The significance of leadership can be measured by the fact that effective leaders help the nation through the times of peril. It makes a business organization successful. It enables a not for profit organization to fulfil its mission. In everyday life, effective leadership of parents enables the children to grow strong and healthy and become productive adults.
The absence of leadership is equally dramatic in its effects. Without leadership, organisations move too slowly, missions incomplete, vision blurs and targets missed. In this competitive world of business, where goods and services need to be hi-fi, prices need to be suitable, research need to be carried out, segmentation need to be specific, exactly there efficient leadership can result in complete productivity and profitability.
Since 1950, the area of management called as leadership has been in constant investigation and research. According to the new practice and findings, business emerges in a complete new world where being a leader is not just about profitability, competitiveness, strategic planning, team building, re-engineering, management or even total quality. It's actually all of that but a lot more. The leaders are in a very complex situation of leading a team. They are confronting with two fundamental challenges:
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To align, excite and energise their team to result in productivity and thus profitability
To provide equal employment opportunities by dealing with culturally diverse workforce efficiently and effectively
Theories of leadership
There are same leadership theories that reflect the individualistic view of the leader. It is important to have a glance on them, as it has great influence over strategic business planning, development and therefore success on hospitality and tourism industry.
Great man theory:
It states that leaders are born not made. It is called Great-man because historically leadership was thought as a man quality. Many famous personalities like Abraham Lincoln, Julius Caesar etc. have proved that concept right.
Even today's men believe that the leader is guiding towards the goals since he is knowledgeable, skilful and confident. This theory portrays leaders as heroic, mythical and distinguished.
This theory is not practical as it focuses on male gender only, whereas we do have famous examples like Queen Elizabeth I and II etc. At the same time, society has a major role in developing leadership skills in one's upbringing. It is expected that more social an individual will be, the likeliness of more practicality will be adopted to deal with human force effectively.
The trait approach to leadership
This approach arose from the Great man theory as a way of identifying the key characteristics of successful leaders. It means that according to this theory some people inherit certain qualities to lead others. Traits are the personal positive aspects of an individual, for what selected to direct. For example confident, iron will, determined, decisive, honest, inspiring, forward looking, competent, intelligent etc.
Having looked at trait theory, it is already apparent that it is based on one's personal qualities. However, the world of business is full of such evidences where the managers or leaders have been accused to be involved in many fraud or corruption cases.
This theory completely contradicts with other two. It states that leaders are made not born. This theory also highlights that leadership focuses on the actions of leaders not on the mental qualities or internal states. Therefore people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observations. It means definable, learnable behaviour can turn one into a leader.
Critically, I found some flaws in this theory. Learning behaviour is not less complex. At the same time, businesses and especially hospitality and tourism sector confronts with unique issues every time. It is an ever challenging industry, so every time new techniques and approach is needed to be used by a leader.
This theory suggests that taking into account the input of others is the success to leadership. The involvement of the subordinates to contribute and participate in decision making process make them feel relevant and committed to the firm and consequently they put their best efforts to achieve the targets by following the leader's instructions.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
This theory sounds very effective and the outputs are genuine. The dilemma is if the leader is autocratic, such a practice will not be possible.
According to this theory, leaders must choose the course of action according to the situation. Many researchers think that leaders emerge as a result of different situations.
Looking into this theory demonstrate that the biggest barrier of the theory is the relationship of followers and leaders. If that is not positive then the situation can result in negative outcomes. At the same time, leadership style might not allow the leader to influence the situation.
This theory unveils that a leader's ability to lead has many contingent factors like style, behaviour and capabilities. It expresses that there is no standard way for a leader to act upon. A successful leader in a specific situation may not be successful in other circumstances.
Having reviewed the contingency theory, I assume that purely relating the success of the project or situation on leader is not effective way of measuring the leadership. Other than these personal traits, a leader rapport with his team, organisational culture etc. everything is equally important.
Also known as management theory, draw the attention of the supervisors, leaders or any one in lead towards creating clear structure in the organisation. It should then help the firm to formulate the rewarding system, when achieved the objectives and vice versa. In such a leadership style, a formal system of discipline is usually placed.
This style is very much management sided and is popular with many managers in recent years. The barter system reward versus services is a big motivation but may not sustain in all the economic situations. At that time the failure will arise.
Having worked with transformational leader means a wonderful and uplifting experience. They themselves do things along with others and put their best efforts into it. This practice inspires the subordinates as the leader is extremely enthusiastic about the position. This pours the energy and enthusiasm in the followers and result in productivity.
Ironically, according to this theory a leader must transform the right characteristics of enthusiasm and energy into followers. In a way the subordinates are expected to be potential followers which might not be acceptable for particular cultures or nationals in a multicultural organization. Presently, all the businesses and especially hospitality and tourism industry is all about franchising, international operations and multinational business, for example Hilton hotels, Thomas Cook, British Airways etc.
Culture is a sensitive topic to be discussed. The norms and values of individuals are very dear to them. Interference in one's belief and custom can cause a lot of disruption. Many people try not to touch this sentimental string of others and therefore, result in better understanding and relationship.
In this context, if we look around us, we can witness that national boundaries no longer define the world of organization. The free moment of labour continues to intensify as organizations diversify geographically. Effective means of transport, immigration gateway opens for skilled and unskilled labours, internet, and tourism are some of the major elements that lead to collapse national borders and make the movement of the people easy and user friendly.
Migrating from one country to another means that the immigrant will search the job opportunities in the new country and thus import their culture and tradition with them. In olden days it was rare but presently, companies keep the quota for international employees as their customers are diverse too.
For example Emirate Airline, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, based airline has 95 different nationalities of employees serving their organization. The purpose is to give the customer service to the relevant nation by respective nation.
Cultural diversity has eliminated many barriers in this world of competitiveness, language for example, gone are days when people (customers) used to struggle to express themselves at airports and hospitals. Now in the UK whether it is aviation industry, health, education etc. the inability to explain oneself is just not a concern as interpreter services are widely used to cater the need of each customer.
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Therefore to sum up this critical and dynamic issue, it will be really wise to say that multiculturalism at work place is the result of diverse groups of customers. For instance Nestle leads the world in external employment with 97% of its employees working outside of Switzerland.
Culture and leadership
From the account above, it is apparent that hiring culturally diverse force is not only about the contribution to minimizing the unemployment in the country but in fact it is a vital need of the businesses. As it is a significant component in the worlds of business, thus the employed manpower need to be given same rights, responsibilities, say and opportunities.
Inability to manage cultural diversity can cause many pitfalls. Unfortunately, diversity is often discussed in relation to legal requirements, equal opportunity, and affirmative action. According to the civil rights act 1964, employers could not discriminate on the bases of sex, race colour, ethnicity or religions. The characteristics, along with more recent focus on disabilities, race and sexual orientation are commonly considered as part of organisation's diversity initiatives.
Having the distinct characteristics culturally should not become a matter for the organisation or a leader. All the leaders must realise that for their diverse manpower, culture is the most basic determinant of their wants, behaviour and perception. Culture is clearly expressed through architecture, food, clothing, art, approach, understanding and other attributes. Consequently, the knowledge of these aspects about employees are fundamentally be known and respected at the work place.
Furthermore, in hospitality and tourism industry, it is substantial to study culture while developing the tourism sector, touristic event even a restaurant menu etc. Because it is the culture that determines what tourists eat, how they travel and where they stay. Thereupon the globalised business cannot afford to be culturally illiterate as this data help their organisation to produce goods and services that best matches diverse customers. In this regard, any leader's action like discrimination or abuse cannot be the result of unawareness and unfamiliarity against culturally diverse employees.
The basic problem facing leaders is how to describe behaviours in terms that are true to a particular culture while vice versa to other. In these frame of references the concept of emic (culture-specific) and etic (culture-general) emerge, which introduces the view point of seeking to avoid cultural encapsulation.
An "emic" account is a description of behaviour or a belief in terms meaningful (consciously or unconsciously) to the actor; that is, an emic account comes from a person within the culture. Almost anything from within a culture can provide an emic account.
An "etic" account is a description of a behaviour or belief by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures; that is, an etic account attempts to be 'culturally neutral' (Source: Wikipedia)
Maslow's theory Hierarchy of human needs
(Maslow's pyramid of needs)
The first comprehensive attempt to classify needs was by Abraham Maslow in 1954. He believed that, although it is difficult, if not impossible, to analyze individual needs, it is possible to develop a pyramid (ladder, Hierarchy) of needs, split into five broad categories.
1) Basic needs
Also known as physical needs are for reasonable standards of food, shelter and clothing. It also includes all those items that are considered the norm to meet the needs of the body and for physical survival. This basic need will be met by the exchange of the labour for a wage or salary.
2) Safety needs
Also known as security needs. They are also concerned with physical survival. In the context of workplace, these needs could include enough money to meet at least basic needs, physical safety, security of employment, adequate rest periods, pension and sick schemes etc.
3) Social needs
Also known as group needs. It deals with the relationship with other people. Such needs are strong in some people and weaker in others. Most of us want to associate with other people. We form and join groups, we make friends and we associate through clubs and societies. Within the work force such needs are very important. Some people form very close bonds with those they work with and those bonds often become their main reason for going to work.
4) Esteem needs
It is based on an individual's desire for self-respect and the respect for others. Employees have a need to be recognized as individuals of some importance, to receive praise for their work and to have their efforts noticed. For most of us it matters what other people think, whether they respect us or not and whether we are recognized as making a positive contribution somewhere.
It is at the top most rung of the ladder and also known as self-fulfilment. It is concerned with full personal development and individual creativity. In order to meet this need, it is important for individuals to be able to use their talents and abilities fully. In effect, the person who is fulfilled is the one who sets any high target and reaches it.
Maslow helps us to understand that there is always a different target that can motivate the employees at work. And absence of this will frustrate them. The role of the leader in the work situation is to identify those who need motivation, to discover what might motivate them and then devise a strategy to achieve it.
Theory of F.W.Taylor
Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 - March 21, 1915), widely known as F. W. Taylor, was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. A management consultant in his later years, he is sometimes called "the father of scientific management." He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
At that time US manufacturing industry was confronted with the following critical issues:
Workers were untrained and non-specialised.
Poor leadership of supervisors and managers.
No formal selection procedure.
High turnover etc.
Taylor's view of human nature was that of "economic man'. This means people get motivated only by the economic motives of self-interest. Some people consider him manipulator or even a bully. On the other hand, he always believed that his methods are in the best interest of the employees themselves.
Tylor's scientific approach
Observe worker's at work, recording and timing what they do, when they do it and how long take over it called time and motion study:
Identify the most efficient workers and see how they achieve greater efficiency.
Break the task down into small component parts which can be done quickly and repeatedly.
Devise equipment specifically to speed up tasks. Employees should get clear cut instructions as to what to do and how to do it.
Devise a concrete pay scheme according to the hardships of the employees.
Reward those who achieve the targets and penalize those who cannot achieve the productivity.
Taylor's theory in practice
Taylor's theory seems to be practiced in big multinationals all around the globe. For example, his method is evident today in every Mc Donald's in the world. Fries are cooked at 175 degrees for exactly 3 minutes, and then the buzzer tells the employees to take them out & salt them. Throughout every McDonald's are a series of dedicated, purpose-built machines for producing milkshakes, toasting buns, chocolate sauce and much else.
Theory of Elton Mayo Human relation approach
Elton mayo (1880-1949) was a medical student who became an academic with a particular interest in people in organization. He moved from Australia to America in 1923. His method was heavily influenced by FW Taylor. He moved on to work at the Hawthorne plant of western electric company in Chicago. Thus, his investigations are known as Hawthorne Experiments or Effect also.
He believed that lighting, heating and rest periods have great effect on worker's productivity. Although after experiment it was not proved. Thus, the study concluded that changes in conditions and financial rewards had little or no effect on productivity. Increase in output was mainly due to the greater cohesion and communication which workers in groups developed as they interacted and were motivated to work together. Workers were also motivated by the interest shown in their work by the researchers. Elton's work in 1930s is known today as the representation of Human Relation's school. A business aiming to maximise productivity must make sure:
Personal satisfaction of workers
Establishment of team work
To and fro communication between management and informal work groups
Goals of workers must fit in with the goals of business
Allowing decision making and their say in business
Fredrick Herzberg's theory
F Herzberg was an American Psychologist who conducted research in 1950 that directly addressed the question of motivation. He asked 200 engineers and accountants which factors in their work created job satisfaction and which caused dissatisfaction.
The result showed 6 factors cause satisfaction at work and 10 factors cause dissatisfaction.
Two factor theory
Herzberg used his research to develop his "two factor theory" of motivation. This states that there are two sets of factors motivators and hygiene factors - that are both important in motivating workers, but for very different reasons.
The factors that have the potential to motivate workers by providing job satisfaction include:
A sense of achievement
Recognition of effort
Opportunity for promotion
Opportunities for self-improvement
These factors help to meet the human need to grow psychologically. If a job can provide these motivators, workers will want to work and will enjoy their work.
Just as poor hygiene can cause illness, the factors that can cause dissatisfaction in the work place are all related to the working environment.
Relationships with supervisors
Pay and status
Relationship with colleagues
Relationship with subordinates
Herzberg believed that our "animal" nature lead us to seek the avoidance of pain. If a job can avoid problems on all of the areas listed, it will stop us feeling that work is painful experience. It will prevent dissatisfaction. Good hygiene can stop one getting ill, but it cannot make one happy.
Theory X and Y
In 1950 Douglas McGregor undertook a survey of managers in the USA and identified two styles of management, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. The findings of this research were published in his book "The Human Side of Enterprise" in 1960. He concluded that people have different reasons to work.
Theory X managers tend to distrust their subordinates and believe that workers are lazy and therefore the only way to get them work is through strict control. This control can take one of two forms. Threat or punishment if rules are broken or targets not achieved, known as stick approach. Modern employment laws and company's wide agreement have made it impossible to implement this approach.
Douglas McGregor's Theory X
Workers need to be persuaded to carry out tasks by promises or rewards, known as carrot approach. In many ways this theory is similar to Taylor's view of people at work. McGregor's own words, many managers believe "the average Human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. Theory X is about the view managers have of their workforce.
Theory Y managers, by comparison, believe that employees do enjoy work and that they want to contribute ideas and efforts. A Theory Y managers is therefore, more likely to involve employees in decisions and give them greater responsibility. In simple words, workers are responsible, committed and enjoy having control over work. This theory is similar in some ways to the HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL.
Management style in practice
Referring the styles of management to the theories of motivation will help us in knowing the findings of each theorist in terms of being practical or not. In this specific regard it is only Douglas McGregor's work that needs to be taken into account as his research was not directly linked to the working force. Rather it is based on what the managers of this working force hold about them as their opinion. D. McGregor researched into business managers in the USA in 1950 and concluded the styles of leadership they adopted. These styles are based on their assumptions that about they made about the nature of the workforce.
Managers follow Theory X approach
Managers that believe the workforce is Theory X in nature will use a more autocratic leadership style. This is because they believe workers need to be told and be closely controlled, or they will not get the work done. There is little point involving workers in decision-making as they don't want such a responsibility and could only be motivated by money.
Managers follow Theory Y approach
Managers that believe that the work force is Theory Y in nature will use a more democratic leadership style. They see workers as creative, seek responsibility and are motivated by being empowered.
Therefore, they involve them in decision-making and create a healthy working environment. Such a force could easily be motivated by non financial rewards as well.
In the past four decades, the research in leadership suggests that the best approach for leaders is to be situational. In simple words, leadership should be appropriate to the people, time, place and cultural context. The globalisation of the business has forced the people in lead to be very cautious about their dealing with multicultural workforce. For this particular sake many multinational businesses continuously send their employees for courses related to cultural diversity.
The figure above provides the effective framework to the overall concept of managing cultural diversity. Understanding these factors will help the leaders of diverse human force to identify their limitations in dealing with the culturally diverse issue. It states that communication styles, attitude towards conflict, approaches to completing tasks, decision making styles, attitudes towards disclosure and approaches to knowing are visible cultural differences. These differences are obvious and that's why a leader can plan and choose appropriate manners to deal with them successfully.
In contrary, the invisible cultural roots like beliefs, values, perceptions, expectations are the sensitive areas of the culturally diverse employees. Thus need to be learnt before dealt by a leader. Any offence to these elements can cause many disastrous outcomes.
It is very fundamental for the designated people to adopt an approach which is not offensive for any specific value-followers. The agenda of the meetings, goals, projects must not contain anything which is culturally prohibited. Participative leadership style is very effective for a multicultural human force. It gives the trust to the employees that they have the say in decision making process even if they are different in race, colour or religion.
As we know a leader is someone who:
Model the way
Inspire a shared vision
Challenge the process
Enable others to act
Encourage the heart
All of these practices are easier for leaders who have an enhance level of multicultural awareness, knowledge and skills. Though cultural identity is complicated, but still the leaders approach in this regard is significant. The organisation should not let the dominant culture lead the way and make the minority force to follow and suffer the consequences.
In this regard the research on racial, ethnic, cultural stage of identity development has made a great contribution to research on identity development generally. There are many more models of same nature. The purpose of such models is to influence one's own or other's thoughts, actions and interrelationships. They should be used to create self-awareness in order to cope with cross cultural forces.
The cultural diversity management is essential because the unawareness of this aspect at working places can cause many disastrous outcomes. De-motivation, conflict, dishonesty and unprofessionalism are the few consequences that can result in the firm, which will directly influence the production and profitability.
Global competencies, therefore, are needed for success in the rapidly changing global environment. The effective global leadership competencies are a useful technique for a long term survival of a leader in a multicultural environment domestically or abroad. These are based upon in depth businesses and technical knowledge, managerial competency, ability to cope with uncertainties and conflicts, willingness and ability to embrace and integrate multiple perspectives, communication effectiveness, competence in developing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, willingness and commitment to succeed, ability to motivate and develop people with potential, ability and willingness to learn from experience and competence in playing the role of a changing agent.
Source: Aycan, Z.19997, expatriate management: theory and research, Greenwhich, CT: JAI
Managing cultural diversity is of great significance. Because individuals view are influenced by the beliefs embedded in their upbringing. These views and perspectives are to be considered by the firm's policy as it can create a big hole in all types of strategies and long- short term planning.
Focusing on cultural diversity will be meaningless if different types of cultures will not be comprehended. Like personal culture, national culture, corporate culture. Personal culture is the shared combination of an individual's traits, skills and personality.
Personal culture is the shared combination of an individual's traits, skills and personality formed within the context of his or her ethnic, racial, familial, and educational environments. Everyone has a unique personal culture.
National culture is a shared understanding that comes from the combination of beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviours that have provided the foundation for the heritage of a country. Although national culture is a shared understanding, as is well known, individuals within a nation still have a very wide range of beliefs about their nation.
Corporate culture is a combination of widely shared institutional beliefs, values and the organisation's guiding philosophy that is usually stated in its mission, vision and values statement. (Gardenswartz et al., 2003) Similar to national culture, individuals within an organisation often view their organisation differently.
For the ideal organisation's culture is a mix of personal, national and corporate culture. Cultural diversity cannot be managed until the leaders know that personal culture is developed within the national culture that takes place within the corporate culture. Culture is within the person and not different from other learned competencies like instructing, assessing and achieving. Consequently, developing multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills is a professional obligation which they have to abide.
The leaders in this century need to be multicultural oriented, which means they must have the awareness of different cultural norms and values. An employee unable to act in a specific way because of his ethnicity, need to be fairly understood that have been in a different conditions for major part of his life.
Managing diversity according to the theory X and theory Y characteristics
Douglas Mc Gregor's research into business managers led him to conclude that the style of leadership they adopted was determined largely by the assumptions that they made about the nature of the work force.
Mc Gregor's characterized two opposing views of workers that managers may hold. He labelled them as Theory X and Theory Y. the key aspect of each set of beliefs shapes the style of leadership adopted by the manager.
Mangers that believe the workforce is theory X in nature will use a more autocratic leadership style. This is because they believe workers need to be told what to do and be closely controlled, or they will not get the work done. There is little point involving workers in decision- making because they do not want such responsibility are motivated only by money.
Managers that believe the workforce is theory by in nature will use a more democratic leadership style. If workers are seen as creative, seek responsibility and motivated by being empowered, a leadership style which allows them to fulfil all these needs will be adopted.
Whether the adopted leadership style is successful depends on whether the manager has made the right assumptions about the workforce. A manager's attitude has the power to become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
If it is assumed a workforce confirms to theory X and it does, the autocratic style will be appropriate and necessary. If, however, the workforce conform to theory Y the autocratic style could prove disastrous. The de-motivation that it would cause could even create a workforce that conformed to theory X label slapped on them - disinterested and uncooperative.
If it is assumed that a workforce conforms to theory Y and it does, choosing a democratic style will get the best out of workers potential and prove immensely successful. However, if the workers in reality conform to theory X, the democratic style is doomed to fail. Workers will abuse the freedom from control and will contribute little to decision-making.
Once again, to get the best from the workforce, managers are left to make difficult decisions about human psychology. There is little doubt that managements in UK businesses have traditionally held a theory X view of the workforce this has reinforced a "them and us "attitude. Even though democratic management style, based on a theory Y view of workers, have become more common in the UK in recent year, the traditional assumptions of managers seem slow to change.
Managing diversity according to the cultural values
Organisations around the world have been realising that cultural diversity within an organisation is not a negative aspect; rather, it can facilitate an organisational aspiration for glory. However it is not an easy task to manage employees with different cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless there are many policy guidelines that can make the task easy. Such a policy need to be tailor made by each firm according to the nature of the business, leadership style and workforce attitude.
On a broader perspective, cultural diversity can be managed through communicating (creating awareness among all employees about diverse values of peers through communication), cultivating ( facilitating acknowledgement, support and encouragement of any employee' success by all other workers), and capitalizing (linking diversity to every business process and strategy such as succession planning, reengineering, employee development, performance management and review, and reward systems) strategies.
There are many different innovative ways that organizations have adopted to manage diversity. For instance Emirates Airline. Flying with this carriage gives the advantage of freedom of communication in-flight. Having multilingual host and hostess helps the passengers a great deal. Old people, youth or children flying with Emirates have never complained the language barrier as the selection of staff is highly diverse.
If cultural diversity can be managed effectively, there is a potential to use a diverse workforce for organizational benefits. Business gurus assert that multi-cultures are directly linked to organizational success as:
Effectively managed multi culture companies have a cost effective competitive edge.
It helps in promoting a minority friendly reputation among prospective employees.
Diverse cultural corporations help to get better customers which have a variety of people.
Diverse groups of employees are perceived to be more creative and efficient in problem solving as compared to homogenous group.
The ability to manage cultural diversity increases adaptability and flexibility of an organization to environmental changes. Many organizational examples can be taken in this regard. In Australia, for instance, Hotel Nikko in Sydney has a unique edge that staff members in direct guest contact areas speak a total of 34 different languages. Similarly Qantas Flight Catering has sixty-six nationalities on their staff, with various overseas-born chefs. So dedicated diverse 'ethnic' kitchens gave Qantas a huge competitive edge that offers food based on customer's ethnic taste and requirements.
Therefore, it is imperative to realize that cultural diversity should be taken as a tool for better organizational progress rather than a managerial problem and if effectively managed, it can be a key to gain competitive edge and success.
From the outgoing account it is crystal clear that training programs about culture and diversity is the best approach to resolve issues and misunderstandings. Such program should be implemented on the ground that teaches cultural sensitivity and elements related to cultural differences. At the same time such programs or training should be characterise by the particular culture.
Improving global team effectiveness is very vital for the businesses in this competitiveness. Having undergone the "cross culture issues and dimensions" course for leaders must be made mandatory. Inability to meet with cultural barriers can produce a highly de motivated team. This team can lead to many consequences that will greatly affect the productivity and therefore profitability, effectively and efficiently coping with cross culture differences is too significant for the survival of each organization.
The current challenges the world of business is facing are dramatic. Now the strategies analysed and formulated in a board room, are not all what a business is. Now, in order to produce results, the workforce capacity needs to be expanded too. Business are tend to be knowledge based leaders need to be focused on creating values, interdependence, adaptability, flexibility and autonomy. Since the world has become more interconnected and business becomes more complex and dynamic work force must be observant.
No matter how effective the outcomes of the meetings would be, until unless the whole work force is not committed and devoted, business achievement is in a big question. I firmly thought that the leaders need to identify the need of its workforce before actually formulating an equipment to motivate them. It should be something that matches their values and beliefs also.
From the outgoing account it is apparent that providing direction to people in the organization and enabling, inspiring, motivating and supporting them to achieve what the organization has set out to do is a leader's job. It is expected that leaders will choose the most effective style of leadership to produce the outcome in the business.
According to the workforce they will adopt the approach most suitable to the firm's resources. It is vital to know that a leader develops and clearly and enthusiastically communicate and reinforce the organization's purpose, values and vision to people across the organization and, where appropriate, to external stakeholders. He ensures that organizational plans support the organization's purpose, values and vision. A leader steers the organization successfully through difficulties and challenges, including conflict, diversity and inclusion issues within the organization.
A leader has to create and maintain a culture within the organization which encourages and rewards creativity and innovation. In this regard dealing and building on cultural diversity, and further developing the atmosphere where each culture can contribute professionally is also a leader's responsibility.
Racism and discrimination shouldn't be the practice of the leaders to extract the very best efforts of the human resource. When talking about a service industry like tourism or hospitality industry the leaders need to show all their expertise so that even with the unique characteristics of the service industry the businesses are competent and profitable.
People across the organization need to achieve their objectives and reward them when they are successful is also leader's job. These days' leaders need to be someone who gives people across the organization support and advice when they need it especially during periods of setback and change. Motivate people across the organization to present their own ideas and listen to what they say.