For study management, leadership has been the subject of investigation almost from the time one person exercised influence over another. There are four theories of different leadership; they are Trait Theory, Behavioral Theory, Contingency Theory, and Transformational Leadership. These four different ways of leadership are the most common application methods in the daily leadership way of prevention. In this essay, will introduce the four different ways of leadership and give examples to each of them.
Trait theory is relative to the theory of types of a kind of theory of personality. Trait Theory of Leadership is also called the great theory include; social background; intelligence; personality; motivation; focus on task and social participation. Mainly is the study of a good and successful leaders and leadership related behavior and performance aspects of performance. The theory starting point is the leader of the personal traits is the key factor of decision effectiveness of leadership, the leadership efficiency depends on the leader's traits, and those successful leaders must also have some in common (Good leaders can always find the problems that others can't find, always can insight into others' perception of the others can't imagine). According to the stand or fall of leading effect, and find out the good leader and bad leaders in the personal quality or characteristics have what difference. Thus to determine a good leader should have what characteristic, such as, risk taking; assertiveness and decisiveness; achievement motivation and competitiveness; together with the conventional managerial skills of: planning and organizing; controlling' managing staff and motivating others. These traits combine personal attributes with management skills. This theory ignored the superior; however the superior always make great effect in production.
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Song Jiang, water margin beam on the chief, this is a small collectors background, but by their own personality charm attracted a large number of heroes talents to help him achieve his purpose. He can make some ability in their own above for themselves to an alternative effectiveness, and loyal, so as to help themselves step by step to reach own purpose. Although he and his organization didn't get a very good result, but it is still reflected his ability to lead an organization.
Leadership behavior theory focuses on the study of leadership of the work of the elegant demeanor mouth behavior to leadership effectiveness, and the influence of the main research achievements include: Lewin and colleagues' "two kind of leadership theory(Autocratic and Democratic)", "management grid theory 1,9 Country Club Management; 9,9 Team Management; 5,5 Middle-of-the-road Management; 1,1 Impoverished Management; 9,1 Authority-Compliance (-Whip-cracker)" by Blake and Mouton 1961, to contrast with the Trait Theory leading continuum theory, mainly from the theory to the person's close dynamic and on production concern two dimensions, as well as the control of the superior and the level of subordinate to participate in the leadership behavior classification, these theories in determining the leadership behavior type and group work performance coherence relations made limited success, the main reason is the lack of influence the success and failure of the situational factors to consider. Leadership behavior and the effectiveness of the leaders of the relationship between obviously depends on the task structure, leading members relations, leadership authority and subordinate leading demand and situational factors, leadership contingency theory make up for the defect, the article puts forward effective leadership is dependent on situational factors, and situational factor can be isolated, but as a result of practitioners is difficult to determine the leader of the relationship, task structure and contingency variable, the leadership contingency theory relative to practitioners appear too complex and difficult, make its application has certain limitations.
YueFei, a Chinese national general has contact contribution to resist foreign invasion in national in Chinese history. He always set an example no matter in what things in their own behavior to infection his side of every person and has reached the purpose that everyone can be dead for the country.
"Contingency" one word "with the specific situation and change" or "according to the concrete circumstances mean". Leadership contingency theory research and leadership behavior related situation factors on leadership effectiveness of the potential impact. Contingency theory is that, each organization's internal factors and external environment conditions are different, so the management activities does not exist is applicable to any situation principles and methods, namely: in the management practice according to the organization surroundings and internal conditions of the development and change of random strain, no static, universal management methods. Management to the organization of the internal and fully understanding the external are the key to success. Contingency theory to system point of view as the theory basis, from the system point of view to consider problems, the emergence of contingency theory means management theory to practical socialist direction another step forward. The school from the system point of view to investigate problems, its theoretical core is through the organization of each subsystem of the internal and the relationship between each subsystem, and organization and its surroundings the link between to determine the relationship between the various variable types and structure types. It emphasizes the management according to the organization of the internal and external conditions in the score, in view of the different specific conditions for different the most suitable management mode, plan or method .Include Fiedler's Contingency Theory "a task-oriented leader will be more effective when the situation is either very favorable or very unfavorable. And when the situation is intermediate a people-oriented leader will be more successful", Vroom and Yetton Contingency, they proposed three management styles, Autocratic, Consultative and Group; and the Path-goal Theory, applies expectancy theory of motivation. Leadership contingency theory to make up for the lack of influence the success and failure of the situational factors to consider this defect puts forward effective leadership is dependent on situational factors, and situational factor can be separated.
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Jose Mourinho, a football coach from Portugal. As a football coach, he can always sent different players in different game, in different position; And according to the different game he could make the most suitable adjustment for the team's, to ensure that the team in the game to get a best results in the game.
Transformational leadership theory has a lot of inclusiveness, it to leadership role process in a wide range of description, contains the leadership process has been widely multi-level angles basic point of view, is a very have theoretical and practical significance of the leadership theory. In general, transformational leadership theory the leader and the subordinate role link each other and he tried to between leader and subordinate to create a can improve both power and the moral level of the process. Have transformational leadership leaders by their own behavior model, to subordinate needs to optimize concern within the organization member's interaction. At the same time, through the organization of vision together to create and promote, inside the organization to build up the atmosphere of change, the rich efficiency to complete the process of organizational objectives to promote the adaptability of organization change. Leaders in this theory usually use four different leadership styles: Directive Leadership; Supportive Leadership; Achievement-oriented Leadership and Participative Leadership to suit contingencies. The biggest difference between Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership is Transactional Leadership "do what is required"; however, Transformational Leadership "go the extra mile" And a transformational leader needs four qualities; Charisma, Inspiration, Intellectual stimulation and Individual consideration.
Inter Milan Football club, a famous football club all over the world, In the season underachievement, they replaced the head coach of the team three times, in a different tactical in a very bad situation each different coach led the team to give the best results, especially in the current coach of the team led by the rapid development, the battle ease some objective factors brought about by the adverse situation.
In conclusion, if you want to be good and successful leaders, the above four leadership is undoubtedly a very good method. First of all to perfect their own charm, and their own behavior to influence employees, then must be based on to rent different decision to the different situations of different things; To motivate employees, and let them believe in themselves that they have the ability to do them job well; it is very important that for different people arrange for their work, has reached the purpose of the thing in a best way.