From the findings of the data collected regarding the job analysis in the company, the author has gone into the discussion of how the data is useful and how it has proved to be important in the research of his topic of job analysis.
Job analysis is a process by which jobs are subdivided into elements, such as tasks, through the application of a formalized, systematic procedure for data collection, analysis, and synthesis (McCormick, 1976). At present numerous methods are available for accomplishing job analysis (Biddle, 1977). This plethora of methods may be considered to be a fortunate state of affairs, or a dilemma. The essence of the dilemma is whether any method of job analysis is superior, relative to any other method, in its validity and usefulness (Ash & Levine, 1980).
During the literature review, the literature was all about the employee's job specification and their job performance. The data is collected mainly in this research from the questionnaire which has designed specifically for the understanding of the importance of job analysis in this organisation. The questionnaire was carefully designed to understand the exact feelings of the employee regarding his position and his performance in the company. 77% of the employees are very satisfied regarding the purpose of their job was met and other 20% are also satisfied, which says that the company has good knowledge on the employee jobs.
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The data collected from the job analysis has to serve many purposes. The data which has been collected regarding the opinion of the employees on their job, nearly 80% of the employees are very satisfied with their job. It is important to know how the data will ultimately be used since that will affect, not only the data collected, but also how it should be recorded and stored(Raymond, 1974) . If the data are to be used only for selection purposes, then the data collected should be sufficient to meet that need. If it is to be used for performance evaluation, training and development, compensation, and job structuring in addition to selection, then the uses for the data will be much greater.
Quality job analysis data can and should contribute greatly to; selection and hire, performance evaluation, training and development, compensation, job design, work force projections, and work force reduction or expansion decisions (Thomas & Lopez, 1972). Nearly 74% of the employees are very satisfied with the job description they received and the actual they are performing. There should be an audit trail from the job analysis to the decision.78% of the employees are very satisfied with the job evaluation they are being received, which is a good factor. The selection of an individual should be based on the individual's ability to do the critical tasks of the job.
This example illustrates a situation in which a number of jobs are re-organized to create one new job. One or two tasks are taken from various jobs and put together to create a new job suitable for a person.
Ten secretaries in the very busy office are so pressured with their work processing and routine correspondence work that the sending of faxes and the photocopying and collating of documents is always delayed. Work is piling up but not being done. These delays are an indication of inefficiency in the office and will result in criticisms from customers and clients, as well as managers. If nothing is done, the secretaries will face even more pressure and stress and their work performance will go down further as they struggle to keep up with the work flow.
In the research the author undertakes a work analysis exercise and identifies that the secretaries are unable to do all the tasks associated with their jobs, particularly the faxing, photocopying and collating. The author may recommend to the enterprise that it create one additional job to do all the faxing, photocopying and collating. Alternatively, depending on an assessment of the actual work volume and the identification of peak periods, the placement officer might suggest one full-time post and one or two part-time posts.
In any organisation there are two different types of jobs: the newly created job and the job with a history (John, 1969). The two types of jobs call for slightly different methods of job analysis. The newly created job is different from the established job in that it has no history. It requires speculation, albeit informed speculation. There is no incumbent from whom to gather data. The job analysis of the newly created job should be conducted with the person creating the new job or the person who is to supervise the new job. In this case, the author has collected the data from the 13 inexperienced staff and 87 experienced staff by which he can analyse the feelings of the new and the old employees. The initial data collection process should be similar to that for an established position. The Uniform Guidelines makes no distinctions between new and old jobs as far as essential evidence for validity is concerned (Christopher, 1989). From the perspective of good management, new jobs should be carefully analyzed and defined so it is clear to the organization as well as applicants and employees what is expected and how the new job will interface with other jobs in the organization. Moreover, regarding the pay and performance relation also nearly 92% of the employees are very satisfied.
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The results from this study indicate that the employees are mostly very much satisfied with their job evaluation, job performance and their job description. The observed between-source differences are in line with findings from the literature indicating that job incumbent's perceptions of the job differ according to their position (Wilfredo, 1988). Differences in educational status may be partially responsible for differential perceptions, especially when these perceptions are expressed in terms of a somewhat abstract and demanding questionnaire, but in this case the author has carefully chosen his sample of 47 under graduates and 53 graduates or above ones by which he maintained a good equilibrium in the data collection. The employees with high education were also equally satisfied in their job with the employees of less education because they were positioned according to their ability of knowledge and skills. Moreover, the managers perspective covers the whole department, the service process from beginning to end, the organizational objectives and the company's training issues and appraisal criteria (Perlman. K, 1980). They are expected to have a global view of the job under consideration and, because of this macro-perspective, the managers may miss some of the day-to-day, more subtle job elements, which have been captured by the incumbents.
5.1 JOB DESCRIPTIONS
Regardless of who collects job information and how they do it, the end product of job analysis is a standardized job description. A job description describes the job as it is being performed. In a sense, a job description is a snapshot of the job as of the time it was analyzed (Dale, 1974). Ideally they are written so that any reader, whether familiar with the job or not, can "see" what the worker does, how, and why. What the worker does describes the physical, mental, and interactional activities of the job. How deals with the methods, procedures, tools, and information sources used to carry out the tasks. Why refers to the objective of the work activities; this should be included in the job summary and in each task description.
Unfortunately, many words have more than one meaning. Perhaps the easiest way to promote accurate job-description writing is to select only active verbs that permit the reader to see someone actually doing something. In this case, 74% employees are very satisfied regarding the job specification they have received to what they are now performing in their job.
For enterprises, job analysis has many general uses including:
Supporting general recruitment and selection processes
Supporting the job matching process
Appraising staff performance
Assisting in staff promotion exercises
Identifying training needs
More specifically, the role of the manager is to use job analysis as a tool to assist employers to identify jobs that people can do, thereby assisting more people to find suitable jobs., In order to do this you need to have a broad understanding of its uses and benefits and how it can be used to the advantage of people .
Job analysis is a tool that can provide enterprises with the means to deal with:
Individual issues and problems which arise in the enterprise
Organizational needs, particularly in restructuring exercises
Job analysis makes it easier for enterprises to manage their resources (personal) function in a systematic and structured way. As such, it also makes it easier to engage workers on grounds of their potential contributions to the business, rather than due to a legal obligation or on grounds of charity or conscience.
Job analysis assists individual people by:
Improving their prospects for placement in meaningful, rather than token, jobs, through a marching process that meets the requirements of both the job seeker and an enterprise with job vacancies.
Providing the means to modify job descriptions so as not to exclude people with disabilities.
Highlighting the induction and the job training or job coaching that people may need to enhance their contribution to the enterprise.
It is readily apparent that the results of this survey using the questionnaire such as this are not a substitute for careful experimentation. To resolve definitively the issue of efficiency of job analysis methods, a programmatic series of appropriately designed studies will be necessary(Sidney, 1987).Thus this study may be considered only as an interim stage in the continuing effort to accumulate comparative data on job analysis methods.
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Unfortunately, opinions about job analysis gathered in this survey are not attributable directly to particular features of a job analysis method. A more effective "hybrid" or combination method thus cannot be determined by extracting the best features from each of the methods evaluated in this study.
Still another problem with the study is that of sampling error, which may curtail the generalizability of these data. Because there was no well-defined population of employees from whom to sample, the purposive sampling strategy may have yielded a non representative group of respondents.
The extent of this problem cannot be assessed adequately, although the opportunity to participate in the survey was widely spread among the employees. Moreover, respondents were widely dispersed geographically, affiliated with a variety of organizational needs, and engaged in a diversity of human resource activities.
Although a number of recognized authorities are included in our sample, none of the developers of the job analysis methods considered in this survey were invited to serve as respondents. Therefore, there are grounds for assuming that the ratings were not overly affected by pre existing biases due to vested interest in a particular method.
On the other hand, the experienced employees of nearly 87 who participated in the survey apparently attended to their rating tasks quite well. That is, their evaluative responses evidently were based on the descriptions of the job analysis methods that were provided as part of the survey package, in addition to their previous experiences of doing jobs. This conclusion is based on the relatively low impact on ratings of the variables sex of respondent, familiarity with a job analysis method, and organizational affiliation.
This study found that job analysis methods are perceived as differentially effective for various human resource purposes, and as differentially practical. Although the amount of variance explained in the ratings by job analysis methods is not large, neither is it inconsequential. Nevertheless, these data should not replace a manager's, consultants, or a researcher's judgment about which methods to use. They will be closely familiar with the vagaries of particular situations. However, their choices may be aided considerably by having at their disposal the pooled judgments of a large number of employees. When multiple job analysis methods are used, a strategy that is endorsed overwhelmingly by the respondents, the increased costs of the job analysis are more likely to pay off in superior outcomes with the aid of these results.
The findings here may serve as a source of hypotheses to be tested in future controlled, experimental studies. For example, it could be hypothesized that the primary difference in the relative efficacy of job analysis methods is due to the type of job descriptor or unit of analysis (e.g., tasks, activities, threshold traits) they employ. It also might be surmised that the data gathering approach used within a method (e.g., structured questionnaire, brainstorming meetings) is of secondary importance, although a significant factor nonetheless. Future research on these variables may lead to the synthesis of that "ideal" method, which is beyond reach at the present stage of knowledge. Perhaps that ideal method will overcome some of the limitations of current job analysis technology; namely, its relative in ability to deal with the job as it should be, rather than how it is now, and with changes in the job over time.
Furthermore, the results provide some guidance to the developers of those job analysis methods included in this study so that they may be modified to serve user needs more adequately. In addition, the path to comparing combinations of methods has been cleared to some degree, so that future research on suitable combinations of methods may be facilitated. No other studies are known to have addressed the efficacy of combinations of methods.
There is no one best method for conducting job analysis in an organisation. Conflicting information regarding advantages and disadvantages was presented. The most appropriate method(s) are selected and how they are used, is based upon a variety of factors such as organisational philosophy, needs, and goals: money, personnel, and time considerations; type of job being analysed.
The HRD specialist should be actively involved in job analysis, not just a recipient job data. Some basic reasons were identified. Job analysis is not a one-time activity, because organizations are dynamic entities. Personnel come and go, objectives change, people modify jobs, products change, new equipment is introduced, and other factors necessitate a continual monitoring of job behaviour.
Job analysis is a complex process which requires a team approach. While the HRD specialist may not always be the coordinator or conductor of job analysis, he/she is a needed team member. In addition, the continual involvement in job analysis, in understanding the jobs in the organisation and how they are changing, could provide HRD specialists opportunities to plan for education and development activities. Training, education, and development is necessary (Nadler, 1971) in dealing with employee job performance in the present and as organisation change. In this company, the author has observed that the job analysis is an ongoing process regularly.
Once the initial list of tasks has been compiled, the list should be sent to all of the incumbents in the job. It provides an opportunity for all employees to have input into the process. Frequently, additional information will come to light about the job. Jobs are dynamic and ever-changing. Different patterns of how to do the work and different activities may be discovered. Subtle differences in activities may surface. At this point in the process, it is better to err in the direction of including more information rather than less.
One question which needs to be addressed is: What level of detail is necessary for a good job analysis? For most jobs, "drive a car" or "operate an automobile" should be sufficient. It is not necessary to describe step by step the activities required to drive a car, i.e., open the door, insert the key, etc. There is an element of reasonable judgment here. A good rule of thumb is, if the employee understands the statement, then it is most likely at a sufficient level of detail. More complicated and less well known activities may require a greater delineation of details. This is especially true if these activities are central to the job and likely to be part of future performance assessment. If an employee is required to operate a variety of machines, it is well to identify each piece of machinery separately rather than a broad statement such as "operate equipment."
In the overall discussion part the author has analysed the data he has collected regarding the job analysis and has also explained regarding some of the limitations of using this method of collection of data.
5.2 Pharmaceutical industry and its environment
Dr. Reddy's was founded in 1984 by Dr. K. ANJI REDDY, which has now become India's second biggest pharmaceutical company. Dr. Anji Reddy had worked in the publicly-owned Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Reddy's manufactures and markets a wide range of pharmaceuticals in India and overseas. The company has more than 190 medications ready for patients to take, 60 active pharmaceutical ingredients for drug manufacture, diagnostic kits, critical care and biotechnology products.
Dr. Reddy's began as a supplier to Indian drug manufacturers, but it soon started exporting to other less-regulated markets that had the advantage of not having to spend time and money on a manufacturing plant that that would gain approval from a drug licensing body such as the US's Food and Drug Administration. Much of Reddy's early success came in those unregulated markets, where process patents - not product patents - are recognized. With that money in the bank, the company could reverse-engineer patented drugs from more developed countries and sell them royalty-free in India and Russia.
The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of India's science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. A highly organized sector, the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry is estimated to be worth $ 4.5 billion, growing at about 8 to 9 percent annually. It ranks very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made available in all places indigenously.
Playing a key role in promoting and sustaining development in the vital field of medicines, Indian pharma Industry boasts of quality producers and many units approved by regulatory authorities in USA and UK. International companies associated with this sector have stimulated, assisted and spearheaded this dynamic development in the past 53 years and helped to put India on the pharmaceutical map of the world.
The Indian Pharmaceutical sector is highly fragmented with more than 20,000 registered units. It has expanded drastically in the last two decades. The leading 250 pharmaceutical companies control 70% of the market with market leader holding nearly 7% of the market share. It is an extremely fragmented market with severe price competition.
The pharmaceutical industry in India meets around 70% of the country's demand for bulk drugs, drug intermediates, pharmaceutical formulations, chemicals, tablets, capsules, orals and injectables. There are about 250 large units and about 8000 Small Scale Units, which form the core of the pharmaceutical industry in India (including 5 Central Public Sector Units). These units produce the complete range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals having therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical formulations.
Following the de-licensing of the pharmaceutical industry, industrial licensing for most of the drugs and pharmaceutical products has been done away with. Manufacturers are free to produce any drug duly approved by the Drug Control Authority. Technologically strong and totally self-reliant, the pharmaceutical industry in India has low costs of production, low R&D costs, innovative scientific manpower, strength of national laboratories and an increasing balance of trade. The Pharmaceutical Industry, with its rich scientific talents and research capabilities, supported by Intellectual Property Protection regime is well set to take on the international market.