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This chapter intends to look at the various socio-cultural issues on entrepreneurship with special reference to Zamfara State, Nigeria. It will also look at some of the related theories on entrepreneurship as it affects the cultural factors of the people of the state. The chapter will also look at some empirical studies on culture in relation to entrepreneurship and a review of related literatures on socio-cultural issues on entrepreneurship.
2.1THEORIES OF ENTREPRNUERALSHIP
According to Greicio(2007)Schumper 1954 sees an entrepreneur as the "pivot for which everything turns". It was further asserted that today many professionals claims that this the time of an entrepreneur (Goffee and Scase(1987) .It was also been opines that nations have now focused their attention on the causes of entrepreneurship as a result of the fact that small ,and new companies are seen as a way of creating new employment and the only method for creating economic growth and development (Blanch flower and Oswald, 1990).
It has been said that there are various meanings given to the term entrepreneurship and its characteristics by different field of studies. To understand the term properly Greaco(2007) starts by looking at who is an entrepreneur and actually does an entrepreneur do. Greico(2007) starts by looking at the similarities of an entrepreneur with in relation to the company, the manager, the capitalist and the scholars.
According to Greico(2007) the classical economist viewed an entrepreneur as a person who initially provide funds to finance a company, that is an owner who is a capitalist as well as the manager. He is also the risks bearer and the decision maker that puts his time to look at a firm and coordinate it. The entrepreneur according to this school of thought is said to be a person that has control over afirm because of his position as the owner of the firm. But, Stauss(1944) argues that the company is an entrepreneur and that an entrepreneur has two main roles, that is risk bearing and management.
In a further attack to the classical economic school Nettl(1957) was of the opinion that entrepreneurship is static, if measured, and its contribution to each company. He further stated that the company and the entrepreneur are not different from each other and that the entrepreneur is only a part of the firm. According to Greico(2007) there has been a serious debate due to the companies changes in dimensions and the companies control in which it has been allocated to many people as happens during the last fifty years. Today entrepreneurial management schools have made their focus on bigger companies and the objective of personalising an organizational structure that could bring about efficiency in unveiling opportunities and providing strategic management activities that will bring better results against their competitors (Greico, 2007).
According to Baumol(1968) he sees an entrepreneur's place in an organization as the top in the company's position that provides the behaviour of a company. Baumol(1968) further express that the importance to differentiate between an entrepreneur and management functions' manager could be seen as a person who looks after the efficiency of a continuing process, he looks at the allocation of resources, ensure control on the timing and maintenance of meeting to contracts timing as well as deciding on the price and promotion.in short a manager could be said to be doing routine duties. It therefore shows that the entrepreneurs place in the development and the execution of new businesses which means he is "A Schumpeterian innovator" as asserted by Greicio(2007).It is worthwhile here to understand that the differences between an entrepreneur and the manager is in thinking(Martin,1982).Kirner(1983)further support the argument in which he stated that the entrepreneur looks at the unsatisfied wants relating to goods ,services and new technical knowhow.
Currently, De fraja(1996) shows a model of choice in the ownership components in which both the entrepreneurship firm and the management firm could happen due to the relationship in peoples hard work and the outside economic settings that happens as a result of technological factors like, capital investment that is required to undergo a project and the amount of risk involved in the project. In his further remark Defraja(1996)provide a result which portrait an entrepreneur as doing more work than a manager when the going is poor.
Another theory to look at is on the differences between capitalist and entrepreneurship. These differences as stated by Greicio(2007) has been looked at in different ways by scholars since after the arguments between Knight and Schumpeter. In his opinion Knight(1921) sees risks as an important element of an entrepreneur, he stated that the capital markets only gives small funds as a result of the risks and repacautions of selection hazard's and entrepreneurs provides funds and take the risks of business failures. While his opponent (Schumpeter, 1936), remove an entrepreneurial duty from the capitalist function, in which he opines that it was the capitalist that takes the risk on behalf on an entrepreneur who only has the objective digging for opportunity in an economy.
The Knight idea according to Greicio(2007) has received a wide support through empirical studies conducted in which Evans and Jovanovich(1989) among the conductors of the studies do not agree to the Schumpeter's opinion due to the fact that their results shows that entrepreneurs are limited by the availability of capital.
Another theory that happens in the aspect of entrepreneurship is what has been referred as social entrepreneurship that is define as an entrepreneurial activity run for social purposes.(Austin,Steveson,Wei-Skillen,2006), and it has now become a significant economic issue worldwide (Mair&Marti,2006;Zahra,Rawhover.Bhame,Neubam &Hayton,2008)..This issue of social entrepreneurship invention got its origin from developing nations which looks at developing new ideas that will solve the immediate needs of their people (Seelos&Mair, 2005) in this are needs like the provision of low costs cataract operations for the prevention of river blindness and the use of sanitary systems in the rural towns (Elkington&Hartigan, 2008).Social entrepreneurship have become an important aspect even developed countries. According to the survey of the Global entrepreneurship monitor of 2005,an estimate of 1.2million persons in the United Kingdom, that is 3.2% of the working age in the country's population are social entrepreneur's and the survey shows that they are involved in running the new businesses within 42 months. This is to show according to the survey by comparison to the percentage of commercial entrepreneurs of 6.2%,by comparison there have been an increase in social entrepreneurship in which it is becoming an important issue than commercial entrepreneurship(Herding,2006).
2.3EMPERICAL STUDIES ON ENTREPRENUERSHIP
In the present dispensation the effects of the society's environment on a person's thinking and choices has been now recognized(Baum,Frese&Baron,2007;Shane &Venkataraman,2000).Issues like cognitive social capital according to Linan &Santos(2007) or culture beliefs as in Hofstede(1980,1991)affects the individual decisions of people in a society. But unfortunately the importance of attitudes has not been given the attention it requires to have in countries like Nigeria (ESU Conference, 2010).hedonism, stimulant and personal direction. However, collectivist society's like Zamfara community try's to express different norms on benevolence, traditional and acceptance to these beliefs. Schwartz (1990) shows that in the structure of belief, the two types of beliefs to be considered are Universality and protection.
The motive to start-up or become an entrepreneur is a serious issue in Zamfara State that has been affected by the individuals beliefs and the society's cultural norms (ESU Conference, 2010).It has been found that current research has not given the norms to belief in knowing the cognitive process that helps in individual decision to begin a new business. (Baron, 1998; Busenitz & Lau, 1996; Katz & Shepherd, 2003; Kolvereid, 1996; Kolvereid &Isaksen, 2006; Krueger, 2000, 2003; Liñán, Urbano, & Guerrero, forthcoming; Mitchell, etal., 2002; Simon, Houghton, & Aquino, 2000; Zhao, Siebert, & Hills, 2005).
According to European Commission (2003).Entrepreneurship has been seen as an important aspect that helps to contribute to the economic growth with a lot of impact on the needs of the consumers.
In particular only a minor number of an employed population is engaging in business start-up in the Zanfara state (Bosma & Levie, 2010). To buttress such behaviour professionals uses socio-cognitive models and theories to understand the issues of entrepreneurial intentions with a special preference to higher education students in designing their objectives.(Alexei & Kolvereid,1999; Audet, 2004; Autio, Keeley, Klofsten, Parker, & Hay, 2001; Li, 2006; Liñán & Chen,2009; Moriano, Palací, & Morales, 2007; Pihie, 2009).
In its publication the Green paper on entrepreneurship in Europe through the European Commission in 2003 stress the relevance on the issue on the impact of business start-up on the way to make people develop their entrepreneurial intentions. Accordingly the European Union has tried to make people in starting up new businesses by the way of providing short term programs that are not present in Zamfara State.
In a study of the research made by the ESU Conference (2010) it shows that the decision to become an entrepreneur has changed over the years. In his research Kets de Vries(1977)and McClelland(1961)decides to look into the presence of some personality traits that affects entrepreneurial intentions. In a further study other researches were carried out in order to understand the significance of the various demographic variables like age, gender, origin, religion, education, employment experiences and so on (Reynolds, Storey, & West head, 1994; Storey, 1994).According to ESU Conference (2010) all the research carried out were able to establish an important relationship between certain democratic behaviours of an individual and his achievement of an entrepreneurial intention. But researchers have been blamed of the methods they are using that shows the lacking of the total persons behaviour in understanding an individual entrepreneurship character (Gartner, 1988; Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner, & Hunt,1991; Shane & Venkataraman, 2000; Shaver & Scott, 1991).But in Baron(1998&2004),Baum,et al(2007),Busenitz and Lau(1996),Krueger(2000)and Neck,Manz and Godwin(1999) opines that since the midyears of 1990 scholars have involved the relevance of inserting many and more cognitive factors in understanding an entrepreneurship activity.
It was as a result on the various emphases laid on the importance of understanding the effects an individual character and cognitive traits that the ESU Conference highlights the following based on the empirical studies made by professionals. These are personal value structures that compose of demographic issue age, gender and labour experience.
Personal Values Structures
Studies in the area of social psychology have stressed that values reflects character (Verplanken &Holland, 2002).Furthermore feather (1995) opines that an individual character influences his action. To support this opinion Schwartz (2006) stated that an individual value who beliefs in stimulation can be perceived to receive challenges in employment, while those that do not receive such attraction but value security my see its acceptance as a threat and unacceptable. In their remark the ESU Conference(2010),explains that according to these opinion beliefs that has higher attraction will immediately start automatically, with positive and immediate acceptance to actions .While on the other point if there is trait to beliefs a negative response will occur.
Demography and Socio-economic Behaviour
According to Robison et al,(1991)demography and social economic behaviour of people has been seen to have an influence in a person's desire in starting up new businesses. Although the variables used in the explanation of these variables has been very (Longowitz and Minniti, 2007) and (Levesque and Minniti, 2006).Further more according to the study conducted by Schwarths(2006)Individuals age. Sex, level of education and other behaviours strongly influence the life in which they belong. Issues in these respects are the society's values and the educational experiences and their responsibilities in their societies, their thinking and hindrances they come aggress and the character they possesses. Therefore Schwratz(2006) beliefs that the different backgrounds and the behaviour shows the way of life that affects an individual attraction.
In Zamfara State self-employment are very much relevant as a way of getting data, skilled enhancement and education are also important in starting up a business.(Cooper, Gimeno, & Woo, 1994; Dahlqvist, Davidson, & Wiklund, 2000).Education according to Bandura(1997) is crucial in an entrepreneurship system (Matthews & Moser, 1996; Scherer, Brodzinsky, & Wiebe, 1991).
Finally according to the Lazear(2004) entrepreneurship includes many different factors of which some are very good to a person that has an origin of an individualist community while others are better for persons from a collectivist society. People use to show their attention on the areas that are closer to their attraction Schwartz (2007). It has been found in a research that is conducted by Tiessen (1997) that divides the role of entrepreneurs into two 1) Innovation and 2) leverage. According to him innovative role is more accepted by an individualistic society, while leverage is more attractive to collectivist society. As Schwartz(2006) narrated that persons with attractive behaviours sees the establishment of a new business differently ,while some people look at entrepreneurship as an opportunity of having freedom of oneself ,some individuals look at it as n this sense, Tiessen (1997) analyses two functions of entrepreneurs: innovating and leveraging resources. While the former may be more attractive to individualistic people, the latter may help satisfy collectivist values. Therefore, as an achievement, in which some people view it as a continuation of a family venture. Motivational structure of the value system
Source: Schwartz (2006)
2.4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS IN ENTREPRENUERSHIP.
According to Tayeb (1988, pp 42), he defines culture and its context as set of background values ,attitudes and explications that are shared by the people of a given society and which affects their health and non-material way of living. People of a given society understand and share these beliefs through various stages of their social life in institutions like households, beliefs, and formal education and the community holistically.
While, Hofstede (1994) visually perceives this extremely delicate to a situation of mental, or cultural programming. Furthermore culture commences with the environment in which people grow, such as the family, the school and the working place. It was further belief that culture that politics and the interaction between people and regimes are other forms of relationship to the family, in the school and also at the working place and they also affects other areas of an individual life. Hofstede(1994) was also of the opinion that religious beliefs .ideologies and scientific theories forms component of the individual software that is shown in the family. Others are the educational institutions, regimes that also change the belief, feeling and the way an individual act. Several researches on the relationship of entrepreneurship with culture originated from Hofstedes Work (1980, 2000) that presented how norms and values at people and society level affects national cultures. In this opinion Hofstede classifies differences in culture on four categories; Uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and power distance.
According to the classification uncertainty avoidance risks or discomfort, individualism refers to oneself interest in respect of his society as opposed to collectivism that has the interest of other members of one's society .According to Hofstede(1980-200)the category of power distance relates to the degree of the society's acceptability of inequality and the level of authority between individuals. In masculinity the issue is related to the belief in material possession not the accommodation provided. Thornton P.H et al,(2011).According to Hayton et al., (2002),by Hofstedes (1980) categorization of culture professionals in the field of entrepreneurship have the postulation that entrepreneurship are related to cultures that recognizes a higher individualistic ,little uncertainty avoidance, little power distance and higher level masculine society.
Apart from the five dimensions as prescribed by Hofstede Hampden -Tuner and Trompenaars have classified and brings about seven cultural dimensions as individualism and collectivism, equality and hierarchy ,Orientation toward time, analysis and integration, achievement and ascription, Universalism and particularism and orientation towards environment.(Thorne et al,2002).By comparison Trompenaars and Hampden and that of Hofstede there are similarities the initial three dimensions as earlier propounded by Hofstede(1980) these are Individualism and collectivism, they explains the relationship within members of a community the difference between individual and collective needs.
Furthermore the second dimension as shown by Hofstede(1980) of power distance was also similar to that of Hampted-Turner and Trampeneaars(1993) of equality and hierarchy in which both the two researchers explains it as the level to which community agrees on non-equality in the distribution of authority. While the third dimension that also looks equal between the two researchers is Bonds confusion dimension was similar to Hofstede's which shows the communities orientation to time that places importance on keeping to time during events and all their activities.
Despites the above similarities Hampted-Turner and Trompenaars(1993) added additional four cultural dimensions that are totally different from that of Hofstede(1980) in which that has very close relationship to the whole community laws ,while analysis and integration lays concentration on the peoples in a community in which it looks at how they look at events. In the achievement and ascription these are related on how societies look status as well as ascribed status such responsibilities, age and differences is class. In their dimension of orientation towards the environment this dimension looks at how the society relates with their environment by the way control or vice visa.
A lot of empirical studies on cross cultural have shown that the level of distinctions between an individualistic and collectivist that forms part of communities on their organizations and the beliefs that people holds.(Thorne,2002).Countries like United states and the United Kingdom that are individualistic societies shows a loose social inclination, self-affiliation and responsibilities for oneself and his only family.(Adler,1997).In comparison a collectivist society like Japan and Germany are very close to community groups and all roles are directed towards the society and always looking for what is good for the society,(Lodge,1990).
Another Important aspect that highly relates to culture is communication and this is because all societies have different ways of verbal and non-verbal communication methods. A sign that could mean positive may mean negative in a particular culture. According to Hall(1996)in Nishimura et al,(2005)brought about the differentiation of cultures as high and low context for the understanding of cultures ways in communications. According to Nishimuraet al,(2005)Communication styles means the ways of explaining an individual ,to communication methods which are seen as' typical' of, say, or Japanese people. Furthermore, cultural issues are those societal issues, like the country's position, background, worships and traditions. These issues are included in the Hofstedes(2008)cultural dimensions of collectivism and individualism .
According to Kim et al (1982) Cultures that has high context the methods of their communication is determined by relationships, structured hierarchy and serious behavioural norms. In this type of cultures the meaning of any communication is inside the message and all other things are not explicitly shown or said. While, the low context cultures the meanings of any information is communicated through language, and individuals always demand clarifications of unclassified messages. (Nishimura et al, 2005).
Another field of study like anthropology also visually perceives entrepreneurship and other social beliefs as a component of the culture e.g. (Greenfield and Stritkon,1986;stewart,1991).By the various researchers' views the importance of value of norms and traditions are being vividly shown albeit they do not resort to entrepreneurship but can also lead to it.(Thornton,2011).
Accepting Webbers position many beliefs, norms ,values and demeanour are connected to economic magnification ,various Philomath's like McClelland(1961),Berna(1960) andFox1969)are all in the opinion that there is a relationship between economic magnification and culture. They give an example of lack of economic development of India during their time by linking it the country's culture. Mukherjee, (2005).
Entrepreneurship according to Alam (2009) establishes ways of enjoying self-reliance, getting better financial results and helps in economic development through innovations. Alam(2009)further asserted that entrepreneurship is a machine for creating employment and helps societies in less developed countries. It was also viewed by Aldrich and Cliff (2003)that family background has been a contributing factor in starting businesses, unfolding opportunities and mobilizing resources. Many entrepreneurship professionals are of the view that various reasons affects entrepreneurship creation of which they identify those reasons as external factors. Among these professionals are Bowen and Clark (2008) whose research on the effects of the economic right, lawful environment, good governance, felicitously appropriate democratic stability and other factors that could hinder the ability of starting up businesses.
A culture of entrepreneurship was faced agitated by Max Weber at the commencement of the current century in which he stated that Protestantism influences culture which in turn encourages individualism, achievements, motives and legalising entrepreneurship vacations, rationality, asceticism and self-reliance.(Basu,ND).Weber(1976)asserted that culture was a bedrock of the life of the modern capitalism.
According to Birch (1979), Caree and Thunk(2003),Parker(2004)Entrepreneurship is an activity that provides ways of invention, employment and economic development. Professionals in the field of entrepreneurship have spent ample time in endeavouring to research the various factors on the methods by which entrepreneurship establishes the establishment of new businesses and how it helps people and create wealth. According to Thornton et al(2011),since 1990 when higher institutions of learning commenced to lecture and explore the concept of entrepreneurship public sectors visually perceives the move as a way of tackling societal and economic predicaments and which has established conducting new researches psychologically and on economic aspects
.Thornton (2011), further more opines that despite the interest shown on the aspect of the socio-cultural effects of entrepreneurship in these area on entrepreneurship has not acquired the required attention by Philomath's. Aldrich and Zimmer (1986) opined that the benefit of socio-cultural factors in creating business ventures is component of the social aspect of entrepreneurship.
Professionals on the field of entrepreneurship have been lamenting that different entrepreneurial activities could be better realised by understanding the social environment in which the business is set-up, and this entrepreneurship is viewed as societal phenomenon. (Berger,1990).Drakopoulou and Anderson (2007).argues that albeit the economic differences can be used to express these differences any reasonable explication has to take care of the socio-cultural aspect of entrepreneurship. It is therefore good to note that world organizations like the organization for economic development(OECD)and the Economic Amalgamation (EU)have given attention to the environmental factors that moves entrepreneurship with particular attention to the socio-cultural factors that affects the demeanour of people in choosing to become entrepreneurs and establishing new enterprises(European Commission,2004,2006;OECD,1998,2000).
It could be descried that communities have been mystically enchanted by nature on different sighted environments; people accept the environmental ways of demeanour in order to meets their targets. Therefore these ways of adopting to environmental demeanours makes individuals to formulate variants of cultural norms in different communities and in turn this influences them in making decisions to commence up new businesses, it is therefore true that culture as different from political, economic or technological factors plays important role in the economic ways and entrepreneurship (Shane,1993 and Sokol,1982).
Ngosiane(2010),argues that entrepreneurship helps in bringing social wealth through the creation of new markets ,industries, modern technology, new forms of institutions, creates employments, and increases productivity. He further stated that by creating employment entrepreneurship establishes equitable distribution of income which could as a result establishes higher standard of living for the society. With increase in level of income of the society the little capital that regimes auditory perceived could be utilized in providing social amenities such health care, education, infrastructural facilities and the maintenance of law and inductively authorize. To further support his argument Ngosiane(2007)sighted that the Global entrepreneurship Monitoring Project which is an international assessing body on entrepreneurship worldwide states that the relation between entrepreneurship and economic development is more than 70% and all countries that has higher level of entrepreneurship activities have above average economic magnification rate.
Schumper(1934),argues that an entrepreneur could not be only be motivated by wealth but could also be induced by the desideratum to initiate and establishes new products. But some individuals could not have any other option but to go on self-employment. According to Jones et al (1992) and Ram (1994) in a study they conducted on immigrants in Britain visually perceives that non-citizen (immigrants) has no option but to go for self-employment for them to avoid racism in the migrated country's employment market, and which in turn makes them to go for low income employments.
External factors like, demography, Community, traits, financial incentives and cultural background influences the demeanour and also the willingness of individuals to become entrepreneurs. Other factors that could also hinder the willingness of people to become entrepreneurs are family encouragement that helps in motivating people into business ventures. These Family orientations have serious threats on individuals in bringing up new businesses, recognizing opportunities business decisions as well as the mobilization of resources. (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003).
"Entrepreneurs visually perceive change as the norm and as salubrious. Conventionally they do not establish the vicissitude themselves. But-and this defines entrepreneur and entrepreneurship - the entrepreneur always searches for change, responds to it, and exploits it as an opportunity".Drucker
Vob and Muller(2009)Argues that an individual demeanour regarding entrepreneurial function are determined by a group of reasons like the individual personality such as attitude, entrepreneurial activity is influenced by a set of factors such as personality in form of attitude, resources and the environment. While, Kuzilwa(2005),Shastri and Sinha(2010),in their research argues that qualitative education, good demeanour to risk, desire and job experience apart; societal environment could reduce the construal and finding of new entrepreneurship opportunities. Nasurdi and Ahmad and Lin(2009)further identifies social identification, such as family motivation, relatives and close associates could not have any influence with an individual entrepreneurial intention.
Furthermore, according to Shapero and Sokol(1982)External factors like demography, community, traits, capital incentives and norms can affect the demeanour and the willingness of an in individual of becoming an entrepreneur. Among these external factors family encouragement is a vital tool for encouragement .The family background also assist in business start-up, identifying an opportunity and getting resources.(Aldrich andCliff,2003).The family financial status also has direct impact on becoming an entrepreneur.(Raijaman,2001).Demographical reasons like But, Aycan(2000) has integrated two more dimensions that are more proximately related to this case studies and which he called paternalism and fatalism. According to Aycan(2000)the paternalism is the relation between master and coadjutant in which the masters role is that of a guide, security and caring to their auxiliaries. While fatalism is concern with the belief that it is not facile to control the results of somebody action and also endeavouring to get it which means that endeavouring to make a long term plan is not useless venture.
The people of Zamfara are predominantly culturists in whom every community are govern by set of rules and laws that put individuals into a trepidation dilemma of accepting or instantly venturing into any business venture that does not have an affiliation to their cultural background or orientation. Cultures (and groups) often differ on the extent of sanctions placed on individuals that violate normative demeanour (Packer, 2008). It was therefore the view of many Philomath's that the vast number of people in a community has the notion the values of their society.( Meek,2010).Others were of the opinion that certain beliefs could be visually perceived as dangerous, useless, or out of morality by certain people in a community.(Iyer et al,2007).But, Packer(2008) argues that even if some members of a society do not accept certain values ,they could still accede to certain norms and values.
Similar opinion were also shared by Biddle(1986),Merton(1968),Sheriff and Sheriff(1967),Warren(2003)and Wills(1965),in which they argues that some people do not accept a belief for the only reason that they are already in another belief in a the same society. It is therefore believed that societal norms are annexed with economic thinking as well as sociological thinking.(Meek,2010).In his Opinion Arrow(1971), put attention to values of social action and recommends that it could be away in which a community reacts and react to markets downfall. Arrow(1971),further explicates that the destructs in market leads to market downfall which brings lack of confide in individuals more significant, Further Kandori(1992) an economist uses societal values and communal penalizations to explicate the action of different representative in moving relationships. Social norms have been associated with economic perspectives in integration to sociological perspectives.
Kenneth Arrow (1971) calls attention to norms of social demeanour and suggests that they might be society's way of reacting to and compensating for market failures. Albeit a sense of trust can be purchased in the marketplace, it is difficult and costly; internalizing social norms represent an alternative way of dealing with uncertainty (Arrow, 1971). The lack of market trust present in such a market failure makes confide in individuals, as opposed to institutions, more important. Other economists, such as Kandori (1992) use social norms and community sanctions to explicate the demeanours of different agents in perpetual relationships. Having visually examined the implicative insinuation of culture as its impacts on entrepreneurial activities lets pause a short while and visually examine a amalgamating aspects that also encourages or dis- courage's an individual desire for business start - up. This aspect could be referred to entrepreneurial intentions. Krueger and Casrud(1993),Drennan, Keneddy and as well as Souitaris et al(2007) viewed entrepreneurial intentions as the action aims at the provision of an entrepreneurship activity in establishing a business for becoming self-employed.
Researchers in the field of entrepreneurship divide the concept of entrepreneurship into four categories such as entrepreneurial environment, People and groups and the ways in which entrepreneurship activities are organized. (Busenitz et al., 2003).In all the divisions made by Philomath's such as the environment and the people there is not yet an acceptable definition of what precisely makes an entrepreneurial act. (Shane & Venkatraman, 2001; Kennedy, Drennan, Renfrow, & Watson, 2003; Roxas et a l, 2007)..Entrepreneurship mind-set can be visually perceived by making a good study of the intentions of an individual not by his character or societal background(Krueger et al (2000) in Basu and Virick (2008).In a society were dedication and trustworthiness such a scenario could make an individual have a sense of endeavouring to be a hard working person .This type of situation makes entrepreneurial actions very much intrigued with a community where dedication and veracity is recognized as significant. (Kuratko, 2005).
Accordingly entrepreneurial intentions shows the total reasons or aim of starting a business (Krueger, 1993).The concept of entrepreneurship is totally predicated on the recognized acceptability of the definition of an entrepreneur as a person who is engaged in starting up a business concern through the acceptance of risk and unknown situations for the sole aim of getting profit and progress by probing for opportunities and assigning those required materials to utilize them. (Mitchell et al., 2002; Zimerer & Scarborough, 2002; Matlay, 2005)
Therefore, the causes of becoming an entrepreneur are mostly affected by a various communal and organizational inclinations that come as a result of the outside environment. (Begley & Tan, 2001; Shapero & Sokol, 1982; Roxas et al., 2007). A person who visually perceives entrepreneurs as recognized by a community and respected members of the total society, can have a love for much entrepreneurial concern.
As it has been mentioned, an abundance of researchers and they visually perceives entrepreneurship in different dimensions. Different opinions on what entrepreneurship is all about how it originated and the roles of entrepreneurs. Abimbola et al (2011).Entrepreneurship according to Longenecker, Moore and Petty (1997) were of the opinion that the roles of entrepreneurship include the creation of employment, introducing new things and assisting in economic magnification. But, others argue that entrepreneurship are predicated on traits, for instance they visually perceive it as a motive for self-reliance and progress, personality achievement tolerance and power. Roscoe (1973) .Stevenson, Roberts and Grousbeek(1989),visually perceive it as a method of creating value through the mixture of resources to identify an opportunity.
While Boyd and Vbzikis(1994) and Gupta and Bhawe(2007) claims that entrepreneurial intentions is an action of the mind that puts and provides the aims of an entrepreneur in his effort in implementing and starting up a business venture. It is therefore those mind-sets that make a person o developed the entrepreneurial habit which eventually leads to and individual commitment towards establishing a business. Furthermore it is eminent to endeavour and realised the reasons for which people start-up businesses and also by endeavouring to explicate the objectives and the notion of Open all the various ways and descriptions of the term by all the Philomath's in the field of entrepreneurship, Sociologist argues that people are influenced by their communal settings and which has now been associated with entrepreneurship. (Abimbola et al, 2011).
Furthermore, Thornton (1999) explicates that entrepreneurship is the commencement up of new businesses that are related to the society. In this case entrepreneurship is viewed as component of norms and demeanours within the society.(Reynolds,1991).To further support this notion Weber(1904) states that the reasons for the development of western nations was because of the nature of their attitudes of individualism, refusal of inequality that disregards flamboyant life style, better demeanour to job, taking care of their finances as well as making investments. Abimbola et al (2011) argues that as against Webbers position of the high rate of development of western nations due to individualism ,the opinion of Redding (1980) was championed on how Asians in Nigeria built their businesses predicated on family and this was evidenced by the way Asian businessmen leaves their ventures across members of their families. Therefore from all the aforementioned examples culture plays a vital role on why entrepreneurship activities transpires in particular domain in particular communal settings.
Obanya(1995),Adejumo(2001),has identified some socio-cultural factors which he verbally expressed affects people in a given community such as the number or family size and sex difference.
.By comparison Zamfara State population are predominantly Muslims that have the notion of extended family as well as large number of children's that relies on farming and little business with lack of good conventional educational settings. These elongated family structures are valued as wealth not the innovation of an individual or his level of educational achievements. There is not surprising if Abimbola(2011) a Nigerian visually perceives entrepreneurship as method that utilizes the identification and finding of avenues in a communal way for the achievement of innovation and mass production which leads to economic magnification.
Abimbola et al(2011)in his research defines family extension as a multiplication of immediate family members that is associated with traditional leadership in which all the family members are related to each other and which accommodates as the root of funds, power and communal needs of the family members. It could therefore be seen that this system is far different from the western notions in relationship is viewed by the length of relationship. The Nigerian conception of an extended family system is based on common origin and the length of relationship is not the issue and as per as the origin is established cordial atmosphere hen exist in the family. While the differences of sex relates to being a man or a woman and this in turn relates to the thinking, norms and action of individuals and which affects the people interactions. Obayan( 1995).
In a further study on the impacts of socio-cultural factors that affects entrepreneurial activities Shapero and Sokol (1982),argues that these factors affects the forming of entrepreneurship activities in societies that has a higher regard on people who are interested in forming businesses and which could influence an individual action becoming enterprising. It was further agitated that that a community which places importance on an individual initiative, taking risk and self-independent usually witnesses a growth in entrepreneurial activities more than a society that different interest on venture activities. But other scholars are in an opposing position as to the Shapero and Sokol(1982) feeling on why people from different societies are more entrepreneurial than other individuals from other societies.
Zamfara State being a highly agricultural community suffers the societies neglect or discouragement of not given recognition to people that are enterprising and that due to the level of education of the people many could not understand the benefit of starting of businesses couple with lack of good government support.
According to Lowe and Marrriot(2006),Entrepreneurs are generally controlled by the originated culture. Some communities are very good in starting up businesses while some are less. Like in Nigeria, the Igbos in the southern part of the country are very much enterprising due to their inclination to business acumens that comes as a result of their cultural and societies regards on individual initiatives and ability to identify opportunities. This a due to their cultural beliefs and norms, as well as the peoples habits that provides a standard of individuals behaviour (Irwin, 2000).
In endeavouring to commence up a business an individual requires to have enough capital or its source that could enable in creating an enterprise. Therefore to become an entrepreneur an individual needs to save and this situation could be during his employment period or through other external sources and which he could them invest.(Evans and Jvanonic,1989;Xu 1999).According to Foreman-peck and Zhou(2010).Cultures that lays accentuation on gratification and has less magnification on time discounts can encourage savings and can assists in encouraging entrepreneurship by ascertaining the time by which minimal funding for starting of a business venture can be reached. Perhaps this is another contributing reason for the lack of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria and Zamfara State in particular .The resultant effects could be due to abject impecunious and higher level of unemployment and the retrenchment of workers. Factional costs. These are the trusts that exist between both parties(Buyers and Sellers) which could hamper the development of entrepreneurial activities within aparticular society.
Mark Casson(1991) Identifies two business cultures and which he named as high and low trust cultures .According to him a culture that has high trust encourages less supervision within a business than the low trust culture which requires frequent supervision .Cultures that have high trust views also have good accidence and these accidents are occluded.
Entrepreneurship embedded a culture of commitment and energy in which long hours of time are utilized more than a regular employment.(Blanch flower and Shadworth,2007),a society that has good work ethics could have a bustling business start-up.
2.5MODELS OF ENTREPRENUERIAL INTENTIONS
A lot of studies have made on the concept of entrepreneurship by the researchers through the use of intentional models in their effort to explains the context of entrepreneurship Izquieirdo(2008).According to Izqueirdo(2008) among these models are the ones developed by Shapero, known as the Shaperos entrepreneurial event model or(SEE) through which it was explain that an entrepreneurial intentions depends on three types of elements as ;the perception of the desirability, the propensity to act and the perception of feasibility(Sharpero,1982).Apart for this model another one was developed by Ajzen theory of planned behaviour in 1991.In the opinion of Ajzen intentions relays on factors such as 1)Subjects Attitudes toward the behaviour; 2) subjective norms; and 3) the subject's perception of behavioural control. Furthermore Bird (1988) brings out another model on entrepreneurial intentions that shows an alignment of personal and contextual factors. Boyd and Vziski(1994)further developed Birds(1988) model to have such issues as self-efficacy that comes from the social education theory.
Davidson (1995) further explains that entrepreneurial intentions are affected by convictions that explain the total behaviour like changes. Money. Achievements and self-autonomy and other behaviours life work pay off, communities' contribution and knowledge, conviction, in this respect are personal issues such as age, sex, knowledge and experience and unforeseen changes.
Two models of entrepreneurial Intentions
The level in which socio-cultural factors can affect individual intentions in Zamfara state in starting up a business is very important among professionals. Izqueirdo(2008).According to Boyd and Vozikis(1994) and individual intentions to start a business depends if he or she has a good degree of self-efficacy as a result of his experience, entrepreneurial models and the communities encouragement as well as his goal of achieving targets.
As explained by various researchers that the learning of an individual behaviour its relevant in an entrepreneurial concept(Drucker, 1970; Olson and Bosserman, 1984; Phan,Wong and Wang, 2002; Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner, and Hunt, 1991) due to the fact that behaviours are significantly important in affecting the initiative and entrepreneurial attitude (Garavanand O'Cinneide, 1994). Furthermore these behaviour s is very important in explaining the changes in an entrepreneurship activity through the its effects on an individual intentions (Izqueirdo, 2008).
In their collective views Boyd and Vozikis(1994)and Fishbein and Ajzen(1975) explains that forming a behaviour in a particular attitude ,relies on the belief that the attitude can bring certain risks. According to Souitaris at al,(2007) asserted that behaviours amounts to an individual entrepreneur intentions in Zamfara State. By having a strong self-efficacy attitude people will be motivated to have success in a particular job that can as a result can change their behaviour in a given object. "People who have strong beliefs regarding their capabilities will be more persistent in their efforts to master a challenge" Boyds and Vozikis(1994).
Summary of the Chapter
The whole range of discussions made in this chapter is made in order to sort out the most relevant aspects of the research that focuses its attention on the socio-cultural factors that affects or hinders entrepreneurial activities in the state. The chapter highlights literatures on the various theoretical aspects of entrepreneurship, issues in socio-cultural studies on entrepreneurship and discussion on entrepreneurial models.