What Is Impression Management Commerce Essay

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Impression Management is a process by which people in social situations manage the settings and their dress, words and gestures to correspond to the impressions they are trying to make or the image they are trying to project. A person's ability to manage impressions will be affected by the very setting in which he is doing so. It can be affected by qualities or characteristics of the person such as gender, age, personality characteristics etc. This research intends to investigate the effects of environmental factors like Organizational Culture and personality factors like Emotional Intelligence on Impression Management in organizational settings. The measures of Impression Management are Self Presentation, Self Monitoring, Desirable Responding and Ingratiation.

Incorporating Impression Management in today's research and practice is beginning to yield a better understanding of how organizational processes are substantially affected by individual issues of how they are seen by others. Especially in service industries, the effect of outcome of interactions of the employees with the clients is an inevitable part of portraying their identity.

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Most of the actions in the service industry having a legal importance, it is highly essential that controlled image presentation should not cause any deceptions. Hence, It is essential that the employees should know the tactics of Impression Management and able to flaunt the Impression Management in the best way possible by them.

Emotional Intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions effectively in ourselves and others. Today's organizations are mostly customer driven and warrant highly intelligent employee behaviour. When Impression Management is looked upon as an employee's behaviour in organizational settings it is obvious that Organizational Culture has an influence on it. This would necessitate supportive organizational practices to facilitate appropriate employee behaviour which would enhance organizational effectiveness. Thus in this regard this study purports to study the influence of Culture to facilitate appropriate behaviour in employees and utilizing their Emotional Intelligence in organizational settings.

5.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Impression Management tactics play a major role in social interaction between colleagues, especially when they have to depend on each other for accomplishing relevant work outcomes. An understanding of the Organization Culture of the setting and Emotional Intelligence of the person helps in developing the appropriate Impression Management Skills of employees. Hence, the problem statement is as follows:

"To study the relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Culture up on the Impression Management factors and the extent to which one influences the other"

The objective of this study is to bring out the relationship among Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression Management. Further, the literature has also depicted the linkages among Impression management and personality traits like Emotional intelligence and environmental factors like Organizational Culture. The present model is labelled as 'Impression Management - Emotional Intelligence - Organizational Culture' Model. (Figure 1 in Chapter 2)

5.3. NEED FOR THE STUDY

Impression Management is a normal behaviour of people. Emotional Intelligence of the person and Organizational Culture of the setting he or she is present has a bearing on the Impression Management behaviour by the person. The extent to which these two parameters have a relationship with Impression Management needs to be examined to understand this subject better. Hence, a study is undertaken in this area.

Hardly any research has been done in India on the relationship of Emotional Intelligence or Organizational Culture on Impression Management. Most of the world wide studies have concentrated only on few measures of Impression Management and they were largely focused on Impression Management as a corruptive factor. This has left a gap in the understanding of Impression Management as a whole and also as an everyday behaviour.

In the service industry between the product and the beneficiary there is an intermediary. Often the beneficiary relates the quality aspects to the intermediary who delivers the product through his professional practice. This is the service quality. Hence in the service Industry, the effect of outcome of interactions of the employees with the clients is an inevitable part of portraying organization's identity and quality. This makes it essential that service sector employees should know the tactics of Impression Management and be able to flaunt the Impression Management in the best way possible by them. (Priyadarshini. R & Rani C, 2004).

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Especially in an industry like Healthcare, the patients are ignorant about the technical aspects of medical care and most factors such as medical equipments, infrastructure etc., and factors other than human resources are identical in comparable hospitals. Hence they tend to attribute the quality of service to the Impression Management techniques used by the healthcare professionals. Hence the Healthcare Industry is chosen for present study.

The following research questions remain unanswered:-

Do Healthcare professionals engage in Impression Management?

How does Impression Management matter to the healthcare sector?

Is the Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture- Impression Management Model relevant to healthcare Industry?

Are more emotionally intelligent healthcare professionals capable of having better Impression Management behavior?

Does the Organizational Culture in Healthcare Industry affect the Impression Management behaviour of various healthcare professionals?

The present investigation aims to answer all the above research questions and to validate the Model of "Impression Management - Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture" for Healthcare Industry in Tamil Nadu state.

5.4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the specific objectives of the research:-

a. To study the extent of relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management among Healthcare professionals.

b. To study the extent of relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management among professionals in Healthcare sector.

5.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Based on the objectives, the following hypotheses are formulated to arrive at meaningful results and findings:-

H1: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management

H2: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Desirable Responding

H3: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Presentation.

H4: There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Ingratiation

H5 There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Monitoring

H6: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management

H7 There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Desirable Responding

H8: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Presentation.

H9: There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Ingratiation

H10 There is no significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Monitoring

H11: The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Impression Management

H12 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Desirable Responding

H13 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Presentation

H14 : The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Ingratiation

H15: The respondents belonging to different Genders would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Monitoring

H16 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Impression Management

H17 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Desirable Responding

H18 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Presentation

H19 : The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Ingratiation

H20: The respondents belonging to different Types of Services would remain homogenous on their scores on Self Monitoring

5.6. METHODOLOGY: DESIGN OF THE STUDY

The objective, hypothesis and logistics of the present study demand the researcher to choose the descriptive sample survey design for obtaining the primary data for the present study.

5.7. RESEARCH SETTING, STUDY POPULATION AND SAMPLING FRAME

The study was conducted in the healthcare industry of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Tamil Nadu ranks number three in terms of the total number of hospitals and also ranks number one in terms of the assets held by hospitals in India. Three categories of healthcare professionals namely, Doctors, Nurses and Paramedical staff participated in the study.

Hospitals with more funding and hence larger which are located in cities tend to engage in better and visible Impression Management behaviours. Hence, the rationales for inclusion in the sampling frame were chosen as follows:

A to B2 cities in Tamil Nadu (Government of India Classification for CCA /HRA)

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Private Multi specialty hospitals

Large hospitals with a bed strength of more than 400 licensed beds

Hospitals which are listed in the Indian Medical Association - Tamil Nadu chapter

This sampling frame included 9 hospitals in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Thiruchirapally as below:-

City

Chennai

Coimbatore

Madurai

Thiruchirapally

Hospitals

Apollo Hospitals (Greams Road),

MIOT Hospitals,

Sri Ramachandra Hospitals.

GKNM Hospital,

KG Hospital,

Ramakrishna Hospital,

PSG Hospitals.

Meenakshi Mission Hospital.

Kavery Medical Center

Of the nine hospitals listed above, three refused to participate in the study and hence the remaining six hospitals were included. Three of the participating hospitals demanded confidentiality regarding participation in the research. Hence, the names of the hospitals participated in the study from the above list are withheld.

5.8. SAMPLE DESIGN

The present study has adopted stratified proportionate simple random sampling method and 10 % of the healthcare professionals were selected for the study. The respondents were chosen by the respective HR departments of the hospitals from the employee list. The criteria for inclusion in the list are given in the following section.

5.9. SAMPLING CRITERIA

Subjects included in the sample were selected to meet specific criteria. The healthcare professionals had to meet the following criteria to be included in the study.

Doctors

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Should not have any part time or visiting practice or consulting practice else where

Should have completed MBBS and internship

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

Nurses

Should have completed a minimum of Diploma (GNM) or graduation (B Sc) in nursing

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

Paramedical Staff

Had to be full time employees of the hospital

Should not have any part time or visiting practice or consulting practice else where

Should have completed a minimum of Diploma or graduation in any paramedical discipline

Be willing to participate

Be of either gender or any age

5.10. CLASSIFICATION OF VARIABLES

Table No

Paradigm showing crucial variables

Variable

Operational Level Factors

Independent variables

Gender

Type of services

Emotional Intelligence

Organizational Culture

B. Dependent Variables

Impression Management : Desirable Responding, Self Presentation, Ingratiation, Self Monitoring

5.11. TOOLS USED FOR THE STUDY

Considering the objectives, operational definitions, variables, the following tools were adopted, developed, validated and prepared to generate the data for the present study.

Table No

Table showing the tools used in the study

S.No

Name of the Tool

Remarks

1

Desirable responding: Marlowe Crowne's Social Desirability Scale

Adopted

2

Self Presentation: Roth et al Self Presentation Scale

Adopted

3

Ingratiation: Kumar& Beyerlein's Measure of Ingratiating Behavior in Organizational Settings (MIBOS)

Adopted

4

Self monitoring: Snyder's Self Monitoring Scale

Adopted

5

Emotional Intelligence: Schutte et al's Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SREIT)

Adopted

6

Organizational Culture: Udai Pareek's the OCTAPACE Scale

Adopted

5.12. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE STUDY

Considering the hypotheses, the collected data from 6 different institutions were screened, scrutinized and analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques and standardized.

The collected data was subjected to the following analysis in order to verify the hypothesis formulated and to validate the model developed for the present study, by using the software SPSS- Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

5.12.1. PERCENTATGE ANALYSIS

This is mainly used in the study to find the percentage wise distribution of the different categories of respondents. This analysis is carried out to describe the responses with respect to their demographic profiles.

5.12.2. REGRESSION ANALYSIS

Regression Analysis was done to find out the relationship between various measures of Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Impression Management.

5.12.3. ANOVA

Analysis of variance was worked out to examine the a variation in the mean score values among the various Gender, Type of services and Impression Management measures, namely, Desirable Responding, Self Presentation, Ingratiation, Self Monitoring.

5.13. FINDINGS OF THE PRESENT STUDY

From the analysis of the results the following specific findings of the study were arrived.

There exists a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Impression Management (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Impression Management (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Desirable Responding (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Presentation (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Ingratiation (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There is no significant relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Self Monitoring (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is greater than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Desirable Responding (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Presentation (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Ingratiation (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant relationship between Organizational Culture and Self Monitoring (at 5% significance level) as the observed value of the probability (0.000) is less than alpha value (0.05).

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Impression Management between Genders, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Desirable Responding in relation to Genders, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Self Presentation (at 5 % significance level) between Genders, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Ingratiation (at 5 % significance level) between Genders, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Self Monitoring between Genders, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Impression Management (at 5 % significance level) between Types of Services, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Desirable Responding between Types of Services, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Self Presentation between Types of Services, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There exists a significant difference (at 5 % significance level) in the mean scores of Ingratiation between Types of Services, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

There is no significant difference in the mean scores of Self Monitoring (at 5 % significance level) between Types of Services, of respondents of healthcare professionals.

5.16. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study has several important implications for practitioners

Today's healthcare business scenario in India is changing from competing for patients from local to trying to attract global customers. So it is imperative for hospitals to practice Impression Management tactics. Healthcare professionals are already engaging in Impression Management behaviours. Hospitals require employees to demonstrate effective Impression Management in the current Health Tourism era. A patient is no longer looking to be satisfied with the treatment rather they need to be impressed upon the overall healthcare delivery. The management of hospitals may recruit and train professionals with better Emotional Intelligence to ensure better Impression Management skills.

Even today Impression Management is interpreted as a corrupting factor or misrepresentation. Most firms are not clear as to what and how the Impression Management behaviours, Emotional Intelligence of the staff or the aspects Organizational Culture that could promote desirable behaviours of healthcare professional should be. Also they do not have a specific training focusing on these aspects. This study provides an understanding into the necessary skills to be concentrated while trying to better these aspects.

Currently there is a shortage for qualified medical professionals in the country and the attrition rates for Nursing and Paramedical Services are very high in the Private Healthcare Industry. The Corporate hospitals have a substantial budget for the soft skills and self presentation trainings. At the time of recruitment if Emotionally Intelligent professionals are chosen that can ensure better Impression Management behaviours. As it varies across age groups and levels of experience it is evident that it is learned behaviour. Choosing highly Emotionally Intelligent professionals can also ensure better psychological handling of patients.

In the recent years Medical Tourism is booming and so is Health Insurance. This makes it important that hospitals have to engage in Impression Management both at individual and organizational level. This study brings an understanding of the current Impression Management practices and the existing Organizational Culture in Industry. As the two are related hospitals can encourage positive Organizational Cultural aspects.

India is also a favored Medical Tourism location in the global map. This requires the hospitals to encourage the employees to bring the service quality to international standards. This necessitates measuring various measures of impression management and adequate training to proper use of Impression Management tactics without being deceiving.

5.17. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The limitations mentioned in the Methodology Chapter lead us to the possibility of better research in future studies.

A framework becomes a benchmark if it can be generalized across industries. Future research can study Impression Management, Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Culture framework used in this research to validate it across industries to confirm its usability.

There are many more measures of Impression Management available in the literature. Other Impression Management tactics may be added by future researchers. Also other measures of Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence are also available.

Service industries can be using maximum Impression Management tactics and it is also biggest sector in India accounting for 52% of the GDP. Some other industries such as Hospitality, Airlines and other travel sectors, Banking, Education etc are potential areas of study.

Application of Impression Management measures in the healthcare industry of other states is another area that can be taken up by future researchers.

An understanding of the same aspects undertaken in this study, in smaller hospitals in Tamil Nadu itself is another potential area. Also future research can be conducted on the public healthcare system of the state and the country itself.

Two recent reports- one by Confederation of Indian Industries-Mc Kinsey & company corporate sector of healthcare Industry is likely to grow more in India. Also the country is opening up to more Foreign Direct Investment in Healthcare Sector. This necessitates large scale research to be undertaken by future researchers in the private sector itself on Impression Management, Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Culture.

Future research can study Emotional Intelligence- Organizational Culture- Impression Management model from end to end in large scale to provide better understanding of the model.

5.18. CONCLUSION

This chapter has dealt with an overall summary, recommendations and implications of the study. Following this chapter, a select bibliography has been added besides appendixing the research tools used for the present research work.