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All people are working for something: some strive to money, to glory, to power, and some people just love their job. These and many other circumstances that encourage people to active work are called motifs, and their application - motivation.
Reasons that lead a person to give the work maximum efforts are difficult to define, they are very diverse and complex. Various internal and external forces cause in people different reaction: some people perform light work and remain dissatisfied, while others do the hard work and get satisfaction.
In these sphere it is important to find answers to some important questions: What can be done for people to work better and more productive? How can we make work more attractive? What makes a person want to work? These and similar questions are always relevant in any business.
Management of an organization can develop excellent plans and strategies, to establish the most modern equipment, use the best technology, however all this can be negated if the members of the organization will not work properly, if they do not cope well with their responsibilities, will not behave in the team as appropriate, seek to achieve organization's goals. (Robbins 2007)
If there is a good understanding of what motivates person, what prompts him to action and what he wants doing some work, the company can construct a control over the person so that he will strive to perform his duties well and effectively.
In this case study, in the company Belcher Ltd. workers just faced with the problem of interest in work and job satisfaction. Emily Linden has been good employee, but later lost her interest in the work, and has a constant dissatisfaction with the work, that could lead to her dismissal. This example is closely related to the theory of employee motivation, theories of human needs, as well as the theory of job satisfaction. Having considered all these theoretical approaches it will be possible to find a solution to the problem of Belcher Ltd., and determine how the company can increase the motivation of Emily Linden.
Theoretical aspects of personal motivation
One of the main challenges for enterprises is the search for effective ways to control labor, ensuring active work of the labor force. The decisive causal factor of the effective work of employees is their motivation.
Causes that determine the participation of person in the work are his willingness, capabilities and expertise, but in particular his motivation. The process of motivation involved needs and motivation factors. Need - is the internal motivation to act, and the process of finalizing the actual motivation is the motive, that determines readiness of the individual to perform the labor process with varying efficiency. In self motivation together with needs are also involved value orientations, beliefs, attitudes.
There is no one universally accepted definition of motivation, as different authors give the definition of motivation based on their viewpoints.
Motivation - is the stimulation of activity, that encourage to work, the impact on human behavior to achieve personal, collective and social goals. (Latham 2006)
Motivation - is a combination of internal and external forces that motivate a person to carry out activities aimed at achieving certain goals, with use of certain efforts, level of diligence, integrity and perseverance.
Need is shortage of something, causing the state of discomfort. The need makes a person work if his satisfaction is below an acceptable level, then the desire to improve it significantly increases efficiency. However, needs are not always able to get people to overcome their inertia, this requires a certain impetus or motive (from lat. Moveo - moving) - a reason, cause, circumstances that encourage people to be active. Motive may be some internal impulse, and difficult to logically explain, but may be due to external circumstances that drive people to act. (Beck 2003)
For example, an interesting work that brings satisfaction can motivate people to perform it at practically no costs. Otherwise, people sometimes agree to do anything to avoid an uninteresting job.
Human behavior is generally determined not by one motive, but a complex of them, that have impact on human behavior.
Kinds of motives to work:
1. The motif of sociality (the need to be in the team). This motif is especially common for the Eastern (Japanese) style of HR management "group morality". Need to work in "good team", according to many sociologists, is one of the leading factors of employee motivation in Europe.
2. Motive of self-assertion is typical for a large number of workers, mostly young and middle age. According to Herzberg, it is actually a motivating factor for qualified staff.
3. Motif of independence is common for workers with "host" motivation, who are willing to sacrifice stability, and sometimes higher wages instead of being " the master" and independently conduct their business.
4. The motif of the reliability (stability) is present when person prefers stability in life and activity. For various reasons (historical, ethnic), the proportion of Europeans, oriented to the stability and reliability, is significantly higher percentages of those who prefer to risk and entrepreneurship.
5. The motif of learning and self-education that is especially important in an environment of highly skilled professionals and scientists.
6. Motive of justice. Every society sets its own understanding of justice, however, the failure of justice to employees leads to their demotivation. This motive is especially important for American employees, who pay much attention to discrimination at work.
7. Motive of competition, as the basis for organizing the competition in the company, is one of the strongest motives for acting at all times. This motive is very popular among American employees, and at low cost it provides a significant economic effect.
Motivation is the process of influencing on person to induce him to action by encouraging certain motifs in him. Depending on the goals the motivation we can distinguish two types of motivation: external and internal. (Latham 2006)
1. External motivation is a kind of process of administrative action or control: the Head directs the work of the employee who performs it. In this type of motivating the employer must know what motives may motivate a particular employee to make him perform quality work on time. This can be either payment and premium, or praise, or some form of moral encouragement.
2. Internal motivation is more complex and involves formation of a particular motivational structure in person. In this case, the head or manager should find a psychological way to gain desirable qualities of a worker and reducing the negative factors, such as reducing the monotony of work, etc. The second type of motivation requires much more effort, knowledge and abilities from the manager.
One of the major tasks of management is to determine the motives of each employee and to coordinate the motifs with the objectives of the enterprise.
Theories of motivation
Managers were always aware of the need to encourage people to work for the organization, and believed that financial reward is not enough. Modern theories of motivation of staff and their use in practice proves that is not always tangible incentives that encourage people to work harder.
The process of motivation is very complex and ambiguous and there are many different theories of motivation, trying to explain this phenomenon. All of them are trying to find the answer to the question of how to make people to work effectively.
Most of theories of motivation are based on identification of those inner impulses (called demand) that make people act the way they do. These theories are based on the works of Abraham Maslow, David McClelland and Frederick Gerzberg. The more modern theories of motivation are based primarily on how people behave in accordance with their perception and cognition. It is important to understand that although these theories disagree on some issues, they are not mutually exclusive. Development of theories of motivation was clearly evolutionary, but not revolutionary and all of them are used effectively in solving daily problems of encouraging people to work effectively. (Beck 2003)
The theory of hierarchy of needs of A. Maslow. According to his theory different needs form groups that are presented in a hierarchical relation to each other. Maslow identified five such groups and placed them in the form of a pyramid: this form is explained by the fact that the needs of lower levels must be met at first , and so they affect human behavior before then needs of the higher levels of motivation. At any given time a person will strive to meet the need which for him is more important or strong. Before the need of the next level will become powerful determinant of human behavior, the needs of lower level must be satisfied.
At the lowest level there are basic physiological needs. The highest are the need for self-expression and personal growth - they can never be satisfied in full, so the process of human motivation through these needs is endless.
The task of every manager is to carefully monitor his subordinates to find out what active demands drive each of them, and make decisions on their motivation to improve the efficiency of employees.
The theory needs of David McClelland. This model of motivation focuses on the needs of the higher levels, that are based on three main factors: the desire to succeed, the desire for power and recognition.
If such theory success is considered not as praise or recognition from colleagues, but as a personal achievement, as a result of active work and willingness to participate, making difficult decisions and taking personal responsibility for them. Striving for power should not only show personal ambitions, but also a person's ability to successfully work at various levels of management, and the desire for recognition must show his ability to be the leader, to have own opinion and be able to convince others.
Another concept is two-factor model of F. Herzberg. The author showed that human behavior is influenced not only by satisfaction, but also with dissatisfaction of needs. On the basis of their model, Herzberg proposed two kind of "scales" one showed changes in the state of satisfaction (from complete satisfaction to the lack of satisfaction), but on the other - from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. The needs Herzberg divided into two groups: motivational (for recognition, success and creative growth, promotion, etc.) and "hygiene", that are relating to working conditions (wages, the state of the internal environment, etc.).
Herzberg has shown that the ability to meet the needs of motivational factors increases the efficiency of labor. But dissatisfaction with the hygiene factors cause in people considerable frustration and dramatically reduces the incentive to be active. Thus, hygiene factors do not motivate employees, but only prevent the sense of dissatisfaction with their work and its conditions. This led Herzberg to the unexpected at first glance conclusion: with the help of wages it is impossible to stimulate work, but to motivate people it is necessary to include more motivational factors. (McInerney 2000)
Expectancy theory. The last theory to consider is the Victor Vroom theory based on the position that the presence of active need is not only necessary condition for the personal motivation to achieve a certain goal. Man must also hope that the selected type of behavior will actually lead to the satisfaction or purchase desired.
Theory of expectations determines that the conduct of employees is determined by the behavior:
â€¢ manager who, under certain conditions, stimulates the employee;
â€¢ an employee who believes that under certain conditions, he will receive remuneration;
â€¢ employee and manager, admitting that for a certain improvement in the quality of work employee will receive certain compensation;
â€¢ an employee, who gets a premium that he wants to meet certain needs.
This means that this theory emphasizes the need to improving the quality of work and confidence that it will be noted by the head and will help to really satisfy some need.
Based on the expectations theory, we can conclude that the employee should have the needs that may be largely met by the anticipated rewards. A leader must give such incentives, which can meet the anticipated needs of the employee. For example, in a number of commercial structures reward is made in the form of certain goods, knowing that the employee needs them.
Improving of Emily Linden motivation in the Belcher Ltd company
In the Bletcher Ltd company Emily Linden was an enthusiastic employee when she began working in the accounting department, and Emily had made several recommendations to her boss that would improve the working process. But in fact her recommendations and efforts were not noticed and rewarded as they had to be. Also Emily received a 6 per cent merit increase, that was really lower then she expected and wanted, and lower that her college got, even though she knows that he lacked the skills to perform the job well enough to receive
a high reward.
Here we can see several problems: the first is that Emily really lacks motivation to work as her efforts are not noticed and not rewarded; the second is that she sees some unfair treatment of employees. These all make her dissatisfied with the work, and with her annual merit, so that she begins to think about new job.
In this situation we can see mistakes made by the management of the company in their HR policy and strategy. The company must provide good motivation for the employees, so to make them want to work. The second is that company must pay more attention to the analysis of work performance of employees, and to make rewards due to the actual achievements of employees, so they didn't think their efforts are unnoticed.
For such managers who seek to strengthen the motivation of labor, the theory of expectations provides various opportunities for this. Since different people have different needs, then the concrete rewards they value differently. Consequently, the management of the organization should compare the proposed fee to the needs of employees and bring them into compliance.
In order to effectively motivate the manager must establish a relationship between results and rewards. In this regard, consideration should be given only for the efficient work: managers should establish high but realistic level of results expected from his subordinates, and provide good rewards for that.
Introduction of some tips and methods to stimulate employee's motivation, based on theories of motivation of management, will help to improve relations in the team and staff work efficiency in the company.