think that (The overload wok is considered a mess because the issue here is consist of set of conditions represented in the continual much work given to the employees to finish .these actions produces dissatisfaction. It can be conceptualized as a system of problems or opportunities .In this issue there are many people such as managers assistants . and employees are involved or participate as stakeholders in the mess situation .(there are causes , impacts and solutions are complicated.

Negative effects are found in the individual, family, and the company. Poor health, increased divorce rates, and reduced profits are all results. Workers are watching their task loads rise, their free time shrink, and their general health decline.

(Brief, 1998)

(a ) spray diagram about the description f the three messes

increasing tension,

Feeling of defeat

Decreasing cooperation, morale and productivity


SMTP server

Organizational complexity

No harmony

harmful physical and emotional


Clients assistants

Offices member

job loss,

Lack of enthusiasm

Monetary issues

Feeling of apathy

Feel exhausted

Too much work

Abnormal mode

A little time

Reduced profits

Increased fear, uncertainty


Poor health

Question 2 (65% marks)

Read through the attached case study "Developing an Effective Organizational Structure". As you read through the article create one system map diagram to show the different components of Sungenta's "organizational system


Profile and form

Human resource

Work specialization

Syngenta's "organizational system

(b) In t205 (system thinking) we use the Control model to helps us to think about how to take control of a system to achieve specific goals. It has been developed to cover different types of systems and here we use it as diagnostic tool . Control models are a useful way of investigating purpose and the means in place to achieve it.

Control systems are deeply built into our lives at every possible level. The essence of control is that the process being controlled is monitored carefully, and if it deviates from what is required some corrective action is taken. Another meaning of control bases on the essence that a plan has been carefully pre-set, and is then carried out with great conformity. If the planning has been correct and appropriate, the results will be exactly the desired. Both kinds of control are ways of getting a process to achieve a pre-set goal. The first one is managed by continuously monitoring the outputs of the process and adjusting the inputs accordingly. The second one is managed by using prior knowledge of the process and/or using skill to set the process up in advance in such a way that it will deliver the desired results. At organizational level, control of both kinds is absolutely essential if the organization is to function as a rational entity. Control of the first kind is known as 'closed-loop' or 'feedback' control, while the second kind is known as 'open-loop' or 'feed forward' control.

Open-loop control

The example which is going to talk about is the company achieving the employee empowerment to reach its success

Achieving empowering employement


Give opportunity


Involve in decision making

Solve problems

Listen to employees





(Increased Profitability productivity)

Stable working environment

increased efficiency


The process of achieving the employee empowerment



Work related situation

Competitive marketplace.

Feedback path


closed loop control model about employee empowerment

Elements of control model:


Input is the term signifying either an access or changes which are put into a system and which modify a process. Inputs are represented in Satisfaction, Give opportunity, Trust, Motivation And giving rewards. Input also refers to the things that need to be done to solve the problem


Output is the expression indicating changes which exit a system and which modify a process. The result of the input after the trans formational process . the output here is the creation employee empowerment .the aim of the control model out puts is putting an end to help the company to achieve the out comes of the situation . The exact out puts here is achieving( increased Profitability , increased productivity) and achieving stable working environment. That employee empowerment benefits the organizations which implement it effectively is widely noted in the literature

Process refers to The idea of turning inputs to out puts whether negatively or positively . In control model the process has another meaning which called (transformation) The process should also identify problems that need to be solved in the present situation. Process also refers to the situation which needs to be fixed. .It is about achieving the employee empowerment. the process is the practical point that turns the inputs to out puts as it is the responsible for the accepted change of the situation

Comparator is a tool which compares the situation as input and output to indicate which is larger. it is necessary to have a comparative look between the outcomes of the un empowered employee and the outcomes of the ideal employees empowering in order that we can positive effects from having the employees empowered. throughout the comparator we can realize the necessity for he company to put the suitable plan to employee empowerment

Feedback: The term feedback represents the core role in systems thinking. Feedback is information that returns to its original transmitter such that it influences that transmitter's subsequent actions. Feedback describes the programs of employee empowerment when output from (or information about the result of) an event in the past will influence the same event in the present or future. The feed forward action is based on the knowledge of the benefits of employee empowerment system.

(Peter, (2001)


Discuss the possible disadvantages for Syngenta from adopting a more hierarchical structure for managing its projects? Word Count 500 (15% marks)

A traditional hierarchy, senior managers make up the board of directors and are responsible for establishing strategy and overall business direction, whilst middle managers have responsibility for a specific function such as finance or marketing.

A traditional hierarchical structure clearly defines each employee's role within the organisation and defines the nature of their relationship with other employees. Hierarchical organisations are often tall with narrow spans of control, which gets wider as we move down the structure. They are often centralised with the most important decisions being taken by senior management.

A hierarchical organization follows the layout of a pyramid. Every employee in the organization, except one, usually the CEO, is subordinate to someone else within the organization. The layout consists of multiple entities that descend into the base of staff level employees, who sit at the bottom of the pyramid.

The Disadvantages of Syngenta adopting a more hierarchical structure for managing its projects can be represented in (1)Communications between the employees and other staff could get lost . (2)Jealousy between employees if one gets promoted. (3)Employees may not agree on the changes within the company.

The hierarchical structure of Syngenta is rather low on national level (contrary to the international level). Also social differences are quite low and hard to remark because it´s a tradition in Turkey not to talk about money. Although there is a labour union for the factory workers, technicians, salesmen and marketers don´t feel they need one because of an award system which provides them with health benefits, bonuses,... In order to improve their attitude in the future, the managers made a satisfaction questionnaire for their employees. As hierarchical structure ,Syngenta uses the same code of conducts in every country; human rights and equality are very important. We can conclude there is a low level of differentiation and discrimination between employees.

Syngenta is committed to empowering its staff and a hierarchical structure is not suited to its innovative style.. Like many large businesses working in both national and international markets, Syngenta has adopted a matrix structure (project team structure) A matrix structure is often referred to as the project team structure. In this approach, team leaders manage specific tasks and projects. Each team will consist of members from different departments, each with their own specialism and expertise related to the project. It takes employees out of their usual functional areas to work with other employees with different expertise and specialism. This ensures the project has all the skills it needs to achieve its target. It also means the employees may benefit from each other's abilities. Some teams are only formed for a short period of time. They disband when their projects have been completed and the team members are redeployed on other projects. Other teams have a longer or sometimes permanent remit. The matrix structure is not an alternative to functional management but works alongside it. Syngenta's project teams all support one or more of its business strategies

In Syngenta there are likely to be several layers of authority., The number of levels depends upon whether the business has a hierarchical or flat structure. A hierarchical structure has many layers of management, each with a narrow span of control. Instructions feed downwards from one level of management to those below. Feedback comes from the lower levels upwards. In Syngenta ,the main disadvantage of hierarchical structure, according to Learn Management, is that communication between departments in the same level of the chain (called horizontal communication) can be difficult. Since the top-down structure keeps these departments from communicating, departments can make decisions that only benefit them instead of the entire organization. This can cause productivity and efficiency to fall, possibly destroying the organization.

(Woolwich Dairy, 2001,

(d) Assess to which degree employee empowerment is essential for an organization, use examples form the case study to reinforce your points. Word count 600 (20% marks)

Employee empowerment is an absolute business essential today. It involves the expressions and avenues through which the non-managerial staff members are conditioned to be able to make certain important company decisions, with the support and backing of a well planned empowerment program. The self-willed decision making capacity is generated from the amount of the power vested by the management within the employees, during the training provided. Employee empowerment training actually culminates in the whole set-up becoming an empowerment model. The guided ability to take some decisions empowers the employees and also adds to the retaining module adopted by the company.

Employee empowerment is a term used to express the ways in which non-managerial staff can make autonomous decisions without consulting a boss/manager. These self-willed decisions can be small or large depending upon the degree of power with which the company wishes to invest employees. Employee empowerment can begin with training and converting a whole company to an empowerment model. Conversely it may merely mean giving employees the ability to make some decisions on their own.

Corporate culture reflects the values, vision and leadership style of a given company. levels of trust between employee and employer differ from culture to culture. Encouraging employees to make decisions, providing an environment of open communication and acceptance of new ideas defines a culture based on empowerment. Companies that offer and nurture such an atmosphere can benefit in a variety of ways ranging from a stable workforce to a healthy bottom line

.There are many reasons why is employee empowerment is essential for an organization, firs: Designing empowerment into the company culture is not only a smart management strategy, it drives up employee satisfaction.. One of the factors responsible for the high rating attained by Jupiter is people practices. Empowering people is part of the high tech firm's cultural mission. Second; Delegating power to employees contributes to creating an atmosphere of contentment and honor. Companies noted for this leadership style attract like minded individuals who take pride not only in joining the organization but to showing loyalty by remaining on the team. Credited with granting all employees input into decision making, McCormick and Company reports a voluntary turnover rate of only 3 percent. Third; Creating an atmosphere of empowerment is a leadership task driven by management. Once employees are fully engaged in decision-making and taking action, management can profit. "Especially in today's knowledge driven economy, employee empowerment is critical to success. If you want the real benefits of your employees, you must free them to make decisions. In turn, this frees management to focus on larger strategic goals and initiatives." Fourth ;Armed with knowledge and a specific level of authority, employees can solve problems and better service customers. "When employees are invited to participate in the decisions surrounding how the work is done, they are more engaged and excited about the outcome. Finally ; employee empowerment Increases Profitability .Miller states simply that people come to work to succeed, not to fail. a company built on employee trust, believes that employees are the company's "single greatest strength and most enduring long term competitive advantage.

Employees are the most important asset in a business. Empowered employees experience satisfaction in their accomplishments. They have a sense of responsibility and the knowledge that they are important to the organization, as well as a sense of being responsible for decisions that affect themselves and other employees. They have a sense of ownership, which is how empowered employees should feel. To fulfill Syngenta's aims and objectives, employees must also demonstrate specific skills and competencies. Dr Kathryn Brocklehurst explains what this means for her: 'As a manager and scientist, time management, planning and communication are key skills. I manage a research team and it is vital that our work meets deadlines in order to get products developed for our customers

That employee empowerment benefits the organizations which implement it effectively is widely noted in the literature .Employee empowerment is the most effective when management has set clear obtainable goals and defined specific accountability standards. The success of employee empowerment relies on the ability of management to provide resources such as time and money; to provide support by way of legitimacy; and to provide relevant and factual information so employees can make educated decisions. Training employees to take responsibility and make sound decisions that are supported by upper management as well as lower level managers are other areas that are important to the success of empowerment programs.