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There is a lot of saying and the general claims in which it is held that motivation is one among the many factors that get an individual perform certain things in particular from the inspirations that are either intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. In respect of organizational behavior as well, motivational practices in particular is gaining a larger domain and popularity among mangers within the corporate echelon. As one of the many management tools in practical application that derives and laid emphasis from within the motivational factor, it is generally held with a belief that motivating an individual come with a package of many unseen and unexplored benefits, especially when it concerned employee with low esteem and inspirational issues.
Looking back to time, the mushrooming of corporate houses in the contemporary context has given a new meaning to management practices. To top it all, the globalised nature of management practices have given a new domain and meaning for comparative management to take centre stage in business process, and within its packages, motivational practices, its application, and theoretical approach also demand its own space within the organizational strategy in the larger context as can be understood from the study of organizational behavior.
Secondly, experts held a firm belief that those organizations, which seek out and look for change in the contemporary context on the business environment "seriously consider in ensuring that a high level of involvement and motivation is achieved within the work environment and in that capacity it promotes the widespread acceptance to change in the organizational level" (Thad B. Green, 1999, p. 3)
Within such a development in the current scenario it is held that managers as well are all out to explore the conventional and normative way of practical application in management practices, especially where attention is laid emphasis upon individual motivational factors. Hence, organizational behavior, its larger studies and practical application in management practices and strategy is no stranger to the concepts of motivation and its theories, given that it concern individual.
Thus, we can sum up that application of motivational factors in the right earnest can bring in a baggage of many benefits for corporations in their endeavor to motivate their employee and to raise their confidence level that assists individuals in performing curtains task with aplomb, especially from the inspiration that one can derive, either intrinsically and extrinsically from the factors that make up the motivation level overall.
Take for instance the claims of John. G. Glover, who held his views from an organizational context in which it is noted that "the measure of success in business is the successful attainment of the predetermined objectives and in that capacity the achievements of the objectives can only be held in the imagination until and unless effective cooperation with employees is not achieved through motivation" (Singla, 1970, p. 81)
Noting the significance that motivation as a subject study and its larger concepts is demanding in the contemporary scenario, especially, within the strata of organizational management practices and behavioral approach, it is thus, imperative in understanding motivation, and then the larger domain that make up motivational theories as one crucial aspect of the overall study and discussion of this report as a measure to keep up with the theoretical wealth of knowledge that is diverse and meaningful, which assists in understanding human behaviors and in that capacity it also largely concern HR practitioner adamantly.
However, before taking our discussion to the core of the subject matter, laying emphasis firstly on the meaning of motivation also calls for an attention, which is as follows.
Motivation as it can be understood at the onset is regarded as a psychological state of the human mind. Much of the motivational factors can be looked from how it drives an individual to achieve his/her goals, the missions, and objectives; either in the short-term or long-term - especially from the enthusiasm that builds and generate from with-in the mind, psyche, thinking and will power, overall covered and regarded as an intrinsic domain held by experts.
However, the simplified meaning of motivation can be looked from an individual behavioral level and its factors, such as "whenever a person does some work there is always a need behind it which motivates him/her in doing so. This impelling need is called motive, and the work that comes with a motive arouses the motivational factors within individuals". (Singla, 1970, p. 49)
Thus, the above definition gives a clearer, shorter and precise meaning oo motivation, which in the course of this discussion acts as a dominating factor to further explore the meaning of motivation, and the larger concepts held within its studies, the larger reach, and the general practices in management, and its application among HR professionals in the organizational premises. Noting the same, there is also crucial aspects that can be gained and reaped from exploring the many motivational theories, which we will successively do in the overall course of this discussion, which limit its larger discussion within the organizational behavioral aspects.
Generally speaking, there are many different kinds of definition on motivation, and the scope of its study is also diverse, and each deriving its own significance of the subject matter in discussion to the larger context. Put it in the word of "Chandramohan, motivation is derived from the word motive which means to move towards the desired goals. In psychology as well, motivation is the driving force behind all actions of all organism." (A.chandramohan, 2008, p. 191). To that end, much to the saying and claims on motivation, in a simplified language; motivation can be understood as a desire, goals and intention that emotionally involved an individual in order to determine a motive of life, of what lays within its existence, and beyond. Â
Thus notably, "motivation is a set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways. Performance of individual in the organization also depends on his/her ability backed by motivation" (A.chandramohan, 2008, p. 191) and has much to do with HRM performance management tool in the organizational context.
The larger Meaning of Motivation
Henceforth, we further expand the concepts of motivation which looked within the larger theoretical premises on study of the human mind, especially in determining that human behavior is categorized into a subjective and lengthy discussion. It is a complex matter as it can be looked upon, and in that capacity actions taken by an individual also are based on the way the mind responses to certain things that is far from a layman understandings, so as to say, and as discussed in the previous paragraph above.
It should be noted that since time immemorial, motivation has played a crucial part in decisional processes and choice selection of an individual. Entailing back within that aspects, motivation entails an emotion and longing on the strength of individual characteristics to act on an action to be undertaken with a positive frame of mind and thoughts that builds from within.
Moreover, each motive can be influenced by both internal and external situations, which is a general belief and a fact backed by experts as well. Generally speaking on the meaning of motivation, its strata build up deep within the mind and thoughts of an individual, and can be looked within the fact that "motivated people are in constant state of tension and the same intensity to the tension is relived by drives towards an activity and outcome that is meant to reduce or relieve such tension." (Kumar, 2002, p. 128)
Moreover, going back to the overall discussion aforesaid, it can be taken in one solid claim that motivations encompass a long historical attachment since the days men have set foot on earth, but sadly its domain of study and research was not as it has gained prominence today. Overall, "motivation, enthusiasm and inspiration are understood generally as a hidden motive that drives an individual to act on certain things and the concept at large is interrelated to motives, needs wants, aspiration and incentive and other performance driver" (A.chandramohan, 2008, p. 192), especially that concern an individual within the organizational structure.
Therefore, from this brief analysis on motivation we can have a set to reason the meaning of the complex human mind. "Motivation is an act or a process that involves the state of being motivated not only at a personal level but also encompasses the whole of an organization and work force and its larger concepts can be looked within the level of efforts, persistence and direction" (Kumar, 2002, p. 128). Much to it "motivation means a process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish desired goals, which is in the words of Scoot" (A.chandramohan, 2008, p. 192).
Thus, from the above discussion it is clear when it concern motivation and its issue, especially when it is looked at an organization level. However, for further understanding to the larger discussion exploring organizational behavior also claims it place, which is as follows.
Organizational behavior within the motivational premises
As one of the many dominating force in the current corporate and business environment, especially within the spectrum of comparative management and organizational HR practices, "the study of organizational behavior and practices forms the integrating theme for behavioral approach to management, and in that capacity assists managers in understanding individual behavior in the organizational settings and further assists in the management of behavioral aspects in organizations." (Kumar, 2002, p. 30)
Rather than not, it can be held to larger claims that the most conclusive view from an organizational context can be laid emphasis to the dominating fact of "personality in the organizational settings, and in that level, personality is also viewed as central to the dynamics of motivation and internal conflicts and politics" (Henry L. Tosi, 2002).
Hence, when it concern with issues such as motivation, the first probable force of subject that take centre stage in any means also encompasses an individual personality observation, especially the motivation factors, which assists managers and HR practitioner to take decision conclusively, rather than harshly.
Thus, in any capacity brainwashing the working of a human mind is a complex subject, and it involves and calls for a thorough and in-depth studies and research to arrive at a conclusive and reasonable understanding of the subject matter.
Take for instance "term of motivation which is understood to have a managerial connotation in the field of organizational behavior that has a psychological meaning or the internal mental state of a person which relates to the initiation, direction, persistence, intensity and termination of behavior, as made popular in the literary domain as discussed by Landy and Becker (1987)" (Henry L. Tosi, 2002, p. 127). Thus, in any such capacity as can be looked within the organizational behavior, "motivation theory in the larger context attempts to account for the reason why people behave as they do and the processes that causes such a behavior" (Henry L. Tosi, 2002, p. 128).
Hence, in any capacity, exploring theories and discussing the same, especially the conceptual domain of its larger theoretical premises that can be reaped and analyzed from exploring motivational theories in particular should aid the discussion, which is as follows.
Motivational theories in context of organizational structure
There can be a wide variety of motivational theories that are relevant to management studies and organizational practices in particular, which explores organizational behavior. A probable search on motivational theories shows that expectancy theory comes as one of the many recognized and relevant theories in practical application within the organizational premises.
Firstly, "expectancy theory comes to fore and can be understood and analyzed from the personal level of individual motivation. Much to it expectancy theory is based on the idea that work efforts is directed towards behavior people believe will lead to desired outcome" (Steven. L. Mcshane, 2008, p. 162). Thus, Expectancy theory at its core can be defined as a choice and preferences an individual makes from the will that is generated internally or any external factors which influences his/her decision.
Moreover, it also explains the procedure of an individual choice that is undertaken with a positive frame of mind and understanding, in arriving at a logical and reasonable situation. In other word, expectancy theory familiarize itself with Dr. Vroom, and is based on the premise that people expect particular action to achieved a desired results, that is to say, having an expectation and that the desired result is something worth striving for and expands its level to 'expectancy' and 'valence', which are the two terms penned by Vroom (1964)" (Sarah Hollyforde, 2002, p. 76).
However, in an organization behavioral study and perceptive of the term motivation theory or in other word theories differs accordingly from one another. Take for instance "activation theory which is psychological in nature and based on the study of heightened and depressed level of activation or arousal of the brain and bodies of organism" (Sarah Hollyforde, 2002, p. 24). What is specific to this theory of motivation in particular can be read from the close attachment it has with the psychological nature of living organism, which includes humans and their behavior. The activation theory is specifically activated within the psyche of human mind and has much to do with the situations at hands. Likewise, observing such qualities and the behavior that comes to fore form a framework of organizational behavioral study, it can be concluded.
To top it all, the larger significance that theory demands can be looked and laid emphasis specifically behind the purposes of any motivation. Take for instance the factors such as "what motivation theory can do is provide framework within which those who are interested in motivation, either for themselves or others, can start to understand why people behave in certain ways in a specified circumstances. Hence, motivation theories, such as job characteristics theory and equity theory; apart from the aforesaid theories in any means comes as a useful framework to start the design process" (Sarah Hollyforde, 2002, p. 8) within the organizational structure in understanding human characteristics and behavioral aspects in particular.
Theories as it can looked from within have a larger relevance that acts as a life blood to practical application covering a large subject matter, ranging from management studies, literary reviews or any in that capacity. From analyzing the above discussion based on motivation as one of the core subject matter, we come to the conclusion that the study from the brief discussion has provided a platform to diversify the analysis objectively, especially in exploring the general believe that is held and understood on motivation as characteristics and one elements of behavioral approach.
The psychological nature that the subject matter demands also makes it complicated, in a sense that breaking the code of human psyche is no child task and comes as an additional burden for practitioner and manger to come to a conclusive decision, which when it matter to analyze behavior and the motivational factors that drives the same.
However, it should be noted that the discussion have been worthwhile in a sense that it assisted in the exploration of the subject matter at larger, especially one that limit itself within the organizational context of the theoretical premises.
Hence, culminating this discussion overall, it is also recommended that further studies and reach on the subject matter calls for an immediate attention in order to help expand the analysis and understanding of motivation as one core domain, especially for HR managers, who with professionalism deals with certain individual.
As one tool of management practices, motivation and its analysis have load to offer when applied in the right capacity in driving the inspirational level of individuals and employees, such as by integrating policies that keep a close attention to behavioral aspects through an incentive and performance driver benefits that gets the inspiration of employee heightened.