Understanding Of The Manufacturing Production Units Commerce Essay

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In all manufacturing unit production is the basic dynamic force to which other all functions act in response. It is true for inventories as they are necessary for the needs of production.

The decisive objective of production planning and control, like that of all other manufacturing controls, is to add to the profits of the business enterprise.

Precise objectives of production planning and control are to launch routes and plan for work that will make sure the optimum spending of materials, workers, and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in harmony with these plans.

There are four basic phases of control of manufacturing which can easily identified in production planning and control. The sketch for the processing of materials through the plant established by the functions of process planning, loading, and scheduling and the function of dispatching puts the plan into operations that started in accordance with the plant. Real performance then compared to the planned performance, and, when necessary, counteractive actions taken. In some occasions, re-planning needed to ensure the effective utilization of the manufacturing facilities and personnel.

The factors that influence the application of production planning and control to manufacturing are the same as the factors that affect inventory management and control. Mostly, there are three types of production systems, which refer to,

(a) Continuous production

(b) Job or unit production

(c) Intermittent production

Performance measurement is a requirement to performance improvement. For projects to improve their performance in today's industrial environment, they must be able to calculate how they are performing at present, and be able to measure how they are performing after any changes. It is be defined as an account of something that can be directly measured (e.g. number of units per day). The 'Performance Indicator' is a sketch of something that is calculated from performance measures (e.g. percentage units per day per direct employee) and the 'Performance Measurement Data' is the value or result for the performance measures and indicators (e.g. the number of units per day = 40 or the percentage units per day per direct employee = 3.5%).

A 'Performance Measurement System' is a complete set of performance measures and indicators derived in a regular manner according to a set of rules or guidelines defined in the performance measurement system. Traditional performance measurement systems frequently based on cost and management accounting. These techniques developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century has to meet the needs of expanding manufacturing industries. The concepts were fully formalised in the 1930s and since then have been the basis of manufacturing performance measurement systems. In recent years, enormous changes have taken place in technology and production techniques that have made traditional performance measurement systems (management accounting based) no longer useful.

Management techniques used in production plants are changing significantly.

The new performance measurement systems required by excellent manufacturing enterprises should have the following characteristics

Openly related to the manufacturing strategy

Mainly use non-financial measures

Differ between locations.

Change over time as needs change.

Simple and easy to use.

Provide fast feedback to operators and managers.

Projected to foster improvement rather than simply monitor performance.

Modern performance measures are not newly developed, what is new is the importance placed on them. They have been around for some time, but only recently have excellent manufacturers begun to replace their cost based performance measurement systems with ones that truly drive the production process. Since performance measures can also dictate behaviour, it is very important that they are suitable for the processes they are measuring. The introduction of new performance measurement systems should go hand in hand with the introduction of new manufacturing techniques. For example, before business processes can be re-engineered there must a clear strategy (manufacturing strategy) for the enterprise and suitable performance measures must be in place to measure the impact of the re-engineering process. Strategy and new performance measures are prerequisites to Business Process Re-engineering.

TEXTILE OPERATIONS

The textile industry is comprised of a diverse, fragmented group of establishments that produce and/or process textile-related products (fibber, yarn, fabric) for further processing into apparel, home furnishings and industrial goods. Textile establishments receive and prepare fibbers; transform fibbers into yarn, thread or webbing; convert the yarn into fabric or related products; and dye and finish these materials at various stages of production.

Obviously, the most significant improvements usually achieved by concentrating effort on the areas of high cost. For this purpose, an analysis of the principal costs is required. Studies have shown that a typical ratio between the three main groups of costs in a manufacturing company is -

Prevention Costs 5%

Appraisal Costs 30%

Failure Costs 65%

Failure Costs, because they are typically the largest, will usually give the largest return for the effort involved in reducing them. An effective way of attacking Failure Costs is through a temporary increase in prevention and appraisal costs. Appraisal Costs - for example, the cost of production and inspection - might be reduced by more attention to Value Engineering, which would to some extent increase prevention costs, and a closer control of the manufacturing process, which would increase appraisal costs.

AIMS OF THE RESEARCH

The aims of this study are:

Examine the issues and the causal factors of production looses in textile industry.

Examine the nature of planning and performance measurement in the textile industry.

To find out the gaps in the literature survey

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The objectives of the study are:

Describe the production function and its component

Define production planning

Analyze various factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check

Explain the design of production system and manufacturing process

List out the factors influencing the choice of production process

Discuss the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system

To establish the reasons and the effects of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector

To bridge the gaps of the literature survey, that is to find out more about the production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector due to limited availability of theory and findings of fact and figures.

To explore new knowledge to the problem solving and to establish the relationship between production planning and control and performance measurement

To find out results and their solution to the problem and identify if any recommendations necessary made.

WHY THE STUDY IS IMPORTANT

In order to give answers to various question like

How to describe the production function and its component

What is need of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile industry?

How to analyze different factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check?

Explain the design of production system and manufacturing process

List out the factors influencing the choice of production process

Discuss the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system

To establish the reasons and the effects of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector

To bridge the gaps of the literature survey, that is to find out more about the production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector due to limited availability of theory and findings of fact and figures.

THE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

The research will attempt to find:

The reasons and effects of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile industry

Levels of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector

Degree to which the work and job satisfaction was affected as result of production planning and control and performance measurement

New insights into the area to be researched

METHODOLOGY

The research design and methodology is a key factor that will help to answer the main aims and objectives.

QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS

The first step towards the research is to begin the secondary research process by looking at specific:

Books

Internet

Journals

Newspaper and Magazines

Government Publications

Electronic Journals like Blackwell, EBSCO and Emerald

Government Publications

Archive material

Conference papers

Published statistics

The advantage of secondary research is that it gives the latest and updated range of concepts, theories, and research around the subject researched. Within business and management research, such data mostly used in case study and survey-type research.

The primary data to use are questionnaires and unstructured interviews.

QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUES

The primary data is the data collected specifically for the research undertaken by observations, surveys, and interviews.

Secondary data is the data used for research project that collected for some other purpose (Saunders et al, 2003).

Primary data helps the researcher to understand the problems of the area researched and helps in gaining better understanding and identify if any recommendations can made.

Primary data collection methods could be observations, interviews, questionnaires, surveys, and focus groups. For this research, the primary data collected was through Questionnaires and Interviews.

Questionnaires: The primary data collection methods used for this research were questionnaires and interviews. The reason to use questionnaires and interviews are due to the properly devised method, which helped the researcher cover more respondents, could provide greater feelings of anonymity, and allowed the respondent more time to think about his or her responses (Jankowicz, 1995).

The questionnaire is one of the most widely used data collection techniques.

Because each respondent asked to respond to the same set of questions, it provides efficient way of

Collecting responses prior to quantitative analysis (Saunders et al, 2000).

Before handing out the final questionnaire, a pilot questionnaire used to collect data. The purpose of the pilot test is to refine the questionnaire so that the respondents will have no problems in answering the questions and there will be no problems in recording the data.

In addition, it will also enable me to obtain some assessment of the questions' validity and the reliability of that data that collected. Preliminary analysis using the pilot test data can undertaken to ensure that the data collected will enable my investigative questions to be answered.

The pilot questionnaire ensures that the respondents had no problems in understanding or answering the questions correctly. (Saunders et al 2000)

Designing the questions: The questions for the self-administered questionnaires will be open-ended, rating scales, category questions, and list questions.

UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

Unstructured interviews are informal. This kind of interview used to explore in depth a general area that is of my area of interest. There is no predetermined list of questions to explore. This gives the interviewee to talk freely about events, behaviour, and beliefs in relation to the topic area.

This kind of interview are used in the research in order to conduct exploratory discussions not only to reveal and understand the 'what' and 'how' but also to place more emphasis on exploring the 'why'.

This kind of interview will be helpful to find out about what is happening and to seek new insights.

The managers more likely to interviewed rather than complete a questionnaire, especially where the interview topic seen to be relevant to their current work. The type of interview to be administered semi-structured that had a list of questions to be covered. The interviews conducted were face to face and telephone interviews. The reason for opting for semi-structured interview is that there is a list of open-ended questions that would provide an opportunity to the researcher and interviewee to discuss the details of the research topic area. Semi structured interviews tend to work well when the interviewer has already identified a number of aspects he wants to be sure of addressing. The interviewer can decide in advance what areas to cover but is open and receptive to unexpected information from the interviewee. This can be particularly important if a limited time is available for each interview and the interviewer wants to be sure that that "key issues" are covered. When all the data is collected, an analysis done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) package. This will allow me to further analyse, store information, calculate statistical data from the questionnaire and help me in reaching a conclusion and giving further recommendations if needed.

The combination of qualitative and quantitative methods known as methodological. Both the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection used. This mixed method not only points out that triangulation is not an end in itself, but an imaginative way of maximising the amount of data collected.

QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES

Ten to twelve companies of the Textile sector will be used in the study. They will be from the different regions of the Pakistan. The number of employees to used is from 400-500.

DESCRIPTIVE

The type of techniques to be used for the research subject are :

Presenting frequencies- It involves the identification of the number of occurrences for each item or variable. From a frequency distribution table the arithmetic mean will be calculate. Histograms and bar charts will be used to present and summarise frequency data. This kind of measurement will be helpful in comparing the various factors involved in production planning and control and performance measurement.

Measuring location (Central Tendency)- This is a convenient way of describing a large frequency distribution by the use of a single value. The main measures commonly used are mean, median and mode. This will be convenient and easier to interpret the degrees of stress levels.

Quantitative data analysis

Quantitative data refers to all such data and can be a product of all research strategies.

The quantitative data is analysed under descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics are that which are used to summarise or display quantitative data and may take the form of charts, tables, percentages and averages. Frequently this type of statistical method is employed in management research for analysing data gained from investigations of a limited nature. The bar chart used since they provide representation that is more accurate and used for most research reports.

Validity and reliability

The research work will be trustworthy and fully own work

The conclusions, which drawn from analyzing survey data are, will be acceptable to the degree to which they are determined. It intended to measure and to approximate the truthfulness of the results. The quality of research work can be testable.

Outcome/contribution

This research work will contribute to the existing knowledge as

It describe the production function and its component

It provides the reasons that why there is need of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile industry.

Moreover, it analyzes different factors, which are crucial for designing the production planning and control check.

It will explain the design of production system and manufacturing process

This research work list out the factors influencing the choice of production process

Shows the benefits, which a small entrepreneur can reap by having properly designed production planning, and control system

Lastly it establish the reasons and the effects of production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector

To bridge the gaps of the literature survey, that is to find out more about the production planning and control and performance measurement in textile sector due to limited availability of theory and findings of fact and figures.

Project Plan

I plan to take 5 months to complete the study. I hope to start on Dec 1, 2009 and complete on April 2nd, 2010. The details of the activities, start, and completion dates are contained in my project plan see

MONTH 1

MONTH 2

MONTH 3

MONTH 4

MONTH 5

Research problem analysis

Research questions identification

Literature review

Qualitative data analysis

Quantitative data analysis

Finalizing results

Referencing of work

Prove reading and printing

Time as cushion for any unseen ----

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