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Organizational outcomes and success is derived by the individual contribution in the organization at all levels. If individual perform according to the expected standard then organization performance will be enhanced and improved so it is logical to say that job performance is an extremely important criterion that relates to organizational outcomes and success. Job performance is a commonly used term refers to whether a person performs his/her jobÂ well or not. Campbell describes job performance as an individual level variable. That is, performance is something a single person does. Job Performance is a branch of psychology that deals with the work place. It is one of the most crucial aspects of any job from the individual's and organization's perspective. Job performance can be measured by multiple factors which include productivity, team work, decision making, adaptability, self-motivation, creativity, stress tolerance and time management etc.
From an organization's perspective it is very important to understand individual performance because it will help them to minimize the uncertainties in terms of productivity and organizational effectiveness. But this is one of the facts that productivity is not only the determinant of individual performance, it also consist of human intellectual ability for decision making. As everyone acknowledges that organization is a social unit where people need to work closely or are highly interdependent so here the job performance may include the degree to which a person helps out the groups and his or her colleagues. This study covers only three aspects of job performance that is productivity (The extent to which the employee produces the desired quality and quantity of assignments), decision making (The extent to which employee demonstrates ability to clearly define solutions to problem areas) and team work (The extent to which the employee works well in a team setting) with respect to gender roles in banking sector of Pakistan.
Job performance is the backbone of every organization because the current existence and future sustainability of organizations are only the result of effective and desired level of performance. But this performance may affect due to increase in gender disparity at work place. The job performance of an individual employee can be observed in many organizations via gender dominance, unequal wages, unjustified distribution of work and difference in job timings. This all will bring the individual morale down and make them dissatisfied and demotivated which will ultimately influence the organization's performance negatively.
From here the role of job performance in an organization becomes clear along with its significance. This study focuses on whether individual performance is affected due to gender differences at work or not. It will provide a detail study on the comparison of employee performance between gender and to what extent this gender differences affect the desired level of individual performance.
But only the control and proper handling of this sensitive issue of job performance among gender does not guarantee for the sustainable organization's growth. The phase of implementation is equally important. As the concept of equal employment opportunity is quite common in many organizations but unfortunately the implementation of this law seems under wane and the gender discrimination seems quite pre-dominant in the work place due to difference in working style by both genders. In Pakistan it is being observed that working women are quite less in quantity than man because the culture of Pakistan is still a little conservative and may not offering equal opportunity for job to both genders. The educational system in Pakistan may bring a positive change for an economy because today's women are getting an opportunity for higher studies as man. This system brings confidence and increase the proficiency of women to work equally as man.
Many researches on this topic have been conducted. Some of those researches results in discrimination between genders regarding job performance but some results in favor of no differences in job performance with respect to gender.
Differences between the sexes in the early stages of career seem to be more visible (Xie & Shauman, 1998). The difference in scientific performance between men and women is significant, but also emerges that such differences lessen over time (Cole & Zuckerman, 1984; Xie & Shauman, 1998; Leahey, 2006), and can in part be traced to factors other than gender, such as level of specialization (LEAHEY, 2006) or academic position.
The job performance in terms of decision making conclude that women are more affected by the environment; they look for more information, and dedicate more time to the decision process (Gill, Stockard, Johnson, & Williams, 1987). Men, on the contrary, are more dominant, assertive, objective, and realistic (Wood, 1990).
Because men have a higher social status than women, expectations of their performance are greater. As a result, "men in small groups will receive and take more opportunities to make task contributions, will have more influence and more prestige and will receive more expressions of agreement and approval" than women group members (Meeker and Weitzell-O'Neill, 1977: 95).
Organizations should not assume that male and female managers differ in personal qualities. They also should make sure that their policies, practices, and programs minimize the creation of sex differences in manager's experiences on the job. There is little reason to believe that either women or men make superior managers, or that women and men are different types of managers. Instead, there are likely to be excellent, average, and poor managerial performers within each sex. Success in today's highly competitive marketplace calls for organizations to make best use of the talent available to them. To do this, they need to identify, develop, encourage, and promote the most effective managers, regardless of sex (Gary N. Powell, 1990).
Purpose Of The Study:
The central purpose of the study is to research on the built-in function of an organization that is job performance because it is the basis of every organization which may bring turnaround in an organization. This study emphasizes on job performance with the perspective of gender disparity.
The most familiar concept about the human capital is "People are your asset". But this concept is outdated and the new concept emerges as "People are not your asset but right people are your asset". (Jim Collins) So, it is a challenging task for an organization to identify the right people for right position because only right people will give the desired job performance. In order to recruit and retain the right individual, organizations need to analyze and compare the job performance of individual employees. The comparison among employees highlights the most primary factor which might bring difference in job performance - that is difference between employees in terms of gender. This study investigates whether job performance in the domain of productivity, team work and decision making is affected by gender disparity specifically in banking sector.
Does gender disparity create differences in job performance?
Is there any difference between male and female employee's productivity in terms of quantity, quality and time?
Does gender play a role in the context of teamwork and how it affects job performance?
Does the decision making is influence by the difference in gender and how it relate to job performance?
Significance Of The Study:
Employee's job performance in terms of gender is important to ensure that company functions at its optimal level. For the well-being of employees, as well as for the growth of the company, job performance measurement is an invaluable system to maintain a satisfying and inspiring environment for all.
This study will provide an insight about the effect on job performance arises from gender disparity. Organization may perform better if the work environment remains to be gender neutral. If an organization focuses on the job performance without gender biases then individual in an organization feel motivated and encourage in giving their 100 % efforts to get the job done well. This will boost the overall productivity and performance of an organization which is the ultimate goal of every organization.
Scope & Justification:
The scope of this research is not only limited to the conventional banks of Pakistan who want to get deep insight of their employee's performance according to gender specifically in the area of productivity, team work and decision making. It can help their management and recruitment department to hire employees according to the individual potential, proficiency level and competency rather than gender differences which will increases organization's performance. This research has different significance for different people.
To Me: First of all HR is a field that I am thinking to expedite on as my future. This research would facilitate me in interacting with organizational heads. Secondly, it would help me to be aware of the HR practices being carried out for hiring by conventional banks in Karachi.
To Students: By reading this report, students will have some practical knowledge along with their text books. They will know before hand, what are the hiring requirements of recruitment department by most conventional banks, even before they line up for jobs.
To University: It will serve as a reference material in library. Secondly, it may help the teachers to guide the students who are interested in forming reports on Human Resource Management.
To Organizations: Organizations will be aware of the variation in job performance which may arise from gender disparity. They will able to manage the organization's productivity by encouraging individual efforts of every employee regardless of gender.
Due to the fact that job performance is a broad topic besides limited timeframe for this thesis, it was impossible to cover thoroughly all the aspects of the job performance. Furthermore the Banking sector of Pakistan financial industry is very larger therefore only conventional banks operating in Karachi will be part of the study.
In this chapter theoretical and conceptual framework regarding "Comparative analysis between male and female employees" will be established but this research is not dealing with the outcome of job performance discrimination factors among gender like stereotype thoughts and believes but the literature below will give an initiative and understanding about the relationship of factors related to job performance.
The chapter will bring up relevant theories needed to find answers and connect to the research questions. The in-depth analysis is the basis of research and will find out the relationship between these factors with job performance of both genders.
Performance represents the behavior of an individual but when the word performance is connected with the job then it results in different contextual framework. Job performance can be defined as something (organizational task or work) can be done by an employee. Task performance represents a job's substantive duties and tasks that differentiate one job from another (Campbell, 1990; Motowidlo et al., 1997; Van Scotter and Motowidlo, 1996). Sometimes people confuse with the term performance and outcome and use it interchangeably but in actual the word performance is different from outcomes. An organizational outcome is a result of an individual's employee performance which could be either positive or negative, but it is also a result of other influences. In other words, there are more grounds that determine outcomes than just an employee's behaviors and actions. The performance needs to be control by individual because people can have the proficiency to mould their behavior in such a way so that they can be productive according to the job requirements and standards.
Importance Of Job Performance:
Job performance is very critical factor in every organization. It is the basis of organization success which is dependent on individual performance that determines an organization`s future directions and goals.
Determinants Of Job Performance:
Job performance of an individual can be a result of multiple factors and the difference between individual performances can be a result of three main determinants which are declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and skill & motivation (Campbell 1990).
Declarative knowledge is defined as information about facts, basic principles, things etc. and it usually shows the knowledge of an assigned task's requirements. If declarative knowledge is the knowledge about what to do then procedural knowledge and skill is the knowledge about how to do it. The procedural knowledge and skill contains cognitive skill, perceptual skill, interpersonal skill, etc.
The third determinant of performance is motivation which refers to "a combined effect from three choice behaviors-choice to expend effort, choice of level of effort to expend, and choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort" (Campbell, 1990). It reveals the direction, intensity, and persistence of conscious behaviors.
There might be other determinants of the job performance but these three are the core of any job performance as one should have the complete knowledge about the task in hand, second he/she must possess the required skills to perform the task and should have complete understanding of how to do it and third is level of motivation of an individual to perform the task with maximum will and efforts.
Factors To Measures The Job Performance:
There are multiple factors which are used to measure an individual job performance. In previous studies these factors vary according to their different fields. For example Turkish researchers have begun to evaluate the quality of care and service delivered in different types of hospitals (Taner and Antony, 2006; Tengilimoglu et al., 1999; Uzun, 2001). This research concluded that patients in private hospitals were more satisfied with service quality than were patients in other types of health-care facilities. This job performance can be evaluated by different factors which include the relationship of work experiences, job stress and psychological wellbeing (Burke, 1990, 1996). These three factors are critical in a field of health-care industry. But the competency level of an individual along with his/her willingness to apply it at his/her job is the requirement of all fields. Boyatzis (1982) adopted the term "competency", plural "competencies", which he described as an underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to effective or superior performance in a job. In literature, the term competency is attributed multiple meanings depending on the context and perspective (Garavan and McGuire, 2001; Viitala, 2005). For instance, a "competency" is seen as an input or an output of human behavior. In the UK, competencies are viewed as outputs. Employees display competencies in the degree to which their work meets or exceeds prescribed work standards. In the USA, competencies are seen mainly as inputs, they consist of clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills that affect an individual's ability to perform (Brophy and Kiely, 2002; Cheng et al., 2003; Heffernan and Flood, 2000; Stuart and Lindsay, 1997).
The research paper on telecommunication industry title "empirical evidence from a Sri Lankan telecommunication service provider" define their competency by preparing a detailed list of competency from competency literature then they finalize it through the expert from telecommunication industry according to their priority and ranked them. The final list comprised of 31 competencies and mentioned the absolute minimum number of areas in which capabilities are required for superior performance in a job (Vathsala Wickramasinghe & Nimali De Zoyza, 2008). These detailed list of competency involve empathy with people, listening, flexibility, team player, ethical, positive vision, attitude to meet target, safety focus, empowerment ability, written communication, resiliency, conflict resolution, planning and scheduling, negotiation, coaching ability, risk taking, learning, oral communication, cost consciousness, holistic, change handling skills, quality focus, customer focus, time management ability, pressure management skills, strategizing ability, achievement orientation, customer relations, knowledge, creativity, technology management & technical competence.
In research industry, the job performance can be measure by two categories which are personal and environmental. The sub-factors that is; gender, age, marriage, children and level of specialization are categorized under the first category. The second category of environmental determinant includes academic rank (role), teaching load, and prestige of the institution or department of affiliation (Zainab 1999).
The other factors which influence the job performance are mentioned below:
Adaptability means response to change.
Assertiveness/Motivation means demonstrates orientation to achieve results.
Attendance means be available on time for work and to fulfill position responsibilities.
Communication means makes oral and written communication clear and easy to understand.
Creativity means attempts to simplify and/or improve procedures and techniques.
Customer Focus examines customer requests to properly identify and resolve customer concerns.
Job Knowledge means maintains up-to-date job related information.
Interpersonal Relations means works cooperatively and effectively with others to achieve unit goals.
Problem Solving & Decision Making means recognizes decisions that have to be deferred until all pertinent facts are gathered and analyzed.
Productivity means completes assignments on time and to specifications.
Quality of Work means develops and implements new solutions, procedures and concepts.
Quantity of Work means accomplishes assigned work in an organized, timely manner.
Stress Tolerance means degree to which employee's performance demonstrates stability under time and/or interpersonal pressure and opposition.
Teamwork means works fairly and attempts to share an equal work-load with others.
Among all these factors, this study focuses on only three factors which are the core element of every job performance. These factors are productivity, team work and decision making. This study focuses on whether job performance in terms of these three factors differs on the basis of gender disparity or not. In order to explore more horizons for the study and for in-depth understanding, this research incorporate previous studies about productivity and their outcome specifically in the context of gender disparity.
The theme about the productivity among gender can be better understood by previous studies. The study by (J. Rieder, J. Hanmer and A. Haslam 2010) in terms of productivity is related to "Gender-related differences in Clinical productivity among Canadian Pediatricians". This paper measure the Clinical productivity through using five key factors which are number of clinical hours, patients seen, consultations provided, hours on call per week, and number of hospital admissions per year. This research is conducted by using a questionnaire detailing demographic, educational practice and productivity factors which is mailed to all Canadian pediatricians during the period of February to April 1987. At last the total number of 2060 physicians across Canada was identified as respondents who are pediatricians.
The result of this research concluded that there was no significant difference in the productivity factors among men and women in part time pediatric practice but full-time male pediatricians had a tendency to scores higher than their female colleagues on any of the five factors studied. The research has demonstrated that when clinical productivity is compared between full-time age-matched female and male pediatricians, a significant difference in the number of clinical hours worked per week and the number of patients seen per week is demonstrated. The reason for this difference in clinical productivity is not immediately apparent. These differences may be related to life-style expectations. It is also possible that, despite the larger role that fathers are taking in nurture children, much of the burden of household maintenance remains with the female partner. This study recommended that the quality of care delivered and the reasons for productivity differences are important areas of future research.
Stereotypes have been around for a long time (Reskin and Hartmann 1986, pp. 41-42; Kessler-Harris 1982; Williams 1995, chap. 7). Not all but some of these are probably accurate statistical generalizations. For example, in the U.S. automobile industry, statement from 1943 affirms that: "On certain kinds of operations - the very ones requiring high manipulative skill - women were found to be a whole lot quicker and more efficient than men". Or from the electrical industry in 1942: "..., so the job requires feminine patience and deft fingers," and further, "Westinghouse finds that women can handle these minute parts,.." (Milkman 1987, p. 59). The War Labor Board concluded, "If men were to be substituted for women on the so-called women's jobs, there would probably be a very real loss in efficiency and productivity since it is recognized that men are not as well adapted as women for light, repetitive work requiring finger dexterity". (Milkman 1987, p. 81). Such stereotypes show that difference in job performance result due to discrimination among gender. Mostly the differences in job performance among gender arises because women have extensive family obligations such as caring for small children, they may on average be less productive than men in the same age groups (Becker 1985).
"Gender inequality also reduces the productivity of the next generation" - the World Bank reports mounting evidence that increases in women's wellbeing yield productivity gains in the future. The probability of children being enrolled in school increases with their mother's educational level, and extra income going to mothers has a more positive impact on household investment in nutrition, health and education of children than extra income going to fathers (World Bank, 1995).
From the above literatures many new factors to measure the productivity are highlighted. As the banking sector is a service oriented organization so the factors which should be the part of productivity measures in terms of job performance are quite different from product oriented organization. The factors which are part of this research in order to measure the productivity are listed below:
Employee should complete the qualitative work according to specifications and pay attention to details and possess strong sense of quality and knows how to achieve it.
Employee should achieve the task with adherence to laws, regulations, policies & Procedures set by State bank of Pakistan regulators.
Desire to Improve Quality
Employee should continuously find ways to improve and promote quality and apply feedback to improve their performance.
Employee should possess skills and knowledge to perform the job proficiently than others.
Customer relationship building in-time
Customer query and problem resolution
Employee gives performance under pressure and must capable to handle multiple assignments.
Service lead time
Teamwork is usually considered as an important factor especially in a workplace. This study focuses to determine how gender is present in team processes. Laboratory studies have found that sex differences influence groups at work (e.g., Aries, 1976; Ridgeway and Diekema, 1989; Wood and Rhodes, 1992). (Furnham 1993) found that "team role scores did not correlate significantly with a large number of demographic factors anymore than may be expected by chance", so much has been written in recent years about differing management and leadership styles of women managers when compared with men that it would seem reasonable that differences in other team roles could occur.
The research paper by Balderson and Broderick title "Behavior in teams: exploring occupational and gender differences" has identify whether there is a significant difference in behavior of gender while working in a team. A total of 185 respondents took part in this research during the period 1993-1995. Respondents were belonging to health service sector and other public and private sector organizations. The research requires individuals to respond to 70 statements about team role behavior and indicate the extent to which those statements are descriptive of their typical behavior. Statements are divided into seven categories with ten statements in each, and respondents are asked to distribute ten points among the statements. Statements relate to the nine team roles described by (Belbin 1993). The team roles as defined by Belbin are:
Plant (PL): creative, imaginative, unorthodox; solves difficult problems.
Resource Investigator (RI): extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative; explores opportunities; develops contacts.
Co-ordinator (CO): mature, confident, a good chairperson; clarifies goals, promotes decision making, delegates well.
Shaper (SH): challenging, dynamic, thrives on pressure; has the drive and courage to overcome obstacles.
Monitor evaluator (ME): sober, strategic and discerning; sees all options; judges accurately.
Team worker (TW): co-operative, mild, perceptive and diplomatic; listens, builds, averts friction, calms the waters.
Implementer (IMP): disciplined, reliable, conservative and efficient; turns ideas into practical actions.
Completer (CF): painstaking, conscientious, anxious; searches out errors and omissions; delivers on time.
Specialist (SP): single-minded, self-starting, dedicated; provides knowledge and skills in rare supply.
The research concluded that the team-role variables "monitor evaluator" and "plant" significantly discriminate between genders, with women scoring higher on both of these team roles than men. "Monitor evaluator" is the most discriminating factor between genders.
The job performance in terms of team wok can be measured on the following factors.
Successfully works with others to achieve desired results
Organizes and expresses ideas and information clearly, using appropriate and efficient methods of conveying the information.
Express different point of view in a non-threatening way. Employee must have knowledge about when it is appropriate to compromise and when it is important to take a stand.
Employee should be committed in a team as a team member.
Employee should maintain high level of character and a professional attitudeand he/she is able to conform and promote the company's standards of conduct.
Employee should strive to learn and improve and takes on responsibilities. He/she must be hard working and self-motivated.
(Campbell 1990) clarifies that performance does not have to be directly observable actions of an individual. It can consist of mental productions such as answers or decisions, when defining performance as behavior. The process of decision making is one of the most complex mechanisms of human thinking, as various factors and courses of action intervene in it, with different results. Orasanu and Connolly (1993) define it as a series of cognitive operations performed consciously, which include the elements from the environment in a specific time and place. Narayan and Corcoran-Perry (1997) consider decision making as the interaction between a problem that needs to be solved and a person who wishes to solve it within a specific environment. This entire process is affected by personal and environmental factors.
Previous study by María L, María T, y María () was conducted to find out whether gender play a role in decision making process or not. The Decision Making Questionnaire (DMQ) was used as an instrument in order to evaluate the importance that individuals allocate to the following aspects when they make decisions: uncertainty, time/money constraints, information and goals, consequences of the decision, motivation, self-regulation, emotions, cognition, social pressure, and work pressure. The sample comprised 589 Spaniards of both sexes.
This investigation shows that women are more concerned with uncertainty, doubts, and the dynamism that are involved in the decision. They place more value on time and money; they are more concerned about the consequences that may derive from the decision, no matter whether these affect them or other people. Women are more aware of the constraints that the setting and close persons put on them, and their emotions are more important to them in the decision process. Conversely, men assign more importance to the analysis of the information required to carry out the decision and to the definition of the goals or purposes of the decision. They are more motivated during the process and also feel more intensely the pressure from all the work-related aspects.
Another result of this study is that no sex differences were observed in cognition and self-regulation. That is, men and women both carefully process information, retrieve the relevant decision-related data from their memories, categorize the data if they are very diverse, think logically about the alternatives, predict results, evaluate the consequences, solve the problems posed by the situation, and monitor all the decision stages. To some extent, the equivalence in these intellectual aspects in the sample under study shows that sex differences are closer to behavioral styles or to the demands of men and women's social roles than to the intellectual competences or to capacities.
The decision making can be measured by considering the following elements which are listed below:
Information gathering and processing style
Problem identification skills
Time constraint management
Confident about decision making
The above literatures help in understanding the key facors of job performance and the means to measure it through different aspects. This research focuses on identifying the differences among gender in job performance on the basis of productivity, team work and decision making.
This section discussed what an overall research methodology is and why and what research tools and methods has been adopted to gain and analyze results. The chapter begins with the research approaches which is followed through the research design, population and sampling, data collection method, research instrument, data analysis then validity and reliability, trustworthiness and ethical issues. There is a fixed aim and objectives in this research which have to be response hence it is really important to categorize approaches and procedures which is used in the research for the research accomplishment.
Research method or research design refers to organized, determined and rationally accumulation of data not only for analyzing purpose but for attaining information to resolve research questions. The preference of methods depends upon research problem and purpose and those methods cannot be worded as more suitable or appropriate. There are two fashionable methods: qualitative and quantitative. In the view of Ghauri, P. & Gronhaug, K. (2005) the differentiation between qualitative and quantitative research has nothing to do with 'quality' but it is related to procedure. Research approach consists of three kinds.
Respect to the topic researcher has selected qualitative research.
Qualitative research is one in which researcher frequently formulates knowledge claims based on constructivist perspective i.e. various meaning of individual experiences and measuring socially. Densombe, M. (2003) emphasized that qualitative research mostly focus on description, it employs words or experience as unit of analysis and when the study connected with small scale studies. Often the analysis phrase does not begin, although not always begins as soon as data collection starts. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990) defined key elements of qualitative research are:
Data gather by interviews.
Logical practices to conceptualize and assess data toward conclude findings
Report written by researcher.
According to Cooper, D. & Schindler, P. (2003) qualitative data perceive as rich, complete, earthly, holistic and genuine, their face validity looks perfect and it also offers far more accurate method to assess. The drawbacks of qualitative data include; they are irrelevant to wider population and not statistically checked.
Qualitative methods will be use in this research, the principal strategy will to adopt a qualitative analysis using focus interview. The data will be collected through unstructured interviews from the male and female employees and their immediate supervisor from domestic bank HBL and international bank Standard Chartered that will elicit information regarding job performance in terms of productivity, team work and decision making.
The purpose of this study determines the reason for using the qualitative research. In this study the researcher is not intending to have results of differences in male and female job performance in a quantitative manner but this research focuses to find out the difference in job performance of both genders on the basis of some rational and reasons.
The researcher uses the phenomenological approach for this particular research. The approach consists of in-depth focus interviews in the banking industry. Phenomenology is one of the types of qualitative research that examine the lived experiences of humans. The purpose of phenomenology research is to illuminate the exact, to recognize the phenomenon through how they are apparent by the actor in a situation.
Phenomenological approaches are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasize the importance of personal perspective and interpretation. A variety of methods can be used in phenomenological based research including interviews, conversation, participant observation, action research, focus meeting and study of personal texts. This study uses the in-depth interview so the establishment of a good level of rapport and empathy is necessary in order to gain depth of knowledge, particularly where investigating issues where the participant has a strong personal stake.
Population and Sampling:
In the view of Bell, J. (1987) we do not need to engage each person in relation to study about population. Whereas Gill, J. (2002), described sampling as the population of interest that have been choose for study. Research usually required of those individual who are willing to provide information and these set of individuals are known as sample. In this research the research question(s), its objectives, chosen research methodology (qualitative) dictate itself to select non-random samples. Neuman, W. & Kreugar, L. (2003) suggested that the majority of qualitative researches likely to employ non random samples which means that researchers rarely decide the sample size in advance and they have partial awareness about population from which the sample is taken. Saunders et al., (2003) supported that non-random sample widely used with small size samples. Samples of this research will be Habib Bank Limited and Standard Chartered base on convenience sampling technique because these banks are easily approachable to the researcher.
This research has been conducted on banking industry of Pakistan. The banking sector is a population for this research but researcher select only two banks located in Karachi. The two banks was selected as sample size which is further categorize as domestic and international bank where male and female employees both get an equal opportunity to work on various position including management. Researcher conducted four interviews where two of them are male and two of them are female but the opposite gender works at a same position in a bank.
In this research, the overall data collection process began from primary data which was gathered by researcher via interviews. The researcher for this study conducted an in-depth interview with the respondents and it is done by the method of unstructured interview. Unstructured interviews approach may allow researcher to get additional information from respondents in the form of experiences.
Interview is used as a research instrument for data collection because it supports to analyze an individual's response more comprehensively. The key purpose of interview in this research was to get substance of job performance in banks from direct experiences along with current job performance of both genders in the organization.
The interview will conducted through having the guidelines in the form of questions in order to get opinion what respondents feel about something or what they think or believe is true or false, second to record respondents behavior and experiences by what they did, do and will do through their attribute. Attribute include data about the respondent's characteristics.
The interview will be unstructured in nature for exploring and collecting qualitative data in which interviewer ask questions to interviewee to draw self-reports of their opinions, attitudes, or behaviors in relation to job performance.
The data collected in qualitative research is analyzed through three the following steps:
Conducting the interviews.
Transcribe the interview then coding the data.
Categorizing the data into themes.
Summarizing and analyzing the responses in the form of essay.
In qualitative research when the data has been collected then it will be coded and this coding is done on the basis of respondent's responses. After coding the data the researcher categorize the data into themes and sub-themes according to the concept presented by the respondents and then finally summarizing the data in the form of essay in order to get the complete view of every theme.
Validity & Reliability:
According to McNeill, P. & Chapman, S. (2005) validity refers to the dilemma of whether the information gathered is accurate of what is being studied. Denscombe, M. (2003) clarified that validity in a research signify that the mandatory information is studied and not anything more. Validity is when a theory, model and concept explain reality as it shows and it refers to the accuracy in the case study. This research employed qualitative method which brings a practical, honest and unbiased account of social life from the point of view of someone who lives it each day (Neuman, W. & Kreugar, L. (2003).
Yin, R. (2003) and Denscombe, M. (2003) point out that reliability in a research reflects on the reality that the study is accomplished consistently and correctly. They suggested that identical conclusions could be attained, if carried out by other observers or under the same conditions. In this research questionnaire and follow up interviews were used to record and analyze data consistently. All the interviewee's were consent to record interviews which further interprets our result and conclusion as trustworthy.
At last, overall, the following steps were obtained to certify the reliability and validity of this research:
The researcher used continuous guidelines from the supervisor for making interview questions in an order to get most acceptable outcomes.
All respondents were informed in advance as regards to take part for accomplishing this research. The study will be conducted in a short span of time and during these periods of time no key incident happens or changed with the related subject.
Data were collected and recorded so the researcher has no control over the modification of any answers provided by respondents.
After finishing interviews, a brief summary of conversations sent to each interviewee by e-mail to make sure that what exactly they want to say and what the researcher understood. Also interviewees were asked if they find any thing which is differing from the point of view of researcher then they can correct it and reply back via e-mail.
Blumberg, et al., (2005) viewed ethics as moral rules and principles, norms, standards or sets of behavior, that lead our relationships with others. Research ethics then narrates to questions about how research topic is plan and explained, how data is collected, process and store, how data is analyze and research findings are write up in a moral and responsible way.
In this research, number of ethical considerations has been taken into account specially when gathering data through interviews. First the purpose of the study plus respondents participation was clearly explained. Second none of the respondents was intimidated to take part in research process and those who agreed to take part their verbal consent was attained. According to Bell, J. (1987), human rights protections for instance; autonomy from physical and mental hurt, privacy and confidentiality should maintain throughout research. To retain confidentiality no names were connected to data, however the researcher can recognizes which data belongs to whom and the person's name, who interviewed in this research were not displayed.