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Human Resources Management: The most valuable assets in any organization are the Human Resources Management. It is the only thing who strategic and coherent approach to the management to any organization, which relatively individually and collectively add the achievements to the organization. The main aim of a Human Resources management is to ensure the targeted goals of an organization by attracting and managing the people within the organization. The purpose of the Human resource is maximize in the returns and minimize the financial risk to the organization, which can be done by using the aligning the supply of the skilled and qualified capable work force within the organization. HRM includes the variety of activities and most important is that which include the staffing which is the basic needs the organization, and it's totally depend on the organization whether to use as a contractor or hire skilled people to fulfil the needs, recruiting the best one and trained them to perform the best task given to them. Human resources is based on the structure which is permit the individual development, potentially satisfying the organization and the nations goals. At the level of a national strategy, it can be a broad inter sectoral approach to fostering creative contributions to national productivity. Now a day's HRM is more distinguish by purely an administrative function and more it concern with the organizational strategy. "Human Resources Management is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantages through the strategic deployment of highly committed and capable workforce, using an Integrated array of cultural, Structural and personnel techniques" (Human Resource Management A critical Text John Storey:1995 p 5). The term HRM comes to refer an approach, which takes on:
The needs of the organization,
The need of its people.
The key for Human Resources system for them is Appraisal, Selection, Development and Rewards. These entire things added the potential to the behaviour towards the performance of the specific goals. If they were properly aligned or in other words can say Linked with each other as their model of the human resources cycle.
Figure 1: The Human Resource Cycle (Human Resource Management A Strategic Approach to Employment Chris Hendry: 1995 p: 6)
"Personnel management had been more stronger in providing an integrative framework for employment decision and management action by means of employment action by means of employment politics then in structuring employment system to implement particular business strategies" (Human Resource Management A Strategic Approach to Employment Chris Hendry: 1995 p: 15).
Human Resources development is a part of Human resources management which deal with the frame work of helping in the developing skill, Knowledge, abilities by using the campaign, Training within the organization etc. The main aim of the Human resources development is to developing the most superior work force so that employee can accomplish their work goals. Human Resources Development in this treatment can be in-room group training, tertiary or vocational courses or mentoring and coaching by senior employees with the aim for a desired outcome that develops the individual's performance. "Goals should clearly link to business outcomes" (Kremple and Pace: 2001 p: 55) and "Valuing development only if it contributes to productivity is a point of view that has perpetuated the mechanistic model of past three hundred years" (Bierema 1996 p: 24). An organization is like a family and in that family the HRM plays an important role, which gives the direction to the organization to move forward in the world of Globalization. "HRM is regarded by some personnel managers as just a set of initials or Old wine in new bottles. It could be indeed be no more and no less than another name for personnel management, but as usually perceived at least it has the virtue of emphasising treating people as a key resource, the management of which is direct concern of the top management as a part of strategic planning processes of the enterprise. Although there is nothing new in the idea, insufficient attention has been paid to it in many organizations. The new bottle or label can help to overcome that deficiency" (Strategic Human Resource Management 2004 p: 21). There are two distinctive approach in with HRM further explained Hard HRM and Soft HRM.
Human Resources Planning
Matching the organization main skills and the job categories, human resource planning is the process in which demand for labour against the potential supply and preparing steps to match. In general many organizations not even use the full information what they have. Such as Organization know many of their staff (particularly the senior staff) are due to retire, and they can easily discover wastage rates cause be illness. So in future organization know that the business is likely to develop in future but they should be able to raise the forecast demand (International Human Resources Management 2010 p: 81). Different people having different skills have their own needs and aspiration, therefore HRM involves the activity to finding out the needs and aspiration of the people within the organization of an individual employee for example appraisal process after doing this to increase the opportunity within the organization by providing various activity, such as Job enlargement process as well as outside the organization for example taking up the educational opportunity at colleges and universities for employee to improve themselves.
It is an analysis of the particular job so that the selector must know that what physical and mental characterises should have for a particular position. The main sources of recruiting are:
College/University notice board
Recruitment is itself a good process which attracts the society and helping the suitable employment. "Recruitment has to serve several People"(Sparrow and Hiltrop, 1994). Such as to increase the pool of applicants at a very minimal cost, to meet the responsibility to the organization. It is not very surprisingly, that the recruiting process is differ to the nature for the job that are recruiting for as well as the culture of the area also differ the nature of the recruiting process. As the growth of the multinational enterprise the process of recruitment also being raised to the international level, in this the growth of the organization which recruiting the man force from abroad for the domestic use.
Now on the point of view let us discuss that the relationship between Global HRM and the people having a diverse mind. Based on the various tradition and different culture across the Globe there are many theories and the different approaches comes in front of the Human resource management and results are found to be very different as all the different cultural people have different approaches towards the same problem. The best way of carrying the symmetric strategy is to carry out the proper selection and training of the employee which resulting in the high efficiency as well as the performance. But by doing this there is one negative point arises that HRM is neglecting the Human values and treated them as a replaceable object, if not in use through it out or in other word we can say "Hire and fire Strategy"
Global Human Resource Management
In the 21st century there is a change in the Indian industry, i.e. The Hithero Docile and The Meek Indian industry became a supplier to the big companies of the western and the Far east part of the globe. Due to this revolution of the Indian industry across the world, People from different countries were able to know the power of the Indian Industries. One key factor that Indian industries having is that its Global face which contributes the people employing across the globe and keep motivating the staff, this situation give rise to the Global Human Resource Management (http://www.chrmglobal.com/Articles/336/1/Global-Human-Resource-Management.html, 2010). The most important aim of the Global HRM was to ensure that the first company had its first look on its local geographies of presence. The best Practice identifies by human resource management is with respect to the selection criteria, recruitment criteria, Training and Placement and compensation of managers for overseas assessment in the globally positioned companies. The prerequisite, developing a multicultural and the international work force which make the market globally successfully. To maintain this competency, global companies must work on the new strategy for identifying, attracting, motivation and other talent. In relation to the personnel management, it is in the organization which employs people and this deals with the policy responsibility for the recruitment for the staff, carrier development, equal opportunity, and pay bargaining and industries relation. This is vary from the size of organization. In small organization it is mixed up with the other managements but in the large organization it is having the separate department may be involved in the setting policy. "Personnel management is that phase of the management which deals with the effective control and use of manpower as distinguish from the sources of power. The methods, tools and techniques designed and utilised to secure the enthusiastic participation of labour represent the subject matter for study in personnel administrator" (Dale Yoder). Personnel Management is the major part of the system and which plays a major role in the Human Resource, as it covers the total management and all levels of an organization of an organization. Personnel Management not only concern with the groups as it deals with the individual as well in aim for getting the optimizing results.
According to the David Ralph there are two objective in the personnel management Primary and secondary management. The primary objective deals with the production and the distribution of the goods, service and the personnel departments which helps in the selection of appropriate person for the respective departments. As this objective itself provide a spirit of co-operation between the employee which they undertaking and attaining the individual objective by means of monetary and demonetary incentives. By doing this the organization itself having the social responsibilities which are being now fulfilled by the employee itself. And as per concern for the secondary objective which is concern with the economical and development of ethical and moral values. The success and Failure factor is now being totally depends on the 4M factors i.e. Money, Material, Machinery, and Men. The management of men which plays an challenging role in administration sector. Therefore the importance of personnel management can be expressed in the term on analogy of the Human body, it's not a limb neither a brain but a Nervous System.
Relationship to the practice of personnel management and the power of work group management with the global management theories, as we looking towards the African system of people management, the African 'ubuntu' way of life can be considered. John Mbiti clarify ubuntu as "Am because we are; and since we are, therefore I am" (http://abeytau.blogspot.com/2007/11/i-am-because-we-are-since-we-are.html). Therefore working in a group, the excellence and intelligence of an individual adds value to the entire group and the overall merit of a group can also be claimed by an individual. In the social structure of the local communities in Africa, the people in the group were never deprived their basic rights even though there existed a strong consciousness about the community (Ndidi N E,2001:155). The way of life changes of ubuntu as when it comes to the organization, as the African managers' start promoting the general awareness and welfare of own social and tribal communities, by learning the opportunities of talented individuals. One other drawback of this collectivism is that it prevents individuals from being independent, it is time consuming and inefficient leading to frustrations in the process of negotiations, initiating changes or expansions. (Nnadozie, p.67). There are indifference tends to develop, when some people in the group tend to be lazy but get the benefits of the team work. The recognition and acknowledgement of individual's work are shared with even the ineffective members of the team. This is an unfair method and it encourages laziness among the team members "Scientific management was predominant in the west, and started fainting with the evolution of the knowledge industries. However the success stories of the west started influencing the other part of the world in the late 20th century" (McLennan et al, 1987:61).
In Confucian philosophy, every relationships are to be not same, therefore the ethical behaviour for the particularly for the Chinese management style demands these inequalities, in this regards the elder person will automatically get the respect from younger one's (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Chinese-Management-Style.html, 2010). Therefore according to the Kam-Hon-Lee, sincerely the ethical values are being applied to the Business values which are more toward the mutual benefits (Kam-Hon Lee, 1996: p.67). In the business management style of the Chinese people the elder people is likely to be considered as a father who expects and receives loyalty from the colleague, and in this the manager will likely to take interest to take part in this holistic of well being those colleague, which is a Two way relationship.
On the other hand the Japanese people management emphasises the need for the information flow within the organization from top to bottom. Japanese management style were adopted the western technologies and incorporated in their own traditional style. This combo pack let them to the ladder toward the success and each custom made to meet each society in unique demands. The main aim of any Japanese manager is to provide an environment in which the staff under him can flourish. For achieving this manager must be accessible to the time and be willing to share the knowledge within the group. And in return manager want from the teams to informed regarding the development part. The reciprocity of this relation is an example of the good management.
As compared to the other different culture India is very rich in the Culture heritage. And India is the country which covers more land that of the Europe and having 18 different language and 1600 religion dialects (http://www.vegetarian-restaurants.net/India-Guide/IndianStates/Practical/Languages.htm, 2010). There are 28 States and 7 Union territories and it is very hardly supervising. Therefore its very hard to get the generalization to be sweeped out here. In many ways Business Structure mirror to the Indian society, where people have a allotted position which they do not attempt to overturn. For this reason the company tens to be run by an individual who will give direct instruction down to the company. After getting this instruction all the people in organization will considered that the decision taken very fairly and authoritarian manner and the people will follow that the same instruction further down the chain. An even person does not bother about the position within the organization and the validity of the decisions taken" KARMA AND DHARMA" describe all this things (http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Indian-Business-Structures.html, 2010). Main Indian values should define the sympathy towards the respect towards the People, Society, Social, Spiritual harmony and culture pluralism are concern with relationship. "When doing business in India it generally necessary to liaise as near to the top as possible. A great deal of time can be wasted dealing with middle management who may have very little impact on the final decision. If dealing in the middle, try to deal with those who have some influence over the real decision-maker"(http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Indian-Business-Structures. html, 2010). As far as the western culture is concern, it will not set or change the different tradition of India. For example the western culture set the value of women in the society is equal as same as men. And in India women is reached at hers highest point in career but in India she is not considered as equal as men. However women working late hours and feeding home after work still not accepted in many parts of the country. So as far as the western culture concern if they want to settle down the business and want outsourcing they have to consider these things set policies and strategies understanding and respecting individual's feelings.
Conclusion and Recommendation
Culture had been seen the major factor in adaptation to the requirements for organizational integration (Fang, 2000). This is especially due to globalization of economy in the 21st century. While cross-cultural experience was increasing the degree of homogenization toward Western or American management styles, differences persisted in businesses operation outside of home countries (Adler, 2000b; Lindholm, 1999/2000). "The degree of understanding the mangers brought to such international organizations was limited, both by personal experience and application of empirical data" (http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:lmWlLtDqdqEJ:marketing.byu.edu/htmlpages/ccrs/proceedings01/papers/bush.doc+Western+and+non+western+HRM+culture&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk, 2010). Human resource management had generally followed a Western culture, and therefore the research on inter-cultural human resource management styles in non-Western organizations had been limited. We all are influenced by the community in which we are living in and adopts all it habitats to our customs.
"There is always choice about the way you do your work, even if there is not a choice about the work itself" (C Lundin 1995, p 37). As we are talking about the multicultural it is very difficult to someone to get accustomed, however manager is now not being the manager now he has to deal with the managing the emotions for each and every individuals in the organization. And it is very obvious that the success of the manager make a success for the employee and the organization as well. "While the study found cross-cultural agreement in the overall responses, the reality of the turnover rate argued for the need to make changes to the organizational structure. One potential area of concern might have been that the degrees of cultural differences detected by the, Asian Values Scale and Work Preference Scale were not fine enough to determine shades of collectivism, shades of power distance, or shades of other cultural factors that might have distinguished the western culture from the Non- Western culture " (http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:lmWlLtDqdqEJ:marketing.byu.edu/htmlpages/ccrs/proceedings01/papers/bush.doc+Western+and+non+western+HRM+culture&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk, 2010).