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In any form of business, employee motivation is very essential and it is the main key driver for producing better results as it is a force which drives the individuals in fact encourages them to work hard and produce better results and perform better in their job. According to Mitchell(1982) the word motivation is a kind of a psychological process that can encourage , insistence of voluntary actions that are oriented towards the goals and also the right direction. Similar to Mitchell , Robbins (1993) also has a similar kind of view about motivation where he says that motivation is the willingness to exercise high levels of effort towards achieving organisation goals and to satisfy the individual needs as well.
According to Reis and Pena (2001), there was an evolution in the development of the motivation theories. Chester Barnard (1938) introduced the idea of traditional/classical form of motivation as "be tough" or "stick" and "be good" or "carrot" then followed with bureaucracy and human relation approach by Max Weber (1947) and Joan Woodard (1965) respectively. Then the turning point of the motivation history is in 1980s to 1990s was the "Total Quality Management" and "Reengineering" approach. from a dynamic perspective and look for causal relationships across time and events as they relate to human behavior in the workplace (Steers, Mowday and Shapiro 2004). The equity theory points towards the situations when individuals compare outcome-input ratio of their job to that of others (Robbins 2003). The people to whom individuals may compare themselves may belong The various motivational factors can be broadly grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic factors include those are directly related to the work itself, like the enjoyment, responsibility and satisfaction of completing a task while extrinsic factors refer to those external factors like the recognition and rewards associated with the work (Amabile 1993). A study by Nowlin (1982) indicated that majority of the managers in both the private and public sectors were motivated by intrinsic factors like the work itself and the job responsibility. It is also seen that it is possible to achieve synergy between these two types of motivational factors by creating a synergy between the person and his work environment (Amabile 1993). Smith (2005) adds to this argument by stating that it is important for leaders to understand the reason behind the employee's motivation, otherwise they may offer things that are not really valued. Di Cesare & Sadri (2003) explains the dimensions of cultural impact on employee motivation, their success or failure depends heavily on ways in which managers adapt to the local culture and work situation' (cited in Di Cesare & Sadri 2003, p.30). Motivation is culture bound, and managers must be careful not to impose their value system when drawing conclusions about what motivates people in different countries. Motivational differences are best understood by exploring countries individually, first by gaining an understanding of the culture and then by drawing implications from that culture about motivation.
Employees in organisations could be classified into White collar and blue collar employees and these categories are mainly based on the type of works which the employees do and this concept of white and blue is mainly visible in the industrial relations and let us have a look at it in a brief.
3.0 Industrial Relations
Industrial relations is the term given that covers every aspect of relationships between businesses and their employees. It is important to maintain good relationships between workers and managers in an organisation The services provided by the business would be most effective as a result, and employees could be alerted to changes and managerial decisions within the business, consequently motivating employees. Sometimes the employees can be greatly affected by their employer s managerial decisions, and this could lead to arguments and disputes. The employee could be at a disadvantage here. It would be a good idea to join a trade union at this stage. Trade unions represent the interests of workers, and are formed in companies to protect the workers' interests. They also inform workers and provide services for them They constitute of workers who have come together for a common interest. Some organisations doesn t have trade unions, the workers would have nothing to turn to, and no one to support them. Their interests would not be protected, and this could lead to them feeling insecure. Because of this, they might leave the company, and this could be one of the factors that lead to high staff turnover. There are several types of trade unions. Unskilled workers belong to General Workers Union. This type of union covers a wide range of employee jobs, ranging from unskilled to semi-skilled workers. In many companies, most of the low hierarchy, manual, blue-collared workers (workers that do physical work) would belong to this type of trade union. The cleaners and the kitchen staff would belong to this trade union generally in various organisations
Another type of trade union is the craft union. This is a trade union where skilled workers belong. Skilled manual workers work in this union, such as builders. An example of this type of trade union would be the Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications and Plumbing
The third type of trade union is the white collar union. This type of trade union applies to skilled, non-manual, white-collar workers that do non-physical work). Most workers that are white-collared workers are office workers. Therefore, this type of trade union would consist of workers like teachers, or accountants, for example
The last type of trade union is an industrial union. An industrial union is a trade union formed by workers for a specific type of industry. The trade union would relate to the industry it is associated with.
Michael Mainelli suggested that implemented, a widespread communication of the need to change, by punctuating a crises-point- a trigger and justification, has provided the compelling reason to change (Mainelli, 1996, pp.123-128). Since, as John Kotter says, By any measure, the amount of significant, often traumatic change in organizations has grown tremendously over the past two decades, effective communications must be recognized as the vital component for organizational change.
According to Stephen Covey, communication is the most important skill in life. This is no less true for managerial efforts to invest everyone from the total corporate environment toward change, in these demanding times, on behalf of their organizational life (Kotter, 1993, 1996, p. 3 and Mainelli, p. 1).
Organizational culture has been an important theme in management and business research for some two decades. One reason for this is that organizational culture has the potential to affect a range of desired outcomes by individuals and organizations. Ritchie (2000) notes that, from the time of the earliest writers on organizational culture (including, for example, Deal & Kennedy, 1982; Ouchi, 1981), it has been suggested that organizational culture affects such outcomes as productivity, performance, commitment, self confidence, and ethical behavior . Similarly, more recent writers have repeated the assumption that organizational culture impacts significantly on an organization, its employees behaviour and motivations and, ultimately, that organization s financial performance (Holmes & Marsden, 1996). Organizational culture has been argued to be relevant in a variety of contexts including the adoption of innovative technologies and workplace practices (Detert, Schroeder & Mauriel, 2000; McDermott & Stock, 1999), information systems integration (Weber & Pliskin, 1996), strategy implementation (Cabrera & Bonache, 1999), and planning initiation (Harris, 1999).
As previously mentioned, organizations should look closely at its inside and outside environment in order to be in symbioses with the different cultures represented. One must be careful to underestimate or to not renew such study. For one thing Culture is a living behavior. It changes and evolves so should the company. Additionally, defining Culture is not as easy as it may seem.
In the book Organizational Behavior , Culture has been defined as the learned and shared ways of thinking and acting among a group of people or a society
Although this is a good start I think we ought to dig a little more in order to have a better understanding of this definition s implications. O Reilly & Chatman s (1996) definition of organizational culture is a system of shared values (that define what is important) and norms that define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for organizational members . While organizational culture has been defined in many ways in the literature, most definitions involve various combinations of assumptions, values, norms, beliefs and ways of thinking and acting that are shared by organizational members.
In any case it appears that Culture is closely linked to Identity including the culture and identity of individuals, the culture and identity of the family, the workplace, the town, the region, the country or the geographical localization (i.e. Orient, Occident ).
By now we should have realized that Culture is a broad notion and that, probably, there isn t just ONE correct definition.
For the purposes of simplification, let s postulate that, as for any other broad concept , except a common base, there may be as much definition as there are people trying to define it.
When an organization faces this task it may be useful to take an anthropologic view. Unfortunately, once again, it will not be easy to access this definition. Indeed Eduard T. Hall wrote:
Paradoxically, few anthropologist agree on what should be included in the concept of Culture. Whether something will be included or not will depends on the anthropologist s own culture .