Through the theoretical issues of this article that intercultural issues of entrepreneurs in new ventures may amplify their creativity and innovativeness. The author intend to apply six case studies of the entrepreneurial process to investigate how cultural diversity effects creativity. There are five key findings of this study:
1. In cross-cultural teams monochronic/lowcontext/ high-space entrepreneurs strongly tend towards structure tasks.
2. Polychronic/high-context/low-space founders supply external contacts to the diverse team.
3. Polychronic/high-context/low-space founders have a propensity to stimulate communication procedures.
4. Enhanced communication in cross-cultural teams seems to be related to creativity.
5. Monochronic/low-context/high-space founders tend to deny positive effects from cultural diversity.
(Bouncken, 2004, pp. 241).
In the initial part of the article, it has indicated that the foundation analysis bases on Hall and Reed Hall's typology, in order to display a thorough understanding of work behavior, they deliver a detailed in-depth business context explored in different firms. The author attempts through the five hypotheses to explore the creativity in entrepreneurs perceive in intercultural teams and the effects on new venture.
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The framework of literature design is provided by Bouncken to four elements. Entrepreneurship, according to Bygrave (1989) that how a corporate comes to existence could be responded by entrepreneurship theory. The paper starts from the definition of entrepreneurship then expand to a team, it could be more acceptable that a team can contribute diverse and heterogeneous knowledge, skills, competencies, money and contacts that allow expanding the resources available to the new venture. (Lamb & Liesch, 2002) Therefore, an entrepreneurial team might promote new idea emerges.
Role of creativity in venturing, the author through contrasting innovators and adaptors to emphasize that creativity is a way to access the success. Accordingly, innovators like generate creative ideas, they understand the novelty products or processes are important to a business. However, the position of novelty is supposed to be low in adaptors' eyes, as Bouncken(2004) said that the adaptors always focus on improving the implementation of a new idea or on slightly refining the idea. To conclude this part, author indicates that the role of creativity in venturing, the novelty ideas always stem from team members' interaction, people have different social background, knowledge, social experience and relationship, these diverse factors could develop numerous ideas. It must be noted that the article thoroughly analyses the creativity in this part, author also critically point out that misunderstanding could be generated from diverse cognitions, it might lead the demoralization of the team members.
Internationalization and National culture, there are many academic researches which study the diverse culture research were influenced by Hofstede's work. Interestingly, the literate does blindly follow this tidal current, it critically analyses that Hofstede's work based on the IBM corporation more than 30 years old, for nowadays case, many things have changed that could be problematic. Therefore, this article focuses on the work by Hall and Reed Hall, they deliver in-depth analysis on intercultural work behavior.
Cultural Dimensions by Hall and Reed Hall, as Hall and Reed Hall (1990) noted that they based on the experience and cases of cross cultural business to identify the cultural diversity to three main dimensions, which are context, space, and time. These three dimensions might review the five findings that were provided at the introduction of the paper, the explanation of them could interpret some complicate terms at the following methodology part such as monochronic, low-context and high-space. After the typology of Hall and Reed Hall on diversity in new venture teams, author concludes advantages of the cross cultural that cross-cultural teams could generate more new ideas than single-culture teams, they might have more intensified interaction between team members. It is worth to remind that author considers about some issues do exist in cross-cultural teams while they are confronted by insufficient or too much information be exchanged. Thereby, the paper reviews the aims that it will investigate how cultural diversity influences the different stages of the entrepreneurial process.
It must be acknowledged that the author does the critical review within his research, the approach could stand fairly. The critical review raised several issues and questions that choice of resources and the article also indicate some consideration about the creativity and cross cultural teams. Author has clearly indicate that the aims and specified investigation in the introduction, then sufficiently interpret the academic terms of the article that could construct a reasonable conceptual framework.
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The methods used qualitative methodology to explore and build understanding and knowledge on the experiences of entrepreneurs. Researchers followed three standard to select the new ventures in order to analyze those six new ventures in varies entrepreneurial situations. Researchers collected data from chambers of commerce and researching clusters of new firms. Then they interviewed the founders and managers of new ventures by 28 questions in Germany, the one or two hours interview concentrates on those entrepreneurs' perceptions about creativity and cultural diversity. Consequently, six new ventures accomplished nine interviews. Moreover, researchers not only used graph to interpret the work process of new venture team in business environment, but also used flow-charts to analyze cross-case, then, the dissimilarities and similarities of findings were explored in the context and the stage of the venture. (Bouncken, 2004)
In order to evaluate the methodology, firstly, the qualitative research and quantitative research should be analysed. The qualitative research means from the quality of the object to study, it bases on the dialectic materialism and historic materialism to extract the essence and throw out the drags of object, then thoroughly analyse the discipline of phenomenon. (Normank, 2005) In contrast, quantitative research relies on the stat. data which needs to construct the math model and figure out the indicators of object. These two research methods have their own traits and capabilities, but they also have a common characteristic which is through the comparison of things to analyse the issues. As Taylor (2002) indicated that the modern qualitative research either adopts the math to calculate, and the quantitative research has to build the basis on the qualitative predict, they interact each other, the combination of these two methods could receive a superior effect. Qualitative research has five major concerns which mean depth, detail, context, accounts and systems. In the literature we could easily find that author does sufficient in-depth and detailed research on the creativity and entrepreneurs. The interview also relevant the new venture process. As Bouncken said that the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data analysis was draw by word order and meaning etc. which belong to qualitative techniques. Furthermore, author does not limit the method in qualitative, according to Bouncken (2004) that cross-case analysis is also based on a translation of qualitative issues of the cases into quantitative data. Qualitative research leans to illustrative descriptive, quantitative closes to predictive explanatory. The methods above, researchers attempt to find a balance and combine the benefits of those two methods that could be appropriate for the strategy of methodology. Therefore, as above said that the researchers neatly utilize the qualitative research and quantitative research to study data which from the interview of new venture founders, this could be the wisely method strategy. Furthermore, the implementation of qualitative semi-structured interviews might build a more structured interview, and it also stimulate the research design become more flexible.
It is uncontested that research the new ventures in various stages of the venture process is a complex study. That could lead author difficult to find the indicators to confirm the exploration and exploitation issues in those firms' creative management. (Buncken, 2004) Although, there are 11 propositions could sufficiently analyze the perceive of founders about creativity in culturally diverse new venture teams. But, that may cause literature overlooks some issues such as ethical issues and the authority of resources. As Yin (1981) noted that most secondary data are from press releases and Internet. Therefore, the secondary data might have not enough authority.
For the qualitative research questions that research used in the interview, the four chapters also encompass the new venture team that relevant to the particular topics being researched. But, as my personal point of view that some entrepreneurial factors could be considered by the structure of open questions, that might make questions do not seem overly narrow and specific.
According to Bouncken (2004) that the result of this article has provided an understanding of cultural diversity in new venture teams. However, we still can realize that some limitations of the case-study research in the empirical findings in this paper. As Bouncken (2004) acknowledged by himself that only entrepreneurs who work in Germany were interviewed. It is difficult to say that the findings of the entrepreneurs' perspective who work in Germany can represent the viewpoint of all entrepreneurs, the unilateralism issue could be found in this research. Therefore, the research is still incomplete on this topic.
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Alternative research strategies/ methods.
As author's approach design that through study the new ventures in Germany to analyse the cultural diversity in entrepreneurial teams. According to Palazzo (2004) said that the nature of German is stereotype and preciseness, compare with other Latinic culture, the more creativity could be found in their business, thereby, the alternative research object could choose other countries such as America or Spain. Secondly, as Cooper (2005) suggested that qualitative techniques also involve in-depth interviewing, participant observation, projective techniques and psychological testing. The researchers adopted in-depth interview which lasted one or two hours with 28 questions that is probably a long time for every interviewee. For example, games or role-playing could be considered in the qualitative research, researchers can divide all participators into several groups and make sure they all in a cross culture team, then ask every founder of the new ventures draw their own idea about creative business and compare and contrast the actual performance of the new ventures, finally researchers could easily base on the findings to point out that how entrepreneurs perceive the advantages and disadvantages about the creativity of cultural diversity teams.
To sum up, as the paper has showed that the research design does constitute the blueprint which include experiments, interviews, observation, the analysis of records and simulation. The methods of data collection and the research situation are highly structured. (Cooper, 2005, pp 195) Moreover, as Cooper (2005) cited that many scholars suggest no one can decide whether qualitative or quantitative studies are better or more useful, but it must be acknowledged that many research issues could be explored qualitatively as well as quantitatively.
In particular case of cultural diversity in entrepreneurial teams, according to Bouncken (2004) that the research of this paper influences entrepreneurial teams in different stages of new ventures, such as historical, contextual, culture and relationship. This view could imply that qualitative methodology is considered in this literature.
Ultimately, though, the cultural diversity in entrepreneurial teams has been explored by qualitative and quantitative research in this article, but the methodology is not a perfect way to deal with multifarious subject, there still exist alternative research methods for investigate the diverse issues.