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Directed Change : It is driven from the top of organization by using authority, persuasion and compliance to manipulate people's emotion reaction to change. Therefore leaders announce change and induce people to accept the change business necessity, emotional appeals and rational persuasion otherwise the employee may confront with resistance to the change. Directed change manifest a quick and decisive approach. In addition this approach is befitting when business complexity and socio-technical uncertainty in situation are low (Kerber, K., & Anthony, F. B. (2005).

Planned Change : it is a systematic effort to develop the organizational functions so it creates "roadmap" as outlines project management approach to the change process. In addition, planned change needs to be continuous process of change and generate condition including encourage people to become more participate in implementation of the change. Also planned change is proactive approach therefore organization development (OD) use planned change in order to increase an organization's effectiveness by solving problems, adapting to internal and external changes and influencing future changes. As a result, It is the most appropriate when the organization is high complexity. The approach may come from any level of organization but ultimately is endorsed by top management. Time and resources such as skill and knowledge is essential factors that can lead to successful implementation. In contrast, it will have more devastating impact t if implementation is failed. There are three major theories of changing - Lewin's change model, action research model and positive model. Each theory used is based on the members' commitment and purpose of the organization.

Lewin's change model

Unfreezing:It is about getting ready to change. This step involves reducing of restraining forces that negative affect maintain the old behavior at status quo and increasing of the driving forces that direct behavior away from status quo. Finally finds combination that both set forces Lewin's (1947). Moreover, leaders need to motivate organizational members to participate in changes by providing information that demonstrates discrepancies between the existing and desired performance, identifying the problem from existing situation that variance destabilizes old patterns are incongruence with new environments and preparing resources for change including building trust about the need for change (Robbins 564-65).

Moving: is about shifting the behavior of organizational members by developing a new behavior, attitudes and values through change processes (Waddell, 2011). Leaders need to support to make change by training and coaching with clearly communicating otherwise employees may go in the wrong direction.

Refreezing: is about establishing stability at a new state of equilibrium by using of supporting tools is to reinforce the new organization state in term of organizational policies, procedures and norms (Robbins 564-65).

Criticism of Lewin's change model may be not strong enough to handle the dynamics of change. Kanter (1992) argues firstly, it is at the best no longer appropriate and at worst wildly inapplicable. Secondly, it is only acceptable for isolated and incremental change situations. Thirdly, he ignored role of politics and power in organization. Finally, the approach is implemented top down.

However, Burners (2004) supports Lewin's change model that it is still relevant to the modern world because it is very rational, plan and goal oriented. More and more Lewin's model is fundamental of other change models such as the planning model into 7 steps by researchers Lipitt, Watson and Westley.

Kotter's 8 step process

John Kotter introduced eight steps change process which organizations can avoid failure and become success in change management. This model is to emphasize engaging with people emotionally because change made in the organizational environment will not be occurred unless the members change their behavior.

Step 1: Creating urgency: by providing reasons from external environment and internal condition evidence that need is necessary to motivate people moving out of status quo. Therefore leaders may point out marketplaces changes and competitive advantage of competitors.

Step 2: Forming a powerful guiding coalition: by building team of influential people whose power is in term of expertise, reputations and titles from variety of sources to lead the change effort.

Step 3: Creating a vision: Clear vision can help clarify the direction of organization need to move. Also strategy needs to develop to execute the vision.

Step 4: Communicating the vision: by using every possible channel to reach out of members in the organization in order to they use the vision to help decision making or solving the problem.

Step 5: Empowering others to act on the vision: by encouraging organizational member to the new vision and organization need to remove all obstacles for change such as compensation system and structure to ensure that the members is in the line of vision.

Positive Model

The positive model of change has been applied through a process that it is called "the appreciative inquiry (AI)" and is established by David Cooperrider. The model focuses on what is working well rather than what needs to be fixed. This approach comprises five main phase by involvement people in creating a shared vision of organization's positive potential.

Firstly, initiate the inquiry: by identifying the organization issue which the organizational members need to be involved (Waddell, 2011).

Secondly, inquiry into best practices: by gathering information that defines the best what is in the organization based on past successful stories such as outstanding performances and then pulling all parts of organization together into the line with the best practice (Waddell, 2011).

Thirdly, discover the themes: by examining the information and story to identify the common themes from members' experience. The themes mean the basic for moving from current state to a desired future state (Waddell, 2011).

Fourthly, envision a preferred future: by identifying the themes, challenging the current state and describing a required future based on past positive experience. Eventually, the vision becomes a statement of what the organization should be (Waddell, 2011).

Finally, design and deliver way to create the future: it describes create through the activity and plan which are essential to bring about the vision into existence (Waddell, 2011).

Guided Change: is a repeated process of initial interpret and design, implement and improve, hold accountable and learn and then share the learning system wide, leading to continuing reinterpret and redesign of the change. The resulting of the process can lead to both continuous improvement of existing change and the ability to develop new change and solution. Nevertheless, guided changing can create to organizational disarray when it is used inappropriately. In addition, guide change is driven by socio technical uncertainty for instance the amount of information, understandable steps to follow and practice and procedure (Kerber & Anthony,2005).

Choosing each approach of changes is applicable depending on situation therefore organization need to be more concerned about moving change directed changed toward engaging people of planned change and more supporting of guided change because it can lead to confronting with problem and resistance to the change.


The similarity between the three models is to motivate individual or organization to change the existing status-quo to preferred state. These models are used when there is a major or minor need of change in the organization or to build better future. In order to achieve the preferred goal the whole team should be in sync.

All models have starting and closing stage. All models start from the desire to change the organization and ends when the preferred goal is achieved Waddell et al. (2011).

For all the models to succeed, people are the important factor. People should be motivated in order to bring the change in the organization. One needs to motivate them to bring the preferred change and get them out of the comfort zone. These models "emphasize the application of behavioral science knowledge" (Waddell et al., 2011). Also one needs to understand and inspire people for the change in the organization.


Lewin's Model

Positive Model

Kotter Model

It is Top-down approach.

Unfreezing->Movement-> Refreezing

It is more likely a bottom-up pattern.

Depending on the initiator is can work both ways but the buy-in to top management t is important

Organization members need to be motivated for the change activities. Level of involvement

Focus on change

Organization members participate voluntarily to make the change, therefore the conflict level is very minimum in this model

Members must be shown the level urgency for change in the organization

Organizations need consultant for change with limited members.

Organization members are involved and they are the key factors for the change.

This model does not require consultant for change but one can go for as per need.

This model focuses on fixing the problems whether major or minor.

This model emphasis on the positive aspects or strong points in the organization, and it might be big or could be small issue

This model is about change in the competition or market.

This model ends after finding the solution and refreezes there.

Not focused on what organization does best

This is a continuous process and finding positive side in the organization. And strength is continuously developed.

This is a continuous process focus on urgency & communicating the vision

Understanding positive Model

Change is the constant process which happens in everybody's life and everyone wants that change to be positive in their life. If we relate this model in the organization development (OD) then everyone wants to build the positive side and not the weaker side. This model focuses on the positive side and keeps on strengthening that side. Organizations are like human beings, stronger the immune system the more resistance to the diseases. Stronger the organization stronger they will compete in the market. So to be competitive in the market one must always work on their positive sides rather focus on weak side. And Positive model is all about strengthening the best they have.

Problem comes every day in your life and we have to deal with those problems and find the best solution. We cannot run way or hide from the problems. Positive model is not a problem solving model it's rather strengthening your positive side. We can use other models with this model and fine the solution of the problem and achieve the goal.

The organization, I worked for was Zycus Infotech. This was the IT company and build software after gathering the customer's requirements. The requirements were gathered by the Business Analysts and Marketing Department. Once the requirements were gathered, software development team develops the software based on the requirements. My job was to test that software on the basis of the requirements (Software Tester). Before delivering the software to the customers, I had to make sure that the software is bug/defect free. If customers find any bug in the software, Project manager blame testers for the bug. Business analyst, marketing team and developers all involved in the requirement gathering. Testing team is not involved in that process and testing team is considered to be the independent team which tests the software according to the customers prospective.

I suggested project manager in one-on-one that testers should be included in the requirement gathering process. So that testers get to know what exactly customers want and after this there will be very minimum chance of bug/defect at the customer's end. Project manager gave me the approval and from next meeting the entire testing team was involved in the requirement gathering. After entire testing team involved in the process, the quality of the IT products were improved. Some of the features suggested by me were liked by the customers. After that project I realized that participation, communication plays important role in the organization to grow and get the "WOW" factor from the clients. This process helped every individual to grow and develop on the personal front also. And I was promoted for doing this kind of change.

Whenever, I talk to my project manager, he thanks me for that change which I bought in the testing department to enhance the quality of the products. If an organization or any individual give a quality product to its customer, they keep on coming back for the business. And now that organization has done this change mandatory for every department to include testing team in requirement gathering process.

Positive model is all about strengthening positive side of the organization. Every organization has positive strengths and weak points. And in this case we just strengthen the positive side of the organization just to include one change in the existing process. In this model managers should be the change agent and suggest new ideas or listens to the members. For a team to bring change in the organization, support and cooperation should be there between the team members. Also members should participate voluntarily to make the change; therefore the conflict level is very minimal in this model

Top management's involvement is necessary in this model and managers plays very vital role in this model to succeed. If a change process is commenced by the member of the team, without manager's approval the ideas cannot be executed. If project manager did not give me the approval to start the change process, then we would have continued with the same old process. Just to design the test cases according to the requirement and test the product. Also, top management knows market better than the member working in lower management and they should motivate members to come with good ideas and implement those ideas.

Kerber, K., & Anthony, F. B. (2005). RETHINKING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: Reframing the challenge of change management. Organization Development Journal, 23(3), 23-38. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/197993890?accountid=8440

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