Types Of Leadership Strategis And Approaches Management Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Leadership is a procedure by which a person motivates a grouping of people to achieve a mutual target (Northouse, 2004). In modern times, a leader who is in the field of management should be familiar with the differences in culture at the place of performance, and be able to execute a leadership style which is best suited for a particular situation and culture (Harris and Moran, 1991).

There are 3 sections in this report with an aim to provide a clear understanding of different type of leadership strategies and approaches to the readers in context of a modern organization. In section 1, the review of literature is done, based on which several themes are deduced like, the major qualities which are displayed by transformational leaders can be represented as four I's which are Individualized consideration (IC), Intellectual simulation (IS) Inspirational motivation (IM), and Idealized Influence (II). In the next section, these themes of transformational leadership are analysed in the context of a modern organization-Infosys. The last section describes about the assessment of my own personality and portrays me as a realistic personality, goal oriented leader and ENFJ type of personality on the basis of Jung Typology Personality test. Then, I have analysed myself comparatively with the derived themes of transformational leadership and found myself to be possessing strengths such as charisma, convincing ability, high productivity, a good planner etc. and weaknesses such as less oriented towards the employees etc. On the basis of this analysis, I have devised a development plan, according to which I have to conquer my weaknesses, preserve my strengths in order to achieve my goal in life.

Review of Literature

Leadership Defined

The creation of Leadership is subjective in nature. In a comprehensive definition, leadership is defined as the process by which an individual inspires a group of people for the accomplishment of a common task (Northouse, 2004). Although, this definition is quite simple in its approach, but the notion behind this definition comprises a lot. In the view of Gardner (1995, pp.292), to carry out major and eternal modifications in a huge and heterogeneous group is the supreme challenge confronted by a leader. A sample by Vilkina's and Wood (2005) recognises several characteristics of leadership:

Achievement Oriented - Achieves the targets, demonstrates passion and tenacity;

Positivism - Challenging approach towards the age old thinking, creative nature, responsibility for own ideas;

Humanistic Approach - Excellent at communication and believes in the development and capabilities of others;

Integrity - Well defined values that reflect into the behaviour.

Inclusive - Participative and Empowering;

Self awareness and Learning - Attitude to gain knowledge from every experience, completely aware of the strengths and weaknesses;

Balanced approach - Maintains a good balance between the chores of work and life.

Leadership is one the most important facet of managerial conduct; as, to be an effective leader; the manager should have a strong interpersonal interaction with the staff. Following are the features which differentiates leadership from managerial conduct:

Work conduct of people who are managed is the responsibility of manager but the leader is not responsible for the conduct of followers.

Leadership is authenticated by voluntary supporters but there is no such authenticity in case of power vested by a formal working post in a hierarchal channel, and

Leadership can occur anywhere, within the sphere a formal organizational structure as well as outside also (for example, there are leaders in informal groups in lieu of managers)

The behaviour of managerial leadership comprises the conduct of supporters outside the constraints of essential performance at work (Kahn and Katz, 1978: 527- 8).

Style of Leadership

Leadership Style is a leadership behaviour having two distinctly independent dimensions: the relationship dimension which consists of support towards the employees and effective communication with them; and task dimension which comprises of operation, management, co-ordination and setting of targets (Blanchard and Hersey, 1988).

Leadership Style can be understood as a consistent behaviour mode employed by a leader in an attempt to increase the power, comprising the essence of leadership. Most usual characteristics (or conduct) across a situation are referred as a style of the leader (Hollander, 1978: 27). Earlier theories suggested only two styles of leadership, i.e. "task related" and "people related". The notion has changed by now (Coons and Stoghill, 1957). Some of the important points suggesting the modern thinking are (Albanese, 1981: 415-17):

There is no such thing as the most effective or best leadership style. Communication among the supporters, leader and circumstances decides the most effectual style of leadership.

None of the leaders is having an inborn style of leadership. The leadership style can be acquired by learning and practice.

Managerial leader cannot be confined to a single style of leadership. Their style of leadership is situation specific. They can have a distinctive style of their own, which is not applicable to every situation.

Different styles of leadership can be applied effectively to a specific group of supporters and circumstances.

The concept of 'leadership style' is intellectual in nature (Hollander, 1978: 28). The supporters and circumstances are affected by it and affect the leadership style too.

The Classical Study (Lewin et al., 1939) acknowledged three types of control: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire, known as leadership style. The perfect style of leadership depends upon a number of factors such as group involvement, efficiency, achieving required results and arriving at conclusions. The effective managers are flexible in their style of leadership depending upon the situation.

Transformational Leadership

According to Burn (1978, pp.20), transformational leadership is a procedure by which "leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation". An important prospect in context of transformation is ability to boost up the requirements of the supporters in a supporter-centred manner. Burn states that, leaders turn out to be accountable towards the supporters by taking care of their requirements.

Initially, Burn stated that the moral needs produce a substantial driving force among supporters; the requirement to take a lofty moral stand regarding a matter; or an aspiration to support some cause. People like their motives to be guided by a superior organizational mission (Devanna and Tichy, 1986). Ironical drive for stability and conflict is second type of need. Supporters must be assisted by transformational leaders to understand the instability. Conflict is an important part to enhance the probability of change and the generation of alternatives. The process of transformation is developed on sympathy, deliberation, perception and understanding; instead of on compulsion, manoeuvring or exerting power.

There are very limited researchers to discuss the association between Information Technology and leadership, rarely any concentration on the correlation between transformational leadership and knowledge management. According to Klenke (1994), latest organizational developments are carried out by the performance of leaders and application of information technology.

It is very difficult to figure out an affiliation between innovation and leadership, provided a huge range in information technologies and a number of purposeful leadership behaviours. Technology and leadership reciprocates to the effect on each other, i.e. one is to be changed if there is any change in the other. Brown (1994) asserted that a developing technological society requires transformational leadership. A limited number of researchers have addressed the association between innovation and transformational leadership. According to Higgins and Howell (1990 a, b, c), the supporters of innovation are more transformational as compared to the non-supporters. Generally, the important decision-makers are considered to be champions in an organization. Technologically, they are not very sound in comparison to the experts. However, they encourage the use of advanced technology to derive solutions. Three methods of the operation of champions are:

Carrying out and encouraging the innovations, involving in the participative practices and achieving approvals by listing the help of others.

Application of logical methods to encourage dependable decision making, based on the rules and procedures of organization.

Involving in the processes to challenge the existing beliefs and working ahead of the organizational channels governed by bureaucratic regulations (Higgins and Howell, 1990 a, b, c)

In a variety of articles, Crawford and Strohkirch (1997 a, b, 2000), Crawford (1998), Crawford et al. (2003), presented an argument, according to which there is a connection between personal innovation and transformational leadership. Their findings suggested that the transformational leaders were far innovative than the leaders who followed transactional or laissez-faire style of leadership. Innovation is supposed to be one of the most important features of knowledge managers. Behavioural manifestation of innovation is the generation and management of knowledge. (Crawford and Strohkirch, 2002; Bryant, 2003)

The self-reported empowerment is heightened among subordinates by Transformational leadership. The efficiency of team increases, if team members are experiencing a higher level of empowerment. It has also been revealed by studies that transformational leadership is directly proportional to the satisfaction of employees and all other behaviours which affect the performance on job (Avolio and Bass, 1993). Also, there is an association of transformational leadership with the consequences like leadership efficacy, improvement in quality, both personal & impersonal performance grading and innovativeness (Bass, 1995).

According to Bass (1985), transformational leadership improves the performance of followers to such an extent which is far beyond the expectations. As per Rouche and fellows (1989), transformational leadership can be elaborated in terms of the ability of leader to influence the conduct, accepted ideals, faiths and mind-set of the people while working with them in order to fulfil the mission and purpose of Organization. Successful individual acknowledgement with the leader, unifying the followers towards a mutual vision of the future, and going far ahead of the selfish interests are kinetics of the transformational leadership (Bass and Hater, 1988, pp. 695)

Four factors (or the "Four I's") of transformational leadership are:

Individualized consideration

The foremost approach towards transformational leadership is Individualized consideration (IC). Adopting this style, a leader considers the supporters as individuals; is concerned about them; pays attention to the ideas of the followers and tries to understand them well. Most of the managers points toward this form of leadership style, in reply of the behaviour demonstrated by their favourite leader. Main indicators of IC style are: 9

Promotes self development

An Active listener;

Encourages the sharing of views from both sides.

Identify the differences among people on the basis of their likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses etc.

Work is assigned as per the individual abilities and needs.

A leader provides coaching and teaching; promotes the learning experiences while delegating projects; provides regular feedback; and every supporter is regarded as an individual. 10

Intellectual Simulation

Intellectual Simulation (IS) is composed of encouraging the supporters by leader to ponder over the issues and problems on their own to develop skilfulness. This type of leadership style is generally used by parents with their children. It is not very popular in the organizations, as most of the managers "tell" their subordinates instead of questioning them. Main indicators of IS style are: 9

Motivates supporters to re-analyze the problems;

Creating an environment of "readiness" to revolutionize the thinking;

Is ready to think over the ostensibly foolish ideas;

Re-evaluates the assumptions

Distinguishes patterns which are complicated to visualize; and

A leader keeps on provoking the minds of the followers by providing them challenging and innovative thoughts; encourages the fresh ways of thinking amidst the followers: application of logic before action and problem solving techniques are emphasized. 10

Inspirational motivation

The leader who is following Inspirational Motivation (IM) style possesses ability to encourage better performance amidst the supporters by continuously motivating them. Such kinds of leaders are capable of communicating the vision for future in a convincing and exciting way, which is acceptable by the supporters and they strive to achieve it. Such kinds of leaders are capable of lifting the expectations of the followers while making them able to accomplish much more than their abilities. Main indicators of IM style are: 9

Demonstrate an achievable and affirmative vision for future.

With the usage of simple language, transmute complex matters into vital issues;

Develop a sense of priorities and purpose; and

Moulds expectations and shapes meaning;

The leader bestows a sense of vision and mission; infuses conceit, devotion and admiration; enthuse and provoke the subordinates. 10

Idealized influence

This style of leadership represents a leader whose personality is a benchmark and a kind of idealized influence (II) for the people working around. They are considered as a role model because of their charisma and personality characteristics or the moral behaviour demonstrated by them. Such kinds of leaders are considered to be high on ethics, reliability, intention, integrity and sincerity. Main indicators of II style are: 9

Tackle the crisis "head on";

Utilization of power for benefit;

Demonstrates exceptional competency.

Celebrates the accomplishments of the followers; and

The actions of leader motivate and inspire the supporters by imparting them a purpose and motive. 10

Transformational leadership, committedness and faith

Transformational style of leadership motivates supporters to go far ahead of their perceived achievable limits by putting extra efforts. Numerous researches conducted on transformational leadership have proven its positive consequences (Bass, 1985, 1998). Satisfaction and performance of the people, team and organization are found to have a positive effect of strong leadership (Barling et al., 1996). On an organizational level, transformational leadership can be connected to the functioning of a business unit while raising its organizational commitment to elevated degrees (Barling et al., 1996). On individual level, the faith of supporters in leadership gets enhanced (Podsakoff et al., 1996; Barling et al., 2000) as transformational leadership leads to a higher level of satisfaction among them (Bass and Hater, 1988).

Transformational leadership & team efficaciousness

A group who believes in the success of a particular task is more likely to accomplish it because an effective conviction is there. Collective efficacy can be described as a mutual conviction of group in its conjoined capabilities to systemize and carry out the series of actions indispensible to produce the desired level of achievement (Bandura, 1997, pp.477). Self-efficacy and collective efficacy differ from each other on the degree of agency (Lirgg and Feltz, 1998). Both are very similar in the view of a number of researchers who considers both to be task-specific (Durham et al., 1997). Comparatively common approach is employed by some of the researchers; for example, role-breadth self-efficacy by Parker (1998). Some researchers have called this concept by the name of team efficacy, which is analogous to collective efficacy. The only difference being, team efficacy is applied specifically to a team.

Both self and team efficacy works by same processes, having same roots and carrying out the same purposes (Bandura, pp.178). Team efficacy can be suggested as a potential intercessor of the connectedness amidst transformational leadership in the team and its performance by drawing out evidences on variables at individual level (Prussia et al., 1998). Transformational leadership has shown positive effects on the on the self efficacy notions of subordinates (Locke and Kirkpatrick, 1996). It was established by Sosik et al. (1997) that, at the level of group, group strength is affected more strongly by transformational leadership as compared to transactional leadership.

Transformational Leadership and Outcomes

Transformational leadership is composed of leadership behaviours that can evoke stupefying performances amidst the followers (Schyns & Felfe, 2004). According to Avolio and Jung (2000), to generate a high level of trust in leader and the mission, transformational leaders employ the emotional involvement of the supporters (pp.950). Undoubtedly, conducts and the affect of these conducts are integrated in this explanation of transformational leadership (Yukl, 1999).. Amid others, supporters tend to get from transformational leaders, an inspiration and noetic stimulation (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: Avolio & Bass, 1995). Though, this definition faced a criticism due to the lack of clarity and its rudimentary processes (Whittington, Wofford, and Goodwin, 2001; Felfe, 2006a; Livingston, Hurst, Woolf, and Judge, 2006), transformational leadership has shown its influence on different outcome dimensions (Patterson, Fuller, Stringer & Hester, 1996; Lowe et al., 1996; Picollo & Judge, 2004; Judge et al., 2006; Felfe, 2006a). Generally, the attitude of supporters emerge to be influenced more robustly by transformational leadership in comparison to measures of performance (Piccolo & Judge, 2004)

Whilst there is an effective acknowledgement of the key consequences of transformational leadership, a number of other research determinations suggest that these effects are frequently moderated and intermediated by a number of elements. At one hand, the affirmative results of transformational leadership on the performance and attitude of supporters can be promoted by associated factors, such as relatively high degree of organizational pecking order (Lowe et al., 1996) and unfirm surroundings (Podsakoff et al., 1996), also the supporter characteristics like empowerment or authorization (Brown, Bridger, Jones, Morrison & Fuller, 1999). At another hand, transformational leadership and results interrelationship is mediated by supporter features like citizenship behaviour related to organization (Griesser, Eisenbeiss & Boener, 2007), empowerment (Bhatia, Koh, Zhu & Avolio, 2004), cooperative self-efficacy (Kan, Lawler, Peng & Walumbwa, 2004) and group coherence (Sosik & Jung, 2002). Felfe (2006a) concluded that dissimilarity in features of the supporters like, complexity and uncertainty, develops the interrelationship amidst transformational leadership and its outcomes (pp.168)

The studies mentioned above meet Yukl's (1999) suggestion that to get an evident depiction of the way in which transformational leadership leads to positive results, moderating and mediating variables must be enquired. In this perspective, similarity amidst leader and supporters can be an added moderating variable.

Transformational leaders render high satisfaction to the subordinates; frequently employ supplementary efforts; having work groups possessing soaring performances and achieve eminent grading of efficiency and output (Bass, 1995; Bryman, 1992). So, transformational leaders set up an energetic vision of organization which repeatedly requires a modification in its cultural values to promote advanced innovation. Moreover, it can be suggested that the transformational behaviour of leaders promotes the empowering of cultural norms.

According to Nanus and Bennis (1985), extraordinary leaders empower the subordinates to change their ideas into reality - and sustain it. Moreover, transformational leaders empower their supporters by giving a future's vision which acts as a stimulant, in spite of rewards and punishments. Visionary leaders are able to create a participative climate and empowered condition which helps the members of organization to carry out actions in order to realize the vision. In addition to providing vision, self confidence is build among subordinates towards the accomplishment of goal by transformational leaders through their inspiring behaviour (Avolio and Bass, 1993)


With Transformational leadership, there remains a possibility of mishandling of the authority (Kepner, Wysocki, Johnson & Hall, 2002). By using impression management, Bass (1997) proposed that transformational leadership contributes a moral self promotion amongst the leaders. It is having an adverse effect on the learning and development of an organization which involves decision making, equality, consensus and leadership. It was also suggested by Bass (1997) that transformational leadership is deficient of the checks and balances of counteracting power; interests and influences that may avoid dictatorship and domination of a group in minority by a group in majority.

Supporters may get emotionally engaged in pursuit of errant ends, as the supporters are inspired to put company's interest in front of their own interests for organization's brilliance. Perrewe and Carlson (1995) endorsed this view by stating that people get used to the prevailing culture of organization. Conclusively, Bass posited that transformational leadership seems to manipulate the supporters; as if they are losing more instead of gaining.


I have deduced certain themes on the basis of literature review, which are relevant to contemporary business world:

There is a need of transformational leadership in our developing technological society.

Four constituents of transformational leadership are of immense importance in context of a modern organization.

Transformational leaders have an ability to affect the ideals, attitudes, faiths and conducts of people while working and getting work done through them, thus actualizing organization's aim.

Transformational leaders are extremely innovative in nature and promote high performance, positively conduct the empowerment of team, provide vision and boosts up the team by empowering it.

A transformational leader sets up an energetic vision for the organization which demands for a continuous modification in the cultural values so that a higher level of innovation can be achieved.

3. Perspective of an Organization

Infosys - An Introduction

In 1981, a group of 7 people, established a company in the name of Infosys Technologies with a starting capital US$ 250. At present, they are the global leaders, in the field of IT and consultation, with revenue of over US$ 4 billion. It defines, designs and delivers technology enabled business solutions. It is in the list of Global 2000 companies. Infosys provides business solutions and services to a large spectrum of industries to be more innovative, increase efficiency, minimizing the costs, and making an optimum use of the resources. In addition to that, Infosys provides a number of engineering services, consulting services, BPO services and various products and platforms. 14

Infosys established Global Delivery Model (GDM) which was a kind of disturbing force for the industry and it increased the offshore outsourcing. The fundamental of GDM is to get the work done at a place where superior talent is available; acceptable risk is least and economic conditions are most feasible. There are more than 50 offices and development centres of Infosys in India, China, Poland, United Kingdom, Japan, Czech Republic, Canada and Australia. Infosys and its subsidiaries had 103, 905 employees as on 30 June, 2009. Infosys has developed long term strategical associations with its clients as more than 97% of its revenues are generated through current customers. 14

Infosys was recognized to be one of the best companies that motivate, empower and foster international leaders of modern epoch by Fortune magazine. Their services and processes are continuously standardized as per the globally recognized quality standards. Infosys's certification comprises of ISO 9001-2000 (International Standardization Organization), PCMM Level 5 (People Capability Maturity Model), TL 9000, SEI-CMMI Level 5 (Software Engineering Institute-Capability Maturity Model Integration) and CMM Level 5 (Capability Maturity Model). 14


To become a globally appreciated company which offers paramount business solutions, leveraging technology, bestowed by finest people. 15


To achieve the goals in an environment of fairness, courtesy and honesty t their employees, clients, vendors and society. 15

Values 15

The values motivating them emphasize their obligation to:

Customer Gladness: To progressively surpass expectation of their clientele.

Fairness: Earn faith and admiration by being goal pointed and transactional.

Leadership by Example: Standardising their business and transactions and being a paragon for their own and concerned market.

Pursuit of Excellence: Constantly striving to be the best by ceaselessly improving upon themselves, services, products and the team.

Excellence, Innovation and Speed in Execution

Infosys was the first company to construct and manage the Global Delivery Model (GDM) and to get SEI- CMMI Level 5 certification for its operations, both offshore and onsite. They manage to grow continuously by investing in the infrastructure; hiring new people, training and deploying them.

There are number of firsts to the credit of Infosys. It became the first company from India to be listed on the US stock exchange. It was also the first Indian company to do POWL (Public Offering without Listing) in Japan. It was the first company from India to get a place in the list of NASDAQ-100, in December 2006. 15

Practical Usage of the deduced themes

In the ever developing society driven by technology, Infosys has managed to survive and grow in the market by adjusting itself to the demand of market.

Infosys has followed the elements of transformational leadership in a following manner:

Individualized Consideration

At Infosys, there are monthly and quarterly meetings to discuss the concerns and maintain contact with the complete staff. 13 The morale and enterprising of employees is supported by a system, according to which ideas are entertained on the basis of merit. Employees are rewarded by incentives in the form of holidays, monetary fete, and recognition. Trust is developed with the customers by providing the services on or before time; with the investors by practicing transparent policies and even disclosing the bitter information. 19 Throughout the world, Infosys is respected for its culture of nurturing the talent, practicing high moral values and a sound management system. To handle the growth of Infosys in future, a leadership institute was founded at Mysore (India) in August 2001. It intends to train the employees for the complexities of continuously evolving market by ingraining them with the virtues of leadership so that they can bring about radical changes in the working environment. 12

Intellectual Stimulation

At Infosys, employees are always encouraged to bring out more innovative techniques to solve the problem. A team of motivated and talented people discuss about the problem and figure out the most favourable decision in company's benefit. 12 To carry out the operations and solving the problems, an approach based on experiments is followed which provides more freedom and leads to more innovative ideas. For example, presently, there is an initiative being run in three units by the name of Career Clarity. The outcomes of such initiatives are studied for a period of 2 years after which a decision is made to continue it or not. 5

Inspirational motivation

At Infosys, there are electronic bulletin boards by which the employees can have a discussion with the top management and within themselves to share the tempting ideas for problem solving. Traditionally, an e-mail is sent by Managing Director for enhancing effective communication, fortnightly. 12

At Infosys, top and bottom line targets are decided for the coming year or the quarter of year. According to their philosophy, these targets are shared with the investors. A value system is followed in the organization, which is a set of principles for governance and develops zeal, self-assurance and trust in the employees. 13

Idealized Influence

The Chairman of the Board and Chief mentor of the company, Narayana Murthy, is an idealized influence as values and ethics has always been his top priorities which he has implemented in the organization as well. Due to his efforts, Infosys has climbed the ladders of success over a span of two decades. 12 Murthy himself is driven by a particular code of conducts which encourages others working in his company and raises their confidence. It is his vision to make India, being recognized on the global scenario. 13

Murthy knows that the best way to inspire the employees for giving their best efforts in their jobs is to demonstrate the virtues of hard work, sacrifice, commitment and risk-taking through his own personality. He has always believed in the philosophy of being the change he wants to be there in other people. 13 Though he is capitalist in nature and believes in profit making, he has done a lot of work for the upliftment of the society. He has been honoured by a number of prestigious awards. 13

Infosys has adopted a unique way for the empowerment of the employees by directing their personal aspirations in the direction of common corporate target. There are debates and discussions among the staff members, executed in an egalitarian way. 13 Employees has always been regarded as the most important constituents of the organization and their professional and personal needs are always taken care of. Infosys has always believed in innovation. They are continuously striving to improve their services and products. 17

Murthy has established a culture which is based on values and driven by ethics at Infosys. He is very well aware that the investors, customers, employees and suppliers; are having a good understanding of the business and expects a high level of transparency in the dealings.12 He has got an ability to affect the conduct, beliefs and attitudes of the people and it is because of this impact that employees at Infosys keep the interests of organization ahead of their own. 13


I have got to learn that transformational leadership is a key factor behind the success of a modern organization in the current scenario. Transformational leadership is a versatile mode of leadership as it consists of the basic elements which are necessary for the effective functioning of an organization. It leads an organization on the way of innovation; empowers the employees; provides freedom to the employees to present their ideas; develops confidence among the employees, inspires them to think innovatively in order to achieve the organizational goals. It has been observed that the organization may not be able to achieve the desired results in the absence of effective leadership but an effective leader can make the organization to achieve its projected goals even if the resources are limited. Infosys is the classic example in this regard, as they started the company with an initial investment of US$250 with a team of 7 people, but the transformational leadership enabled them to be the foremost company in their field with a remarkable success.

4. Personal Development Plan

After going through the views of contemporary writers on the subject of leadership and reading about transformational leadership in detail, I would like to implement those ideas on my own personality; evaluate myself on the themes deduced during the study and create a development plan for my growth as a transformational leader.

Self Evaluation

Following are the results of psychometric tests which I have took online in order to assess myself:

T-P leadership Questionnaire

According to this examination my style of leadership is task oriented. I am looking after the sub-ordinates in context of the output. In this test my concern for people score is 6 and my concern for task score is 18, which suggests that I am not very much concerned for the people. I came out to be medium on shared leadership scale.

Jung Typology Personality Test

As per this test, I am an ENFJ (Extraverted, Intuitive, Feeling, and Judging) type of personality. My strength of preferences score in Percentage is 11%, 38%, 75% and 11%. On the basis of results, I can say that I am slightly extravert in nature, moderately intuitive personality, distinctively feeling personality and a slightly judging personality.

BBC Personality Test

According to this test, I am dependable, organized and hard-working; generates a lot of new ideas; have a positive outlook towards life; comfortable in the situations which require teamwork; often feels tensed and anxious and can experience variable moods.

Comparison with the themes deduced form the literature review

Evaluating myself on the four characteristics of transformational leadership:

Individualized Consideration: I have scored high on concern for task in comparison to concern for people which suggests that I am not very much concerned about the people at work and their ideas, hence lacking in Individualized Consideration.

Intellectual Simulation: As my score in T-P leadership test is high on task oriented leadership, it suggests that I am short of the capacity to encourage the supporters to reflect upon the issues and develop their skills.

Inspirational motivation: I have an ENFJ type of personality on the basis of Jung Typology test which states that I have charismatic personality and ability to persuade the behaviour of others. ENFJ's are having unique skills of salesmanship and extraordinary interpersonal skills.

Idealized Influence: On the basis of BBC Personality Test I am reliable, ordered and hard-working; brings out new innovative ideas; possessing a positive attitude towards life; comfortable while leading a team. These factors can be a source of inspiration for the people working in the organization.

Development Plan

After completing Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering, and working in a foremost automobile company, I have got an opportunity to join the MBA course. It is a great learning experience. The modules which I have studied by now have helped me a lot to broaden my knowledge about the various aspects of management. Various types of presentations, discussions, seminars and creative activities have boosted up my confidence. By now, I was only aware of the technical aspects of running an organization. But the modules are helpful to familiarize myself with the contemporary thoughts on management. By the research methodology used to make the assignments, I have learnt to think critically over the issues. As a number of assignments are group projects, I have got an opportunity to work as a team with the people from different cultures.

My earlier experience was that of working with the largest car manufacturer of India i.e. Maruti Suzuki India Limited. There, I learnt the various tools of Total Quality Management and an exposure to handle such a large volume of production while maintaining the world class quality. But still, there remained a void; sort of lack in knowledge to understand the working of an organization. The MBA course is helping me to acquire the skills required to run a business successfully and efficiently while taking care of the rising competition. As now, I am in a country which is best, as far as the management practices are concerned. It is a lifetime opportunity for me to gain the maximum exposure to sharpen my skills. My present target is to have a deep understanding of the theoretical aspects of the management principles and figure out their practical essence. For this, I am attending various seminars organized by the university on networking, setting up a new business, social media marketing etc.

My future plans are relevant to my prior experience and the present learning. I had knowledge of technical and operational aspects of running a company, but the areas like finance, motivation of people, marketing strategies and organizational leadership are totally new to me and helping to gain the required knowledge to fulfil my dream of setting up my own company. While conducting research on this topic, I came to know that to set up a company; leadership traits, sound managerial qualities and knowledge of different aspects which are mandatory to run an organization in an efficient manner is required. It also needs an effective communication with the employees and motivating them. After completion of the MBA program, I would like to go back to my home country and start my own business related to Mechanical Engineering. I would follow transformational style of leadership as it is versatile in scope. After setting up the business, a lot of other management skills such as operations and project management; marketing; managing the people; strategy etc. will be required. I am learning these areas very well as the part of my MBA Course. After setting up the company, I will hire most competitive staff and encourage them to think creatively towards achieving the organizational goals. I will follow the best management practices in the company right from the beginning.

To run the company successfully, I have to manage my behaviour very well. I have to give individual consideration to the requirements of the employees. It must be kept in mind that every person is unique. They should be handled individually on the basis of their skills and competence. I will encourage employees to come with new ideas and sort out the old problems in novel ways for the benefit of company. I will give a vision to employees for the company, which can develop a feeling of pride towards the work. The leader is a source of inspiration for the followers, so I have to reflect those qualities in my behaviour which I expect from the employees.

(iv) Conclusion

This section of the report has helped me to have a deep look into my individuality. Various Psychometric tests helped me to understand my own personality and compare it with the fundamentals of transformational leadership. It helped me to realize the positive aspects of my personality; such as, I am goal oriented, reliable, organized, industrious, innovative and having a positive approach towards life, which should be strengthened in order to succeed. Most importantly, I came to know about the negative traits of my personality such as; I am not very much concerned for the people and keep focus on the task only, become tense and anxious during the critical situations. I have to overcome these aspects in order to motivate the subordinates for higher performances, and think critically during the crucial times. Then, I created a development plan for myself which is based on my prior experience and present learning. I have realized the importance of MBA course and especially the module 'leadership project' in starting and running a business.

5. Bibliography

1. Arnold, K.A., Barling, J., Kelloway, E.K. (2001) 'Transformational leadership or the iron cage: which predicts trust, commitment and team efficacy?' Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(7), pp.315-320, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB8M9XCSNXM0WX00XGTSN8BTLRIRHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB8M9XCSNXM0WX00XGTSN8BTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944839928"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB8M9XCSNXM0WX00XGTSN8BTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944839928"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB8M9XCSNXM0WX00XGTSN8BTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944839928"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB8M9XCSNXM0WX00XGTSN8BTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944839928"msid=944839928 (Accessed: 5 January 2011)

2. Birkinshaw, J. (2008) 'Infosys: Computing the power of people' Business Strategy Review, 19(4), pp.18-23, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"&HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"sid=cdd458ee-a475-4cc2-a3a1-HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"3870d3e0a465%40sessionmgr104HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"&HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"vid=38HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"&HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoahHYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"&HYPERLINK "http://0-web.ebscohost.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/ehost/detail?hid=113&[email protected]&vid=38&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=eoah&AN=17458245"AN=17458245 (Accessed: 11 January 2011)

3. Carpenter, D.M. (2007) 'Presidents of the United States on Leadership' Leadership, 3(3), pp.251-280, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB3M55MFVVM9LVIVJV9OLIBTLRIRHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB3M55MFVVM9LVIVJV9OLIBTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944840512"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB3M55MFVVM9LVIVJV9OLIBTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944840512"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB3M55MFVVM9LVIVJV9OLIBTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944840512"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=7DTDLTTB3M55MFVVM9LVIVJV9OLIBTLRIR&Show=Object&msid=944840512"msid=944840512 (Accessed: 7 January 2011)

4. Crawford, C.B. (2005) 'Effects of transformational leadership and organizational position on knowledge management' Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(6), pp.6-16, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X19PDMX51UJ4IQ4J4KUU8IQJMJHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X19PDMX51UJ4IQ4J4KUU8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=944839588"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X19PDMX51UJ4IQ4J4KUU8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=944839588"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X19PDMX51UJ4IQ4J4KUU8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=944839588"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X19PDMX51UJ4IQ4J4KUU8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=944839588"msid=944839588 (Accessed: 2 January 2011)

5. Kirkbride, P. (2006) 'Developing transformational leaders: the full range leadership model in action' Industrial and Commercial Training, 38(1), pp.23-32, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X4R1KQXM59UUQRIQKKZX8IQJMJHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X4R1KQXM59UUQRIQKKZX8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932975944"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X4R1KQXM59UUQRIQKKZX8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932975944"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X4R1KQXM59UUQRIQKKZX8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932975944"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8X4R1KQXM59UUQRIQKKZX8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932975944"msid=932975944 (Accessed: 4 January 2011)

6. Mehta, N. M., Oswald, S. O., Mehta, A. M. (2007) 'Infosys Technologies: improving organizational knowledge flows' Journal of Information Technology, 22(4), pp.456-464, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8KLLYPK65YT5ELPSLJJ2E8KYB6HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8KLLYPK65YT5ELPSLJJ2E8KYB6&Show=Object&msid=932977581"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8KLLYPK65YT5ELPSLJJ2E8KYB6&Show=Object&msid=932977581"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8KLLYPK65YT5ELPSLJJ2E8KYB6&Show=Object&msid=932977581"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8KLLYPK65YT5ELPSLJJ2E8KYB6&Show=Object&msid=932977581"msid=932977581 (Accessed: 12 January 2011)

7. Ó¦zaralli, N. (2003) 'Effects of transformational leadership on empowerment and team effectiveness' Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(6), pp.335-344, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8TMCMKWNWRJJKPXJKZGNM8IQJMJHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8TMCMKWNWRJJKPXJKZGNM8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932977079"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8TMCMKWNWRJJKPXJKZGNM8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932977079"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8TMCMKWNWRJJKPXJKZGNM8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932977079"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=95I5QII8TMCMKWNWRJJKPXJKZGNM8IQJMJ&Show=Object&msid=932977079"msid=932977079 (Accessed : 10 January 2011)

8. Smokoviti, L.N. (2004) 'Business Leaders' Work Environment and Leadership Styles' Current Sociology, 52(3), pp.407-427, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8TYKEXTDQGX1J6PDXPGBP8Y9B5BHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8TYKEXTDQGX1J6PDXPGBP8Y9B5B&Show=Object&msid=932976945"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8TYKEXTDQGX1J6PDXPGBP8Y9B5B&Show=Object&msid=932976945"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8TYKEXTDQGX1J6PDXPGBP8Y9B5B&Show=Object&msid=932976945"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=46Y69YY8TYKEXTDQGX1J6PDXPGBP8Y9B5B&Show=Object&msid=932976945"msid=932976945 (Accessed: 9 January 2011)

9. Trinidad, C., Normore, A.H. (2005) 'Leadership and Gender: a dangerous liaison?' Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26(7), pp.574-590. EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=8UPUYPPV0KKJJ1T914TT31KU0TPUVPYNONHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=8UPUYPPV0KKJJ1T914TT31KU0TPUVPYNON&Show=Object&msid=944839273"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=8UPUYPPV0KKJJ1T914TT31KU0TPUVPYNON&Show=Object&msid=944839273"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=8UPUYPPV0KKJJ1T914TT31KU0TPUVPYNON&Show=Object&msid=944839273"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=8UPUYPPV0KKJJ1T914TT31KU0TPUVPYNON&Show=Object&msid=944839273"msid=944839273 (Accessed: 1 January 2011)

10. Wolfram, H.J., Mohr, G. (2009) 'Transformational Leadership, Team Goal Fulfillment, and Follower Work Satisfaction' Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15(3), pp.260-274, EBSCOhost [Online] Available at: http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=3PXPMXX810PTSQPPZO-SZX0TSNXD8XMZDZHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=3PXPMXX810PTSQPPZO-SZX0TSNXD8XMZDZ&Show=Object&msid=932976644"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=3PXPMXX810PTSQPPZO-SZX0TSNXD8XMZDZ&Show=Object&msid=932976644"Show=ObjectHYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=3PXPMXX810PTSQPPZO-SZX0TSNXD8XMZDZ&Show=Object&msid=932976644"&HYPERLINK "http://0-ejournals.ebsco.com.brum.beds.ac.uk/Direct.asp?AccessToken=3PXPMXX810PTSQPPZO-SZX0TSNXD8XMZDZ&Show=Object&msid=932976644"msid=932976644 (Accessed: 6 January 2011)