Mitchell Charles were said that culture affects the most basic forms of personal and business interaction from decision making to management style. National culture, in turn, determines corporate culture, affecting a firm's internal structure, its marketing behavior and its view of foreign business partners and contracts. The business world is littered with "international" projects that failed to overcome cultural barriers.
The articles (Rosalind, H. Searle, 2007) were case study reports of companies which have implemented enterprise culture managment. The analysis of these articles shows that there are six core cultural aspects which are generally adopted by companies in their implementation of enterprise culture initiatives. These core aspects include:
Employee care culture. This type of enterprise culture is welfare oriented and emphasizes on the paternalistic welfare of employees. Attention is focused on improving employees' quality of life by enhancing their living standards and working conditions, usually through bonuses, subsidiaries of all kinds, transportation to work, health care provision and a better working environment. SOEs in China have had a long tradition of extensive workplace welfare provisions until recent reforms when many of these provisions have been rolled back.
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Operational excellence culture. This is achieved mainly through the systemization of workplace procedural rules and regulations, including job analysis and description, performance targets, reward and disciplinary procedures, safety procedures and other behavioural norms.
Ideology culture. This is usually achieved by setting role models, moral teaching of socialist values and briefing meetings about the principles of enterprise culture. It also includes training for employees to raise their skill levels and general educational courses to enhance employees' educational qualification levels. It is believed that these measures will enhance the self-esteem and conscientiousness of workers.
The analysis of the case study articles further suggests that the choice of cultural elements in the enterprise culture initiatives appears to be closely related to the characteristics of the enterprise itself, including its history, ownership, size and products market. More specifically, the enterprise stand out in their different focuses on the HR elements as enterprise culture.
Job analysis has traditionally been regarded as one of the 'building blocks' of an organization (Schein, E.H. 1980): it reveals a blueprint for how an organization works, identifying different jobs and how they fit together. It plays a pivotal role in HR and personnel departments and can be seen as the foundation for virtually all other HR systems(Shaun, T. 2006). Job analysis includes a family of techniques, which are critical from an administrative systems perspective in ensuring sound information for HR processes. These techniques assist in the evaluation of jobs to ensure equity in salary and grading across different posts within organizations. They play a role in appraisals and in defining the criteria used in the recruitment of new staff. They can help to identify development, training or rehabilitation plans for existing workers and underpin potential career paths and promotion routers for an organization's 'high-flyers' (Schein,E.H.1980). Finally, they can aid those involved in labour-relations disputes in ensuing equity between different roles.
A job description is a written statement listing the elements of a particular job or occupation and typically contains the information outlined in the pro forma contained. The level of detail seen a job description will vary according to the complexity of the post or current trends in practice. The central element of any job description involves itemizing responsibilities, accountabilities, key objectives, key results areas, or key tasks.
The second output from a job analysis is a person specification. This is derived from the job description, and will usually accompany it, since it translates the job activities it outline into the specific skills and abilities required to perform the job effectively irrespective of the ways previous job-holders performed it (Rosalind, H. Searle, 2007).
Pilbeam, S. and Corbridge, M. (2004) propose a six-factor formula for a person specification based on job relevance and measurability, arguing that organization specify only skills, knowledge, and personal characteristics that are necessary for effective performance, and that are capable of being measured or assessed as part of the recruitment and selection process. The factors are:
Skills, knowledge and competencies
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Level of experience
Development potential of the candidate
As part of recruitment process and to help discriminate between candidates, organization will often draw up a job description and person specification for the vacant position. Whereas the job description will list the elements of a job and how fits into the organization, as well as any relevant accountabilities, the person specification will give more detail as to the kinds of skills, knowledge, and personal attributes required to enact it (Fang, L. C., 2005). When considering the HRM themes, it is suggested that the human resource planning process is involved with considerations of strategy and ensuring that the organization is staffed with employees whose performance outputs are aligned to the fulfilment of those goals (Price, A., 2007). Job description, person specification, and recruitment materials explicitly or implicitly depict aspects of the organization's culture, illustrating what it is that the company values and what skills and personal attributes are needed to work effectively in an often changing environment (Rosalind H. 2003).
In order to assess the degree of 'fit' between prospective employees, the post, and the organization, application forms and requests for CV content can be used to ask extended questions, or elicit examples of the use of specifically sought experiences or competencies. An application form that operates on this basis is more difficult to complete and might not always be needed. Hence, the collection of relevant information about a candidate has to be balanced against the possibility of deterring applicants by requiring them to fill in a lengthy, complicated form (Fang, L. C., 2005).
There are a variety of ways organizations can increase the pool of applications from which they can select suitable candidates. The CIPD (2007a) survey highlights the most popular methods to attract applicants in table 5.2( see appendix). The aim of any recruitment method is to achieve a balance between attracting suitable candidates and not incurring an excessive cost. Whilst there is no ideal number of applications, what is sought is quality of candidates rather than quantity. As noted, there are a variety sections will highlight three of the most frequently used recruitment methods - one that is fairly traditional, and two that have increased in use over the past few years.
Whilst many organizations will liaise with the local paper directly, larger companies might use advertising agency - especially when advertising in the national papers. They can suggest the best ways of appealing to a give advice as to the design of the advert and associated activities.
The interview is a structured conversation and a social encounter between a candidate and representative of the organization that has multiple roles - on of which being that it personalizes the selection process. However, the process is additionally problematic because it is subject to all the problems associated with social and human interaction such as individual personality differences and perceptual processes. These problems can be exacerbated by other issues such as the lack of skills or experience in the interviewer, the accuracy and clarity of information about the vacancy, the degree to which an interview is clearly structured, and over-reliance on this selection method as an accurate discriminator between candidates. These kinds of factors can impact on the interview's validity and reliability as a predictor, as can perceptual bias and associated problems.
The situational interview presents candidates with a series of standard scenarios and asks candidates to explain what they would do. Their answer is scored by comparing it against a 'model' answer. This is seen as a helpful means of assessing candidates when they might have little or no job experience whilst also offering a realistic job preview.
The final step in the selection process is the logical outcome of the selection decisions. (Rosalind, H. Searle, 2007). selection is when a firm chooses an applicant for a post from a pool of applicants already employed by the organization while recruitment involves filling a post from a pool from outside the firm. The aim of selection and recruitment processes is to assess psychological differences between individuals and their relationship to subsequent job performance. Once the candidates have been assessed, the data from these assessment methods can be evaluated by those involved in the process against the person specification, job description, or competency profile. A truly rational decision process would have assessors numerically rate each candidate on each dimension or competency, with specific weightings being given as to the relative importance for the job in question (Fang, L. C., 2005). The candidates who has the highest total score, or is assessed as possessing all or most of the specified essential characteristics and the most desirable ones, should be appointed. The ratings might be numerical, but the evaluations will be made subjectively by assessors, and weightings will sometimes be assigned to justify rather than to make decisions - often in order to select the preferred candidate, who might not necessarily have gained the highest points scored.
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