This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
During our US management leadership seminar we discuss about the leadership traits and more especially about charisma. We emphasize a problematic, are we born leader or could we learn it?
The representation of leader and leadership traits is characterized by some personality such as Martin Luther King or John F Kennedy for example. Even if leaders are evolving in different environment (movie, politic, song, association etc.) they have at list one common point, charisma. We are going to develop our analysis around charisma and diverse concepts around it in order to finally answer to the problematic.
As a reference we are going to analysis two speeches made by Martin Luther King and John F Kennedy which will help us to identify the most common techniques implemented of US manager and leader.
But first of all we are going to define what charisma is? The word charisma (origins from the Greek word Ï‡Î¬ÏÎ¹ÏƒÎ¼Î± (kharisma), "gift" or "divine favour," from kharizesthai, "to favour," from kharis, "favour") refers to a rare trait found in certain human personalities usually including extreme charm and a 'magnetic' quality of personality and/or appearance along with innate and powerfully sophisticated personal communicability and persuasiveness. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charisma)
The Weber period theories
Sociologists, political historians, and political scientists have widely accepted the theory of charismatic leadership originally advanced by Weber in 1947.
Max Weber describes the charismatic phenomenon as the emergence of a person able to offer an alternative to a social crisis faced by potential followers. Then if this person shows the followers the willingness and capability to deliver alternatives to them thanks to extraordinary needs, that deliverance will be associated to special gift and divinity. Indeed, the power of the leader's personality and the attributions of potential followers is the result of the emergence of the potential leader as a charismatic leader.
This conception of charisma has been introduced by Weber into limited contexts such as politics, military or religion.
Through this contextual perspective made by Weber, the authors Eisenstadt (1968), Dow (1969), Onnen (1987) followed this orientation and focused their studies into the social situation that create the emergence of a charismatic leader and the process by which the leader is or is not routinized into a legitimate social order.
Weber in 1968 and Camic in 1980 observed that charismatic leadership rises into a social crisis context, where potential followers have extraordinary need deprivation, suffer from stress, alienation, loss of meaning in life or even feelings unarmed face to the crisis.
Charismatic visions are seen as matching end-values like equality, honesty, freedom, independence from domination, human rights, peace, individual and collective efficacy, human dignity or respect. These values, considered as end-values, are fundamental for the human being and therefore cannot be exchanged or sold for other values such as wealth or economic security.
In 1992, Mullin explained that end-values, as described above, reveal more consideration and implication than self interest would be. " The follower's response is freely given, not in exchange for any extrinsic return, though intrinsic satisfaction may result" then, "for followers, expectancies and instrumentalities are operational only when relevant to achievement of the end-value" (Mullin, 1992, p5 and 31).
Followed by Trice and Beyer (1986), Weber states that the routinization of the charismatic values would appear only if the initial vision of the charismatic leader is successfully attained or if the movement seems to be succeeding but the vision would also persist if the leader initially routinizes the values part of the vision. In order, to reach the routinization of charisma, symbols, myths, rites, rituals, and ceremonies have to be involved.
The previous theories of the Weberian time was orientated in a specific social or political context and concentrated on crisis. Now we will observe more recent theories entitled neo-charismatic perspectives and for which the focus has been made on the fact that charismatic leadership might also emerge in formal complex organizations.
Various authors have written about the charismatic leadership phenomena in the last two decades. Those theories concentrated on leadership personality, behaviour and effects on their followers.
Howell and Higgins (1990), Curphy (1990), Hater and Bass, (1988), they all state that charismatic leadership can rise and be effective in organizations and even normal business organizations.
In 1991, an empirical investigations made by, Spangler and Woyke, observed that the emergence of a charismatic leader is based on the coincidence of an extraordinary personality with exceptional social conditions which create the opportunity for both to meet.
Recently, a summary of one hundred empirical evidence has been provided by Fiol, Harris and House (1999) which underline the common highly commitment of followers for their leaders described as charismatic, transformational or visionary. Besides this, followers seem to make personal sacrifices in the interest of the mission and perform beyond the call of duty.
"The findings also demonstrate that such leaders have positive effects on their organizations and followers, with effect sizes ranging from .35 to .50 for organizational performance effects, and from .40 to .80 for effects on follower satisfaction and organizational identification and commitment" (Rise and Decline of charismatic leadership-House).
Bass quotes Max Weber's view of charisma which has five elements (source: Leadership, Philip Sadler p 49)
A person with extraordinary gifts
A radical solution the crisis
Followers attracted to the exceptional person believing that they are linked through him/ her to transcendental powers.
Validation of the person's gifts and transcendence in repeated experiences of success.
Bass concentrated is study into the concept of "extraordinary gift" and "transcendent powers", where he comments that charisma is based on the "combination of emotional expressiveness, self confidence, self determination, and freedom from internal conflict, radical, unconventional, risk taking, visionary, entrepreneurial and exemplary." (Source: Leadership, Philip Sadler p 49)
Bass has also created a questionnaire instrument call the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). This survey reveals multiple findings such as:
Charismatic leader might be found at all levels of organizations but more usually at the top of the hierarchy.
The faith and pride of followers towards their leaders.
Followers who identified their superiors as charismatic state that their units is more productive.
They also seem to be more confident in their job and show more interest to their work.
Followers work longer hours.
The level of trust in their charismatic leaders is higher than those for non-charismatic.
Mc Fillen designed a model of charismatic leadership focused on 6 attributes of leader behaviour and three followers' beliefs.
Attributes of leaders:
Dramatization of the mission
Enhancing own image
Assuring followers of their competence and ability to achieve great things
Providing followers opportunities to succeed with responsibility
Then we observed 3 Beliefs of followers which are provoked by leaders:
Moreover, a recent study conducted by House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla and al (1998) in 60 countries prove that neo-charismatic leadership are recognized as "prototypical behaviours of highly effective organizational leaders" and have been consistently rated above six on a seven-point MLQ scale of attributed effectiveness.
According to House and Shamir (1993) charismatic leaders emerge because they are able to respond to the followers 'deprivation through empathy. Then the point of view is taking from followers' needs and values into the organization or work situation in terms of meaningfulness and moral purpose.
Pillai and Meindl (1991) state that when followers are stressed and feel threaten, they are more likely to seek leaders who present confidence and solutions to tackle problems.
Shamir et al (1993), define 5 conditions to explain why charismatic leadership is likely to emerge:
The context is perceived to threaten important moral values
There performance-goal accomplishment relationship is unclear and ambiguous.
The context is unstable
The situation is requiring extraordinary effort.
House and Shamir described in 1993, the specificities of leader behaviours' which are:
"The articulation of an ideological goal and an implied set of moral values
Communication of high performance expectations of followers
Demonstration of a high degree of confidence in followers
Positive presentation of self to important constituents
Engaging in persuasive communication by the use of frame alignment
Emphasizing value and collective identification
Taking extraordinary risks
Making substantial personal sacrifices in the interest of the charismatic mission
Unusual capacity to experience passion
Persistence and optimism
"People want confidence in their leader. You can't be a stammering, halting, doubting, individual. You can worry that you're plan won't work; sure, all good leaders do that. But you can't be worried if anyone likes you or not .You're like the rock in the river that the water rushes around. You have to look secure in yourself." Said Curt Carter, CEO America, Inc (Executive charisma of D.A. Benton).
Through the neo-charismatic theories we observed the various conditions where charismatic leaders are likely to emerge and to be effective, but also their personality and behaviour traits which lead to followers respond in terms of motivation improvement both individually and collectively.
We will observe below two of the greatest speeches made in the history by well known charismatic leaders. This analysis is going to be done through the identification of communication strategies and techniques implemented focusing on 4 principals:
Aaaaa: "First, they employ inclusive rather than exclusive referents (Fiol, 1989). One would expect a charismatic leader to use more associative referent terms such as "we," "us," "our group," or "our organization" rather than terms that imply disassociation or non-inclusion such as "I," "you," or "me." (Charismatic Leadership- House (Attached file))
Aaaaa: "The use of the word "not" is an essential rhetorical device for breaking, neutralizing and negating. Since charismatic leaders, by definition, attempt more innovations and are seen as more successful in those change efforts, they should use the word "not" more frequently than non-charismatic leaders". (Charismatic Leadership- House)
Aaaaa: "Use illustrations and visual imagery to connect point to point. Use metaphors, as they are a short way for your listener to understand often complex ideas. Don't mix your metaphors or you may find yourself up a tree without a paddle" (Charismatic Leadership- House (Attached file))
Aaaaa: The repetition of words and ideas match the following:
"Build in suspense, questions, and cliff-hangers" (source: http://charismacom.blogspot.com/)
"Make your language simple, clear, precise, and make sure you use concrete words. The majority of your listeners need concrete words and plenty of verbs, to understand your content". (Source: http://charismacom.blogspot.com/)
Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream - Address at March on Washington August 28, 1963. Washington, D.C.
"I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.
But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition.
In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of colour are concerned. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt.
We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check -- a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God's children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.
But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.
We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.
And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal."
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor's lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning, "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring."
And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!
Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado!
Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California!
But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!
Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!
Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.
When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
John F. Kennedy - September 12, 1962 "We choose to go to the moon"
(Source: http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/jfk-space.htm )
Video 1: http://fr.youtube.com/watch?v=aTyYM-dUgCI&feature=related
Video 2: http://fr.youtube.com/watch?v=mfhIjI_N1Pk&feature=related
"President Pitzer, Mr. Vice President, Governor, Congressman Thomas, Senator Wiley, and Congressman Miller, Mr. Webb, Mr. Bell, scientists, distinguished guests, and ladies and gentlemen:
I appreciate your president having made me an honorary visiting professor, and I will assure you that my first lecture will be very brief.
I am delighted to be here and I'm particularly delighted to be here on this occasion.
We meet at a college noted for knowledge, in a city noted for progress, in a state noted for strength, and we stand in need of all three, for we meet in an hour of change and challenge, in a decade of hope and fear, in an age of both knowledge and ignorance. The greater our knowledge increases, the greater our ignorance unfolds.
Despite the striking fact that most of the scientists that the world has ever known are alive and working today, despite the fact that this Nation's own scientific manpower is doubling every 12 years in a rate of growth more than three times that of our population as a whole, despite that, the vast stretches of the unknown and the unanswered and the unfinished still far outstrip our collective comprehension.
No man can fully grasp how far and how fast we have come, but condense, if you will, the 50,000 years of man's recorded history in a time span of but a half-century. Stated in these terms, we know very little about the first 40 years, except at the end of them advanced man had learned to use the skins of animals to cover them. Then about 10 years ago, under this standard, man emerged from his caves to construct other kinds of shelter. Only five years ago man learned to write and use a cart with wheels. Christianity began less than two years ago. The printing press came this year, and then less than two months ago, during this whole 50-year span of human history, the steam engine provided a new source of power. Newton explored the meaning of gravity. Last month electric lights and telephones and automobiles and airplanes became available. Only last week did we develop penicillin and television and nuclear power, and now if America's new spacecraft succeeds in reaching Venus, we will have literally reached the stars before midnight tonight.
This is a breathtaking pace, and such a pace cannot help but create new ills as it dispels old, new ignorance, new problems, new dangers. Surely the opening vistas of space promise high costs and hardships, as well as high reward.
So it is not surprising that some would have us stay where we are a little longer to rest, to wait. But this city of Houston, this state of Texas, this country of the United States was not built by those who waited and rested and wished to look behind them. This country was conquered by those who moved forward--and so will space.
William Bradford, speaking in 1630 of the founding of the Plymouth Bay Colony, said that all great and honourable actions are accompanied with great difficulties, and both must be enterprise and overcome with answerable courage.
If this capsule history of our progress teaches us anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowledge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred. The exploration of space will go ahead, whether we join in it or not, and it is one of the great adventures of all time, and no nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space.
Those who came before us made certain that this country rode the first waves of the industrial revolution, the first waves of modern invention, and the first wave of nuclear power, and this generation does not intend to founder in the backwash of the coming age of space. We mean to be a part of it--we mean to lead it. For the eyes of the world now look into space, to the moon and to the planets beyond, and we have vowed that we shall not see it governed by a hostile flag of conquest, but by a banner of freedom and peace. We have vowed that we shall not see space filled with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding.
Yet the vows of this Nation can only be fulfilled if we in this Nation are first, and, therefore, we intend to be first. In short, our leadership in science and industry, our hopes for peace and security, our obligations to ourselves as well as others, all require us to make this effort, to solve these mysteries, to solve them for the good of all men, and to become the world's leading space-faring nation.
We set sail on this new sea because there is new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. For space science, like nuclear science and all technology, has no conscience of its own. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theatre of war.
I do not say that we should or will go unprotected against the hostile misuse of space any more than we go unprotected against the hostile use of land or sea, but I do say that space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made in extending his writ around this globe of ours.
There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation many never come again. But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas?
We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.
It is for these reasons that I regard the decision last year to shift our efforts in space from low to high gear as among the most important decisions that will be made during my incumbency in the office of the Presidency.
In the last 24 hours we have seen facilities now being created for the greatest and most complex exploration in man's history. We have felt the ground shake and the air shattered by the testing of a Saturn C-1 booster rocket, many times as powerful as the Atlas which launched John Glenn, generating power equivalent to 10,000 automobiles with their accelerators on the floor. We have seen the site where five F-1 rocket engines, each one as powerful as all eight engines of the Saturn combined, will be clustered together to make the advanced Saturn missile, assembled in a new building to be built at Cape Canaveral as tall as a 48 story structure, as wide as a city block, and as long as two lengths of this field.
Within these last 19 months at least 45 satellites have circled the earth. Some 40 of them were made in the United States of America and they were far more sophisticated and supplied far more knowledge to the people of the world than those of the Soviet Union.
The Mariner spacecraft now on its way to Venus is the most intricate instrument in the history of space science. The accuracy of that shot is comparable to firing a missile from Cape Canaveral and dropping it in this stadium between the 40-yard lines.
Transit satellites are helping our ships at sea to steer a safer course. Tiros satellites have given us unprecedented warnings of hurricanes and storms, and will do the same for forest fires and icebergs.
We have had our failures, but so have others, even if they do not admit them. And they may be less public.
To be sure, we are behind, and will be behind for some time in manned flight. But we do not intend to stay behind, and in this decade, we shall make up and move ahead.
The growth of our science and education will be enriched by new knowledge of our universe and environment, by new techniques of learning and mapping and observation, by new tools and computers for industry, medicine, the home as well as the school. Technical institutions, such as Rice, will reap the harvest of these gains.
And finally, the space effort itself, while still in its infancy, has already created a great number of new companies, and tens of thousands of new jobs. Space and related industries are generating new demands in investment and skilled personnel, and this city and this state, and this region, will share greatly in this growth. What was once the furthest outpost on the old frontier of the West will be the furthest outpost on the new frontier of science and space. Houston, your city of Houston, with its Manned Spacecraft Center, will become the heart of a large scientific and engineering community. During the next 5 years the National Aeronautics and Space Administration expects to double the number of scientists and engineers in this area, to increase its outlays for salaries and expenses to $60 million a year; to invest some $200 million in plant and laboratory facilities; and to direct or contract for new space efforts over $1 billion from this center in this city.
To be sure, all this costs us all a good deal of money. This year's space budget is three times what it was in January 1961, and it is greater than the space budget of the previous eight years combined. That budget now stands at $5,400 million a year--a staggering sum, though somewhat less than we pay for cigarettes and cigars every year. Space expenditures will soon rise some more, from 40 cents per person per week to more than 50 cents a week for every man, woman and child in the United States, for we have given this program a high national priority--even though I realize that this is in some measure an act of faith and vision, for we do not now know what benefits await us. But if I were to say, my fellow citizens, that we shall send to the moon, 240,000 miles away from the control station in Houston, a giant rocket more than 300 feet tall, the length of this football field, made of new metal alloys, some of which have not yet been invented, capable of standing heat and stresses several times more than have ever been experienced, fitted together with a precision better than the finest watch, carrying all the equipment needed for propulsion, guidance, control, communications, food and survival, on an untried mission, to an unknown celestial body, and then return it safely to earth, re-entering the atmosphere at speeds of over 25,000 miles per hour, causing heat about half that of the temperature of the sun--almost as hot as it is here today--and do all this, and do it right, and do it first before this decade is out--then we must be bold.
I'm the one who is doing all the work, so we just want you to stay cool for a minute. [laughter]
However, I think we're going to do it, and I think that we must pay what needs to be paid. I don't think we ought to waste any money, but I think we ought to do the job. And this will be done in the decade of the Sixties. It may be done while some of you are still here at school at this college and university. It will be done during the terms of office of some of the people who sit here on this platform. But it will be done. And it will be done before the end of this decade.
And I am delighted that this university is playing a part in putting a man on the moon as part of a great national effort of the United States of America.
Many years ago the great British explorer George Mallory, who was to die on Mount Everest, was asked why did he want to climb it? He said, "Because it is there."
Well, space is there, and we're going to climb it, and the moon and the planets are there, and new hopes for knowledge and peace are there. And, therefore, as we set sail we ask God's blessing on the most hazardous and dangerous and greatest adventure on which man has ever embarked. Thank you."
Beyond the fact that the content of these speeches is very strong and include a powerful message that emphasizes the charismatic aspect of it, we assumed that techniques are widely implemented by all authors. Nevertheless, even though those communication strategies are contributing to capture the listener's attention, it is not what creates charismatic leaders. Some of the techniques are more used by certain authors than others and they are not more or less charismatic.
Neuro linguistic programming is also use by charismatic leaders and has to be associated to communication strategies. According to Mondodes, consultant in impression management, charismatic voice can be divided in seven keys (see below) that emphasize the charismatic communication.
These 7 voice techniques are used by the leaders in their speeches, as you can observe into the videos. Source: http://charismacom.blogspot.com/
Dynamic range: flexibility to lower or raise the voice volume
Resonance: Ability to feel its voice all over the body in order to produce a rich and beautiful balanced and uninhibited sound.
Tone: Flexibility of the tone in order to emphasis and de-emphasis the right tonal ambience for their messages.
Vocal pitch: it's a range of notes used by the voice which might be light, medium or deep.
Pace: this is the length of each sound intone. Varying the pace, that is, walking, trotting, cantering and even galloping at times, evokes greater audience commitment because diversity stimulates attention.
Silence: extremely powerful. Considered as a great art of communication, it might be used as an immense dramatic value.
Emotional fingerprinting: The manner to emphasize stress or accent words and also the combination of the techniques cited above.
As we observed, charisma is a strong tool of power which can be used in both social context of crisis and more and more in professional organisations. However, power may take different forms, especially in the professional strong hierarchy of today. Therefore we have identified two main forms of power.
Formal Power: Based on the individual's position in an organization, this form of power can take three forms:
Coercive power: it is the perceived power to punish or remove rewards. The power to influence and persuade based on the capacity to penalize or take away desired benefits. Employees will act as requested to avoid undesirable outcomes.
Reward power: it is the perceived power to give or dispense reward or favour. The power to influence and persuade on the basis of the capacity to deliver sought after benefits. People will follow and behave in certain ways in anticipation of receiving those benefits.
Legitimate power: represents the formal authority to control and use the resources of an organization including the coercive and reward power. Another characteristic of legitimate power is the acceptance by people in the organization of the authority of a position.
Personal power: Based on the individual's unique characteristics, this power can take two forms:
Expert power: it is based on the perception of competence, special skill or capacity of expertise. As jobs are becoming more specialized, people are more and more dependent on experts; therefore power occurs from these personal skills.
Referent power: is the identification with a person or a group with a social attractiveness or desirable resources. People exercise power over those who want to please them because of respect or admiration.
In this analysis, we observed that the principle and the recognition of charisma and leadership was born some 60 years ago and generally expressed in a context of crisis or social conflict. Since this period, the concept of charisma has lived various mutations in the form of definitions, theories and analysis given by numerous authors. These authors have tried to define the concept using different angles and point of views regarding political, social or professional context of their time.
Today, the common opinion about the concept of charisma by non-experts would be the association of the charismatic concept with well known charismatic leaders such as Ghandi, Martin Luther King or more recently Nicolas Sarkozy and Barack Obama as presented by medias, but also the personalization of this concept through the representation of charisma by movies actors, stars singers that seems to be becoming the definition of charisma for many people.
These people are not to blame because they just get confused between what charisma is, according to the oldest theories of Weber's time which identified charismatic leaders as exceptional and out of an extraordinary context, with what charisma is seen as today; to express a performance or to identify the good communication skills. Therefore, the meaning of charisma is vulgarized.
The answer to the question: Are we born with charisma or can we learn it? Is that, if we consider charisma as it been defined and created to identify leaders such as Nelson Mandela, le General de Gaulle, Hitler or John F Kennedy, charisma is a gift and cannot be learnt, even though communication techniques as we have analysed above, may contribute to optimise the public attention. Indeed, these well known leaders have been recognized as charismatic not only for their ability to talk and unify people towards a common goal but also because of their sacrifices (most of them went to jail: Ghandi, Mandela, Hitler, Martin L. king) and for the powerful messages they delivered.
Regarding the meaning of charisma through the representation of movie stars or artists, the implementation of communication techniques such as, neuro linguistic programming and those we observed into the speeches analysis are definitely useful to appear charismatic and the talent of these actors replaces the gift needed in real life.
In my opinion, the real charisma is a gift based on the natural capacity to harmonize the various communication techniques with a strong message to deliver during a difficult context. Nevertheless, the barrier between the charismatic gift as just defined and the talent to play the role of charismatic leader seems to be tight, therefore can the talent to play the role of a charismatic leader replace the gift in a real life situation?
In this project the first limit was the selection of theories among a vast amount of those, for which the selection both required to reach the following objectives:
Clarity of explanation
Sufficient theories to fully understand the overall picture
The second limit was to find out the process to evaluate the communication tactics implemented by charismatic leaders.
The US management & leadership tolls are taken from the course given by Dr. Joseph C. Santora