What Is Best Practice Benchmarking Commerce Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Benchmarking is now a commonplace term in business and many definitions have been proposed. Despite its increasing popularity there is growing evidence that it is often used incorrectly. 'Benchmarking' seems to be confused with competitive comparison studies, which are simply a component part of benchmarking.

This report gives an overview benchmarking studies. As part of the report, in detail value, types, problems and success factors of benchmarking will de described

Despite these barriers there are many benefits that can be derived from implementing benchmarking. Some of these benefits include identification of improved ways to meet customer needs and cost-effective collection of innovative ideas.

1. INTRODUCTION

Best practice benchmarking is used in both private and public sectors to improve performance. This is a continuous process of comparing the level of performance in producing products and services and executing activities against the best levels of performance. The best levels of performance are company found in the competing companies or in companies having similar processes. For any organisation to be competitive within the industry it needs to perform at its best level and the best practice benchmarking becomes a stepping stone.

Within this report, I will conduct an overview of benchmarking relating it to the Capacity as a company for a new appointed manager. Capacity is a professional labour agent that provides labour services to Simba. They are not the only company within the organisation that provides labour services. To them to remain the best in labour service and also to stay in business, they benchmark themselvels against the requirements and processes of Simba.

After the overview, I will describe the values, types, problems and the success factors of benchmarking in the organisation

QUESTION ONE

1.1 What is best practice benchmarking?

'Best practice benchmarking', benchmarking for short, can be described as the process of identifying, understanding and adapting exemplar practice from within the same organisation or from the other organisations to help improve performance (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 109).

Though benchmarking focuses on external competitors, many organisations finds value in using internal benchmarking to improve their performance across functional support units. Below is the Benchmarking process conducted by Xerox that can be used for benchmarking process

INTEGRATION

8. Develop action plans

9. Implement specific action and monitor progress

10. Recalibrate benchmarks

Leadership Position Attained

Best Practices Fully Integrated into Process

6. Communicate benchmark findings and gain acceptance

7. Establish functional goals

1. Identify what is to be benchmarked

2. Identify comparative companies

3. Determine data collection method and collect data

ANALYSIS

PLANNING

ACTION

MATURITY

4. Determine current performance 'gap'

5. Project future performance levels

Figure 1.1 Xerox's benchmarking process steps (Source: Camp 1989

1.2 Value of benchmarking

The value of benchmarking is driven by several key components. It allows management to understand where they are positioned today and to measure performance against future goals in order to modify actions accordingly. Organisation who engage in benchmarking look to incorporate information into a larger picture not only evaluating overall performance, but more importantly, understanding what levels of performance.

While your business may not desire to achieve the same performance levels in some of these activities

Accurate benchmarking can produce tangible, quantifiable targets and goals which can be measured in a consistent fashion over recurring time cycles

Using well defined measures and ensuring comparability at frequent intervals help create a foundation for actionable information

Setting performance goals that can be demonstrated to be achievable, targets are compared with actual

It is used as an internal management tool and the information generated is confidential to organisations involved.

The value of benchmarking is that it is used for issues of accountability.

1.3 Over of benchmarking for Capacity

Capacity works within the organisation and for them to stay in business is to understand and know the objectives of Simba because Simba is their customer and it is important that customer satisfaction be their number one priority.

Benchmark is defined as a systematic approach to business improvement where best practice is sought and implemented to improve a process beyond the benchmark performance (Source: Partnership Sourcing, 1997, p7)

Although benchmarking involves the examination of processes, it is often results that are benchmarked - this will identify gaps where performance needs to be improved. This is the route that Capacity took. They conducted the best practice benchmarking by examining the processes that Simba uses and then benchmarked the results on the quality of service that they offer and by so doing they were able to identify the gaps where performance needs to be improved. The below diagram helped capacity in closing the performance gap

1 Benchmarking identifies and calibrates gap

3

Benchmarking helps to measure success in closing the gap

4

Benchmarking maintains stimulus for continuous improvement

Best-in-class performance

2

Benchmarking helps to set strategy and learning of new approaches

Current performance

Best-in-class performance

4

Benchmarking maintains stimulus for continuous improvement

3

Benchmarking helps to measure success in closing the gap

2

Benchmarking helps to set strategy and learning of new approaches

Performance

Current performance

Gap

1 Benchmarking identifies and calibrates gap

Time

Figure 1.2 Closing the performance gap Source: Coopers and Lybrand, 1994)

Capacity as a labour broker benchmarked their company results reported by Simba against Adecco, who is also a labour broker at the ISC. Both companies offer Simba with labour service. Simba set its measuring criteria looking at the areas that needs attention and gives it a higher percentage of performance so that the labour brokers can increase their performance.

Measurement Criteria

Benchmark Performance

Actual Performance

Variance

Actual Performance

Variance

Number of Pay Queries

> 3%

20%

5%

15%

17%

3%

Absenteeism

> 3%

20%

12%

8%

19%

1%

Occupational Accidents

0 tolerance

20%

5%

15%

15%

5%

Pilferages

0% acceptable

10%

2%

8%

8%

2%

PPE Compliance

100%

10%

6%

4%

10%

0%

Staff Request - Response Time

2 hours

10%

2%

8%

10%

0%

Overtime Worked

Max 40hrs / month

5%

0%

5%

3%

2%

Performance Appraisals

1 per quarter

5%

2%

3%

5%

0%

 

TOTAL SCORE

 

100%

34%

66%

87%

13%

Table 1.1 Quality Service Benchmark comparison of Capacity with Addeco compared to standard quality standards set by Simba.

Capacity as a labour broker benchmarked their company results reported by Simba against Adecco, who is also a labour broker at the ISC. Both companies offer Simba with labour service. Simba set its measuring criteria looking at the areas that needs attention and gives it a higher percentage of performance so that the labour brokers can increase their performance.

Capacity with the objective to increasing its performance they benchmarked their company against Addeco so that they will meet their customer expectations and stay in business. They examined the quantitative data provided by the results benchmarking so that they can be able to establish the reasons for different levels of performance and to incorporate best practice ideas into those processes and activities. Benchmarking results indicated that Capacity only had a total score of 34% compared to Addeco with 87%. Adecco was performing very well because they only have a variance of 13% of not performing.

1.4 Types of benchmarking

It is important to emphasis the distinction between results benchmarking and process bench marking. Results benchmarking merely compares outcomes, however the purpose of process benchmarking is to go behind the quantitative data provided by the results benchmarking to establish different the reasons for different levels of performance and to incorporate best practice ideas into those processes and activities (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 115)

Different types of benchmarking that can be distinguished are classified below

Internal

A comparison among similar operations within the organisation

Competitive

A comparison to the best of the direct competitors

Functional

A comparison of methods to companies with similar processes in the same function

Generic

A comparison of work process to others who have innovative exemplar work process

Table 1.2 A benchmarking classification (Source: Camp, 1995, p16)

For Capacity to successfully benchmark they used the above mentioned benchmarking types. They focused mostly on the internal type of benchmarking. In this way they were able to conduct a comparison of Simba's processes as those were processes that the organisation has instilled. They were not much concern of Adecco as their competitor because they knew the strategy that Adecco used to get the best results. They gave their benchmark activity 80% to internal benchmarking and the remaining percentage on functional benchmarking

Problems of Benchmarking

It is important to acknowledge that benchmarking is not a universal solution to performance management, and it is not without its critic. Although benchmarking can bring the organisation a large number of benefits, it can be a difficult process to implement. The problems of benchmarking can include:

Deciding which activity or processes to benchmark and their comparability to your organisation.

Deciding which organisation represent the best in class and should therefore stand as a benchmark

Staff resistance

Resource constrains

Confidentiality of obtaining the information from other organisation

Recognizing that differences in performance may arise from difference in employees' knowledge, skills, resources and culture, and therefore practices in one organisation may not transfer to another

A focus of what is currently being done rather than on potential future practices and breakthroughs.

Challenges such as those above may result in organisations not to benchmark. Capacity was able to benchmark because, for them the process for comparability was readily available and they used Simba as the best in class to benchmark who was like their mother company. They faced issues with staff because most of their staff are stationed at different other companies were they offer services. People who were directly involved with the benchmarking project had to work under lot pressure as they had to share different responsibilities. It is common that companies will put focus only on what is currently being done and forget about the future practices. Capacity become very strategic on focusing on what is being done and also on future practices by involving their Quality manager who introduced a dashboard as a means of indicating their performance to provide a better quality of service delivery with clear measures.

Success factor of benchmarking in the organisation

A benchmarking champion - is somebody who is knowledgeable and enthusiastic person to act as champion. The nominated person is to be very peoples person.

Authority and resources - the champion needs to have sufficient authority and resources to enable participants to take the process though all stages, including implementation of any recommended changes.

The right people - benchmarking team is selected taking into consideration the right people, such as managers and project directors involved in the areas being examined.

Effective co-ordination - if there is no effective coordination, information will not be widely spread, co-ordination is required to ensure that information about the comparator organisation and experiences of the process are shared.

Reciprocal partnership -A formal agreement at the outset about who will provide what and for what purpose may not be essential, but eliminate problems later.

Generic benchmarking - although internal comparison can be the best place to start, generic benchmarking. Benchmarking partners can often be found though informal networking, they need to be a role model in the areas concerned.

According to Smith (cited in Kozak & Rimmington, 1998, p. 185) the benefits of benchmarking include:

identification of improved ways to meet customer needs

cost-effective collection of innovative ideas

identification of the organisation's strengths and weaknesses

encouragement of continuous improvement processes

Future of benchmarking as a performance management tool

Benchmarking has emerged as a means of gaining and maintaining competitive advantage. In the 1990's benchmarking has become an important and popular business management too

What motivated Capacity to benchmark

Capacity conducted a benchmark so that they can set performance goals that can be demonstrated to be achievable, accelerating and managing change, enabling process improvement in improve performance to that of the best.

1.7 Conclusion

We know that identifying, measuring and comparing various business attributes of a business against other businesses is only the first stage of the benchmarking process. The provision of standards alone ignores the need to take the next step to assist businesses in analysing their own business practices in order to implement improvement strategies. So the challenge is to encourage managers to do more.

They need to see the benchmarking as a powerful management tool and to be successfully implemented; businesses should be undertaken in conjunction with the people within the organisation in order to be specific to the needs of that firm. 'Benchmarking must be; purposive, externally focused, measurement based, information intensive, objective, and action-generating' (Leibfried & McNair, 1992) and in the long term is best driven by individual businesses. Capacity should continue to monitor their performance after benchmarking and use it as a continuous performance measure.

REFFRENCE

Camp, R.C. (1995) Business Process Benchmarking: Finding and Implementing Best Practices, ASQC Quality Press

Coopers and Lybrand (1994) Survey of Benchmarking in the UK, London, Coopers and Lybrand and CBI National Manufacturing

Jacobson, G. and Hillkirk, J. (1986) Xerox, American Samurai, New York, Macmillan

Holloway, J. A., Hinton, C.M., Francis, G.A., and Mayle, D (199) Identifying Best Practice in Benchmarking, London, CIMA

Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (1998). Benchmarking: Destination Attractiveness and Small Hospitality Business Performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 10(5), 184-188.

Leibfried, K., & McNair, N. (1992). Benchmarking: A Tool for Continuous Improvement. New York: Harper Business.

QUESTION TWO

IN A FORM

OF A REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC PAGE NO.

1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

THE APOLLO GROUP INC 10/11/2009 Page I of 21

Formation of the team that I am part of in the organisation. . . . . . . . . . . 3

Function of the team in the organisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Influence on effectiveness of the team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Internal Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . 6

Contextual Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7

Communication Patterns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 8

2.3.4 Communication and Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Common problems in groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Hidden Agendas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4.2 Group Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.4.3 Group thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.5 Management of challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.6 Recommendation in improving team effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Manage the mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

2.6.2 Team Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

2.6.3 Group development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

REFERENCE

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE PAGE NO.

Table 2.1 Function and behaviour associated with task and process in groups 4

Table 2.2 Self oriented behaviours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Table 2.3 Team Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE PAGE NO.

Figure 2.1 Different types of group at Simba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Figure 2.2 Pattern of interaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 2.3 The four faces of a team (Based on Lewis and Lawton . . . . . . . . . 11

Figure 2.3 The stages of team building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A team is any group of people organized to work together interdependently and cooperatively to meet the needs of their customers by accomplishing a purpose and goals. Teams are created for both long term and short term interaction. A product development team, an executive leadership team, and a departmental team are long lasting planning and operational groups. Short term teams might include a team to develop an employee on boarding process, a team to plan the annual company party, or a team to respond to a specific customer problem or complaint.

This report evaluates the effectiveness of a team that I was part of, focusing on its formation, functioning and management of challenges. Include is the three key recommendations for improvement of future teams which are:

Managing the mix

Team roles

Group development

2. INTRODUCTION

Teamwork is necessary for the successful execution of complex tasks and this requires skilled management. Organisations performs well when they have different kinds of people with different attributed that adds value into the organisation. When this people are put together in a form of a group, they make a difference into the organisations performance. Teamwork is necessary for the successful execution of complex tasks and this requires skilled management.

Categories into groups in general but teams are broadly equated to formal primary groups. A team is defined as having: (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 10)

A common goal or task to pursue which requires collaboration and the coordination of the activities among the team members

Regular and frequent interaction between team members

A team is identified that is distinct from its member's individual identities.

Within this report, based on the theoretical understanding gained in this course I will evaluate the effectiveness of a team that I'm part of, focusing on its formation, functioning and management of challenges. I will then give three key recommendations for improvement of future teams.

QUESTION TWO

Teamwork is necessary for the successful execution of complex tasks and this requires skilled management. Organisations performs well when they have different kinds of people with different attributed that adds value into the organisation. When this people are put together in a form of a group, they make a difference into the organisations performance.

In the organisation there are different kinds of groups. The group that has members who are aware of each other and members who interact. Schein (1997) suggest that another important ingredient of group is the people who perceive themselves to be a group. Kakabads et al. (1998) have suggested a useful categorisation: groups may be formal or informal, primary or secondary

e.g. Warehouse Operations Team

e.g. young woman's forum

e.g. PepsiCo Committee

e.g. group of friends

Secondary

Primary

Formal

Informal

Figure 2.1 Different types of group at Simba (Source Kakabadse et al., 1988)

Formal group - this are groups that have formal recognition and authority within an organisation, and usually have a defined purpose or task related to the overall task of the organisation

Informal groups - this are groups who do not have authority.

Primary groups - are those whose members have regular and frequent interaction with each other with the pursuit of some common interest or task.

Secondary groups - are those where members interact less frequently. They are often larger than the primary group

Categories above relate to groups in general but teams are broadly equated to formal primary groups. A team is defined as having: (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 10)

A common goal or task to pursue which requires collaboration and the coordination of the activities among the team members

Regular and frequent interaction between team members

A team is identified that is distinct from its member's individual identities.

Formation of the team that I am part of in the organisation

Formal groups are used for a variety of functions in organisations, especially where task required a combination of different skills, knowledge, perspective or interest. (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 11)

The Ops warehouse team as referred to by the organisation started to be formed in 2007. Prior 2007, the now team of 10 members had only 4 team members. The team is responsible for the day to day operation of the ISC and also for the strategic planning of the organisations activities. Because of the small group that the ISC was function, a lot of reported cases of stock losses were reported. The head of department saw the necessarily of growing the Ops team by adding more managers on the system so to have a visible management presence inside the warehouse and. Though this did not eliminate stock loss completely, it brought more control measures inside the warehouse and increased commitment of the department in the customer satisfaction base

Function of the team in the organisation

The most critical function of the team is to manage the entire warehouse operation in a procedurals and process manner. From the time the stock is received into the warehouse, stored and dispatched to the customers and also the following that is adapted from Handy (1993)

Distribution, managing and controlling work, which is the core function of a team

Problem solving and decision making, because our business is largely people oriented. The team is required to bring in necessary skills. Decision making in the warehouse is very crucial as it will either temper with the final product of the business and also results in customer complains.

Passing information to those needs to know. FLE's are the most crucial people who needs to be given first hand information of what is required to be done

Collecting information and ideas, both practical and measure. It will not be of importance if the team does not have ideas as they need to be productive and proactive at all time.

Co-coordinating and liaising over problems and task. Warehousing is big and has different task that each member of the team is responsible for. Liaising over problems and task assist the team member to find solutions.

Testing and ratifying decision taken out of the group

Negotiating and resolving conflict between level, divisions or function.

Conducting inquest or enquiries into the past.

In the warehouse, to work in a team is a must and the operation cannot run without teams being formed. The warehouse uses a three shift system and if there is no team available to run the activities, then the department is doomed to fail. However the team needs to have key skills so that it can be successful and effective.

Influence on effectiveness of the team

An effective group or team is one that achieves its aims and enables its members to derive satisfaction from their participation. (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 15). These factors are divided into two types. My team is very effective how ever as we are able to deliver required task, however, there are some factors that we face as a team that influences our effectiveness. The contextual factor and the internal factor.

Contextual Factors

Size - the size of the ISC team has ten group members which are fairly normal because the ware house is fairly large. It has 15 600 pallet position, 48 fleet that needs to be administered and over 250 employees to be managed.

Composition - the group has different with necessary skills to tackle problems. The group is heterogeneous; all individuals are different and have different business knowledge and background that creates potential for greater creativity and innovation. Through that there is a lot of conflict as every one of us tries to show what they have before consensus is reached.

Task - the task that are given to perform are realistic and important. Because we are performance and results driven, task that the team needs to perform are not ambiguous and open ended. However they turn to have lots of interference from the senior management even before they are complete.

Resource and support - support of the whole team is very low starting from the direct manager but for favourite individuals is clear and that always creates a negative energy amongst the team members

External recognition - recognition is actually given to the direct manager and sometimes gets cascaded down to the team on rare occasion.

Internal Factor

Internal factors are aspects of group work that can be controlled by the group itself and can be modified in the short term (Ou Business School, session 12 - 15, page 17)

Groups can be regarded as working in two level - task level , tackling the business of the group and social level, meeting people needs for acceptance, recognition and belonging

.

Task oriented behaviour

Processes oriented behaviour

Proposing ideas to be able to achieved

Building - adding to others people proposal

Diagnosing - identify and anlysing what is wrong

Giving - evaluating what could be wrong

Summarizing a discussion or the groups progress

Gate keeping - making others to feel welcome

Encouraging - behaving in a friendly way

Resolving conflict - being ready to compromise and accommodate others

Giving feed back in a positive way

Recognising other people feelingTable 2.1 Function and behaviour associated with task and process in groups

Task Function - Kepner and Tregoe, 1965 mentions that it is important that through diagnosis of a problem is undertaken before solution are discussed

Process or maintenance functions - this are social needs that the team can offer to each other to keep motivated and create an atmosphere that they can work together in harmony.

Self-orientated behaviour - individual's motivation and agendas can sabotage the group working even when there is careful management.

A set of self - orientated behaviour is described by Kakabadse et al (1988)

Behaviour

Example

Attacking

Not wanting to listen what other has to say

Blocking / staff difficulties

Not wanting to accept other proposal and tries to defer from it

Withdrawing

Refusing to make a contribution

Seeking sympathy

Attempting to make other to feel sorry for them

Diluting

Picking on minor points of discrepancy of other proposals

Table 2.2 Self oriented behaviours (Source: Based on Kakabadse et al., 1988)

Observing behaviour - this will include

How does the team respond to unfavorable working conditions

how do the team handle emotional problems

is the atmosphere open and trusting, or closed and defensive

are physical and emotional needs dealt with in affecting way

how does the group react to non-verbal of irritation or boredom

Communication Patterns

How the team communicates and interacts with each other is important. Handy (1993) suggest that three patterns are possible for communication, the wheel, the circle and the web.

Wheel pattern is quicker to reach a solution. This can be most used on Ops review were quick solution are supposed to be found.

Web pattern suitable when dealing with complex problem like on how to solve the continuous warehouse variance

Level of satisfaction doe individuals is fair highly in the all channel pattern

Wheel

All channels

Web

Figure 2.2 Pattern of interaction

2.3.4 Communication and Motivation

Things are are very clear, motivation and communication becomes clear evidence. There are realistic objectives, involvement in decision making is important and affects the group, the mission or set of goals must be highly valued by the group member. Group coherence and performance often improve.

Common problems in groups

Problems in the groups results in thee group not to function properly and to produce good results

Hidden Agendas

Other group members may have motives that are not good for the team but to satisfy one self. In our team it is common because we all run different department. One team member is more capable of buying in the one member of the team to agree with their way of seeing this if this will put them in a good position of achieving their hidden agendas

2..4.2 Group Anxiety

When things are not clear it raises a high level of anxiety. In our team, one team member was offered a new office without even being discussed between the team member. Other were not cleared on how was the decision made since there still three more manager who could have be given an opportunity of understanding the motive behind it. The other thing that can cause group anxiety is new comers in the team, attention to involve members in discussion and ensuring the feedback and criticism are contrastive.

2.4.3 Group thinking

This is a point where members of the group become so committed and start ignoring evidence suggesting what they are planning to do and Janes (1972) identifies the group the syndrome as

Invulnerability

Rationalism

Morality

Stereotype

Pressure

Self-censorship

Unanimity

Mind guards.

Several possible defences against group thinking will include first to ensure that there is diversity thinking in the group, of which in many instances it is not easy to rectify in my organisation and the second will be to aim in moderate rather than high degree of consensus.

2.5 Managing Challenges

Challenges amongst groups can be managed by the following

Consultation with the team

Dialogue between the team members

Leveraging on people with expertise

Conduct brain storming sessions

2.6 Recommendation in improving team effectiveness

It is important that every team that is in existence manages both its relationship properly and consistently with the wider organisation which it is a part and the relationship between its members in pursuit of the teams goal.

Manage the mix

All members that are part of the team needs to manage their relationship with each other as their relationship has a great influence in the out come of the team effectives

External Team

Face 2

Satisfy needs for customer

Face 1

Satisfy requirements for manager

People

Task

TEAM

Carrying out goal orientated task

Face 3

Welfare of the people in the team

Face 4

External to Team

Figure 2.3 The four faces of a team (Based on Lewis and Lawton

External - use organizational resources effectively in order to satisfy the requirements of the teams sponsor and relate effectively to the people outside the team in order to satisfy the needs of needs of customer. This is important because if customers are not satisfied then it means the organisation does not have the business.

Internal - use system and procedure properly to carry out task. There is no point of manipulating the system and it is important to consider others and their welfare so that you make them feel as part of the team.

2.6.2 Team Roles

A widely team role approach was developed by Belbin (1981, 1993). His research suggests that for the team to be effective, certain key elements needs to be performed within the team. Individual should lead certain item.

Role

Description

Chair

This is the person who will coordinate the whole. In our team we do have that. Very calm and confident

Shaper

Task leader of the team, energises and provides action

Plant

the person who looks for innovative approach to the problem

Monitor

The person need to very analytical and always stays detached from arguments

Resource investigator

This needs a person who is the fixer

Implementer

An organizer and the person who will administrate the team

Team worker

Team builder. And not every body tries to be a team builder

Complete Finisher

The person who chases for progress

Table 2.3 Team Roles (Source: Belbin, 1981)

2.6.3 Group development

Like individuals, group matures and develops. Tuckman and Jensen (1007) provides an enduring framework with more recent ideas from Katzenbach and Smith (1993) about the sequence of events when members of a group come together to work on project or task.

Performing

Norming

Forming

Storming

High performing team

Real Team

Potential

Adjourning

Working group

Pseudo team

Figure 2.4 The stages of team building (Adapted from Tuck man and Jensen, 1977, and Katzenbach and Smith, 1993

Forming - this is a stage were a team is not full established. They have just met. This is the same as the introductory phase of the product. The team has just met and they are just a team of individual. The team role is to clarify its goal.

Storming - groups don't know each other very well because they have just formed and at this stage there turn too be a lot of conflict amongst the team members. People may real individual agendas

Nornimg - the group has now established their purpose of existence and the norms and patterns of work which will operate.

Performing - only when the previous stages has been passed. This is we are able to see the real team. They are aware the tasks and have became comfortable. The team does not meet as often or frequently as they use because now they understand the objective. There is a lot of team building skill that is produces that includes appraisal, evaluation, debriefing and the provision of feed back.

The key implications about these ideas about team development are the first degree of conflict, disagreement and jockeying for position to be expected and welcomed early in the life of team or when the composition of the team changes. It is important to be aware that a team will need some time to develop before it can work at full effectiveness, ideally, this time should be included in plans and schedules.

REFFERNCE

Belbin, R. M (1981) Management Teams: Why they succeed or fail, London, Heinamann Books

Handy, C.B (1976) Understanding organisations (first edn) Harmondsworth, penguin Books

Handy, C.B (1976) Understanding organisations (fourth edn) Harmondsworth, penguin Books

Kakabadse, Aludlow, R. and Vinnicombe, S (1988) Working organisations, London, Penguin Books

Katzenbach, J. and Smith D. (1993). The wisdom of Teams, Boston, MA, Havard Business School Press

QUESTION THREE

IN A FORM

OF A REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC PAGE NO.

3. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

3.1 Budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

3.1.1 The importance of budgeting for Isando Service Center as a department. . . . . . 2

Description of how to systematically build the budget. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

3.1.3 Advantages budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Definition of the term "capital employed" and what it is made up of. . . . . . . . .. . . 7

To make a good overall return the organisation must produce its goods and services efficiently and effectively. Identify and motivate the secondary ratios that will be used to measure each of the performance areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

3.4 Based on a practical example, the term "contribution per unit" is defined and it's meaning explaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Using the contribution per unit calculated in 3.4, break-even point in units is calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

3.6 The terms" fixed costs" and "stepped costs" are defined and example is given of each term . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

3.7 Difference between financial gearing and operational gearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Discuss the differences using a practical example between the absorption costing approach and the contribution costing approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THE APOLLO GROUP INC 10/11/2009 Page I of 21

. . . . . . . 19

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.