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Companies need their staff to be motivated so as to grow. Ways in which the company can increase the employees' motivation is by increasing their skills, knowledge and their job satisfaction through the process of training and development as well as providing the relevant rewards and recognition in a timely manner.
Debate as raged whether happy workers necessarily result in good workers over the last century. Managing employees comes across as a science and an art that is mainly concerned with making the employees effective as well as efficient. One of the most important factors that affect the performance of an organization is the level of employee motivation. The variables in this dissertation are drawn from four domains in the motivation literature namely. The concept of positive reinforcement and the related principles which result from rewarding in the workplace are all well-founded in the literature of psychology however the effectiveness of these by the managers in practice is often uneven and often lack entirely in the day-to-day operations of the business. This article explores the conditions in big companies (Kirmanen and Salanova 23).
In the expectancy theory, to increase the effort for better performance organizations embark on processes that include training, selection, resources, clarification of roles , providing coaching to the employees and offering feedback. This is because the theory believes that it is the personality of the employee which matters and not the rate of motivation. These processes are aimed at modifying the personality of the employee so as to modify their behavior In order to increase the performance which results in the outcomes. Processes include the accurate measurement of the employees' performance and then being involved in the process of explaining the rewards based on performance in the past. Increasing the outcome valences in the organizations involved the use of valued rewards, individualizing rewards and minimizing the countervailing outcomes. The study indicates that when the expectancy, instrumentality as well as the valence is high, the motivational force in the company is also at the highest. As such, the management is tasked with recognizing these factors so as to modify the behavior of the employees in order to achieve the individual's highest value (Kirmanen and Salanova 31).
In the implementation of the motivation for the employees, the study indicated that the that the individual worker exhibited poor behavior because of their low effort-performance expectancy whereby the workers lacked the necessary training and skills to believe that their extra efforts would result in better performance. The management as such was tasked with providing the relationship between the efforts and the performance. Another cause of low performance was also hypothesized as the result of low performance-reward instrumentality relationship. In this, performance that is similar may not necessary result in similar performance. This may be as a result of the reward system being inconsistent depending on factors other than the performance of the employees. This therefore results in the employees lacking the confidence in the system or considering the system as unfair. The management is therefore supposed to re-evaluate the company's appraisal techniques and also formulating policies that are aimed at strengthening the performance-reward relationship to one that is just and equitable (Kirmanen and Salanova 34).
The Vroom's expectancy model offers an important contribution in that it explains the goals of an individual employee influences the effort they put in their work and that this behavior will successfully lead to the accomplishment of the goal. Many of the employees in the organization do not place the same value on factors such as high pay, promotions, job security and the conditions of working in the organization. They usually rank the various factors differently. This theory places the importance on the value and perceptions that the individual places on different aspects of their working life, for instance, high value on an increase in salary and a superior perception on performance are instrumental in achieving the goal of motivating the individual employee. The individual will aim for a superior performance so as to be rewarded with a salary increase. On the other hand, another employee may place higher value on promotion and perceive political value as key in achieving this, as such, this individual will therefore not emphasize on superior performance in order to achieve his/her goal (Kirmanen and Salanova 34).
The perception and assessment of the individual employee is what is important to the organizational behavior in this theory. As such it is given merit in its implementation in organization because of various factors inherent in its implementation. The expectancy model makes an attempt to mirror the complex process of motivating. It seems to be a step in an appropriate direction from a theoretical standpoint. It is valuable in the process of understanding the organizational behavior.
The model also serves as a pathfinder offering an option that is more realistic as it offers a systematic way which draws the attention of the management to the individual difference that exists in the process of motivation. The model clarifies the relationship between the goals of the individual employee and the objectives of the organization and as thus points to a ways in which the two can be harmonized. This process then results in highly motivated individual employee resulting in the collective improvement in the performance of the entire organization. For instance, the organization may set certain standards for the first-level outcome of the goals of the organization, production, for the purpose of promotion, incentive (second-level outcome0. The organization should therefore ensure that the employees place value on the second-level outcomes (promotion and incentive), that they are able to place effort and understand that these efforts contribute to the production standards. The employees should also believe that if they are able to achieve the set standards then it will contribute to them achieving the second-level outcomes, promotions and higher remuneration.
The expectancy theory draws attention to the core aspect of motivation; there is no formula for ensuring all individuals are motivated. It does not look at effective motivation in terms of external motivations that have a uniform configuration or a set of human needs that are fixed. The expectancy theory thus equips the managers with a contingency approach. The managers as such should continue implementing the methods that are productive while ignoring methods that are not productive. The managers measure and analyze the output of the workers in order to identify what motivate them. This enables the manager identify important variables and consequently formulate reward plans for the employees accordingly. In several studies, R.J. House and M.A, Wahba, the expectancy theory has been used in predicting a variety of variables that are work-related. This includes job performance and effort, managerial motivation, organizational practices, occupational choice, importance of pay and its effectiveness, leadership behavior and its effectiveness. It has also formed the basis for studies in the areas such as learning theory, decision theory, attitudes, verbal conditioning and organizational behavior. As such the model has considerable more generality as well as practical utility.
Since the theory was proposed, at least one issue in every organizational behavior journal has reported results in its practical application in an organization. In several studies, Filley, Robert and Kerr (1962-1974), indicated empirical support for the expectancy theory. These propositions were also confirmed by research by Michelle and Biglan who reviewed six cases in industrial psychology.
Expectancy theory holds a core position in the study of motivation in the workplace. As such, it has over the years been subjected empirical testing over the years. In a meta-analysis Thierry and Eerde reviewed results of some 77 studies in order to measure the correlation between the Expectancy factors and the five measures of the work motivation (performance, effort preference, intentions and choices) (Mehmet 53).
Maslaw's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchy reached its pea in popularity in the mid-70s. Because of way the corporate workplace especially in the United States is structured, Maslow for the most part is ignore as the employees are treated as disposable expenses, cost, easier and cheaper to turnover and then replace them with new employees. This is especially true with the advent of the ever-changing technologies as well as a lack of the vested value for longer-term employees. As such, companies rarely aim at the process of keeping their employees happy and also self-actualized. As, such, the corporate values basically end at level 2 in modern times. In many of the businesses in the country, the ever changing technology, the investor expectation and pressure to meet quarter as well as a lack of corporate values that are pro-human make possible for stressed-out, disposable and nowhere-neat the self-actualized employees that Maslow describes in his theory (Mehmet 57).
In order to satisfy the initial level in Maslow hierarchy of needs, physical/basic needs. Tesco provides a place of work with a regular month pay as well as the essential facilities which include lockers for the workers personal belongings as well as the restaurant where they are able to take their meals. Once the basic needs are taken care of then the workers require the next level, security needs, to be satisfied. Tesco does this by providing the security for the formal contracts that are awarded for employment as well as the sickness and pension schemes. The employees are also given the option of being unionized which provides them with a sense of belonging. This practice ensures that there is health and safety in the workplace.
The next level in the hierarchy is the satisfaction of social needs. The company provides for a work program that ensures that the employee is able to work in a team or group at the various levels of the organizations. The steering wheel of the organization assesses the individuals' employee as well as the group work. Then they usually implement strategies that allow the employees to work together as a team. The working conditions presented by the company as well as the home-from-home ethos are critical in encouraging the employees to offer long-service to the company (Mehmet 57).
In the level of self-esteem, the values of the company ensure that the there is always self-respect and a respect for others in the workplace. Hard work at the company is always praised. The system of appraisal offers for self assessment as well as 360 degrees feedback with helps in the recognition of the contributions made by the individual employees. It also emphasizes the need for the employees to celebrate their achievement. This also enables the employees to gain a high level of motivation.
In the level of self-fulfillment, the company offers personal development plans. In this way, the company is able to recognize the talents and skills that the employees exhibit. It also offers the opportunity for promotion in the extensive career progression program, the company's career discussions feed into its Talent planning meetings. The organization also runs a options fast track management program that provides a route that the capable staff are able to reach the higher levels (Mehmet 58).
A company like Siemens provides the opportunities which allow its workers to fulfill their needs in the higher-order of the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In analyzing the company it is becomes apparent that like many organizations, it assumes that a considerable pay package is enough to satisfy the needs of the employees at the lower level. Especially for employees who are skilled and creative such as engineers, it is likely that they will place more importance on the higher level needs. Esteem involves the employees being able to have self respect as well as being able to respect other employees, the company aims at showing that the individual's work is having an impact as well as making a difference in the lives of others which acts as an esteems boost to the individual worker. The company is also involved with the process or programs that recognize the achievement of individual employees helping to improve their self-esteems. For instance, the company runs several schemes where suggestions as well as projects for improving the company's processes are rewarded. The awards come in the form of finances which are awarded to either the individuals or the team that is involved; they can also be in term of peer as well as management recognition of this achievement (The times100 137).
The company is also aware that self-actualization is mainly concerned with the workers being able to fulfill their potential. The engineering work is particularly beneficial to this end as it allows the employees to achieve self-actualization by enabling them to be involved as well as take responsibility for the for their own work and projects. Individuals are usually free to make improvements as well as changes as they see necessary in order to achieve their goals. The environment in which the engineers work generates challenges as well as excitement. The engineer is often called upon to generate original ideas and solutions in order to solve the problems that are presented on a regular basis. These often appeals to the employees' higher needs. The organization also makes it possible to use technology in order to identify new ways in which the employees can work as well as new processes. Siemens offers its engineering staff opportunities for training and developments. This enables it to link with the self-actualization aspect. This is more so because it helps to engineers to build on their abilities and capabilities which allows them to be able to progress up the company's career ladder (The times100 138).
Two factor theory of motivation
Frederick Herzberg also was for the idea that the people need should be satisfied in their places of work. This is because once the needs of the employees are satisfied then this would result in an increase in the productivity of the employees. The research he carried out that resulted in the two-factor theory was focused on the activities of accountants and engineers.
Some of the motivators that were identified in the workplace include, the employee providing opportunities for the employees to develop on a personal level, being able to feel a sense of achievement in their day-to-day tasks, being given the recognition for achieving certain objectives, being promoted and also being given a certain level of responsibilities (The times100 138).
The hygiene factors/dis-satisfiers and which have been identified as commonplace in the working environment include such factors as when the company policies lead to some employees being frustrated and acting or being viewed as hindrances to the satisfaction of the employees. Also the workplace may have a lot of bureaucracy or unnecessary paperwork may also be a barrier which prevents the job from being completed. The work conditions may not be entirely suitable because of the non-personal nature of the job descriptions. Other factor, includes poor pay as well as the staff feeling as if they are not valued by the company or are never consulted in the decision making process. As such, the theory by Herzberg has shown that the managers are required to attend to the factors that motivate the employees. The management is also supposed to ensure that the hygienic factors are addressed or are managed so as to avoid the employee as being dissatisfied in the workplace. In practice, the hygiene factors maintain and support the job context while the motivators assist the employees to gain a motivation in the work they are doing. In Timmreck's study, 2001, which investigated 99 health service mid-managers, only a minority actually held a belief and used the motivators to stimulate the behavior of their subordinates. The two factor theory has been criticized because one of the factors may be considered a motivator to one person but be a source of dissatisfaction in the work environment to another. For instance, increasing responsibilities may be a source of satisfaction to one employee but be avoided by another (The times100 139).
Siemens managers are tasked with the process of balancing the dissatisfiers with the motivators, the company as such is always on the lookout to manage the procedures as well as policies which cause dissatisfaction in the workplace, in order to reduce any dissatisfaction that may arise, Siemens holds the belied that the best method to go about it is the to raise the awareness levels of issues with the employees and also to involve them in addressing this issues. They are then able to recognize and understand the need for change. As such, this has been instrumental in the management of change programs by the organization (The times100 139).
Motivators at Siemens include the factors which act as stimulants to the engineers allowing them to work in the best way they possibly can. They are able to enjoy the characteristics in the roles they take up in the organization. The process of empowerment enables the individual worker to manage his/her role as well as enable him/her to use the power arising from the process to change things in the work setup. As such, regardless of the entry point of employees, whether after the A levels, as graduates or apprentices, the work that is assigned to the workers is always stimulating, the creative nature of the engineering profession at Siemens appeals to the people who are on the lookout for a challenge and also those who enjoy solving problems within a work environment that is creative (The times100 140).
This theory requires the managers to understand that each employee operates with a need to satisfy more than one motivator at any one time. Whenever the growth opportunities are not provided to the employees then they end up regressing to relatedness needs. The manager as such should always recognize whenever this situation occurs in the environment of work. Whenever it does, the management is supposed to concentrate in the relatedness needs until the individual employee is able to pursue their growth in the organization once more. The relatedness needs as such become the major motivational forces. Employees' needs are often blocked by the policies implemented in the companies or by a lack of resources. Managers are as such tasked with attempting to redirect the efforts made by the subordinates to existence or relatedness needs. Different organizational as well as geographical cultures present different importance to the relatedness needs as factors. International organizations especially need to promote some equality between their international and the national staffs in the rating s of their relatedness needs. This provides a interesting topic in the area of research. The organizations used to test the effectiveness of this theory are usually international organizations (Riggio 32).
In an organization like Coca cola, in order to satisfy the existence level then the employer is required to provide enough resources to the employees. These resources come in the form of psychological desires and various materials such as protective clothing in the factory. If resources are divided out to employees and happen to be insufficient, then one employee gains while another loses. If the organization is able to provide enough resources, then, everyone gains which results in improved satisfaction and motivation leading to the next level of needs which need to be satisfied lest the employer relapses because of the frustration regression. This vicious cycle keeps employees from growing. When employees especially in a large corporation lack motivation, they get suck in deficiency motivation that prevents them form escaping the cycle between relatedness and existence. Although the employees may want to grow with the organization, and they often state that they are not frustrated with the company and their duties, they are just not able to get on the path to growth because they have a too strong a need to belong to a social group in the work place or have a need for material things,. This problem consumes them such that they have no time left for them to put effort in planning for their future. The environmental influences in their lives may also be too strong that the employee is not interested in thinking about the future. For example, new employees may be bombarded with new material things they require as well as skills they also need to have and as such need more and more time to accomplish things in the workplace (Riggio 36).
The EG theory enables an organization like Tesco to identify the motivational elements that have an impact on the commitment of the employee to the organization especially in the change process. Contemporary researchers have given the ERG theory more support than the Maslow's theory as far as the work situation is concerned. Tesco addresses the existence needs through such aspects as satisfying needs for monetary remuneration as well as fringe benefits. In this area the company ensures that the employees are well paid and they also are given benefits such as health and pension benefits. Relatedness needs which manifest as co-worker/ peer relations are addressed through the establishment and support of work teams made up of a diverse group of workers in order to create a rich culture. This ensures that the workers are able to learn from one another, support each other as well as having a situation where every member is able to contribute to the team in their own unique way without reprisal. The growth needs represents the need and desire by the employees to develop and advance themselves on a personal level. The company is able to address this by offering opportunities for on-the-job training as well as providing them with job projects that are challenging as well as offering the workers promotions on a basis of the most deserving. The relationship between satisfying needs In the ERG theory and by extension satisfying the employees on one hand and their commitment to the organization and their performance on the job has been a topic addressed by numerous researches. According to Arnold and Bushoff (2000), some of the articles have indicated, for example, that satisfaction using monetary payment is significant in determining the commitment to an organization. Other studies have shown positive relationship between the satisfaction arising from monetary remuneration and improved job performance (Riggio 36).