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Training and development is an important part for an organisation's long-term profitability and to increase people productivity. It is a common thinking that new employees need more training then existing employees. According to gender solutions (2011) to improve the company's competitive position and employee morale, there is a need of training and development to build a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team. When a company gives training to its staff, it increase the organisations productivity, financial gains, less need for supervision of staff and reduce employee turnover.
"Training and development, though primarily concerned with people, is also concerned with technology and processes, or the precise way an organization does business" (Laired 2003: 8).
The purpose of this research is to explore the importance of training and development to work with organisations that deal with learning disability and vulnerable adults. The researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative approach with involvement of interviews and questions. Researcher will design questionnaire, aim and objectives for this study and provide the HOPE Super Jobs background. The researcher is working with disable people and researcher knows the positive and negative effects of training to work with those people. Therefore, researcher chooses the above mention topic. This research will help these sorts of organisations including HOPE Super jobs to review their training programs.
The rationale of this study is that people have different types of diseases and disabilities. Working with different disable people according to their disability need is very complex work. Therefore, carers need specific trainings to the need of service users.
The organisations, which are working with vulnerable adults and with learning disability, hire well-trained staff with national vocational qualification (NVQ) levels trainings. They also provide on the job trainings, which are required for their service users needs. If a service user has an epilepsy disease than a carer who is working with that client, need epilepsy training and other trainings to different diseases peoples. Therefore, after getting training carers can work more properly with that service users and increase the organisation productivity.
The aim of this study is to explore the importance of training and development of staff working with learning disability and vulnerable adults and it depends upon following objectives.
Objectives of this study are
To clarify the importance of trainings.
To describe the extent to which the effectiveness criteria for employees training met
To analyse the existing training module
To understand the employees perception about training needs
To draw a conclusion about effects of employee training on organisations
HOPE (Helping other people into employment) Super Jobs Limited is a caring agency which is founded by Marlene Joseph and opened its first branch in London (2003) and second branch in Leicester (March 2011) in United Kingdom (HOPE super jobs, 2011). Marlene Joseph has 15 years experience in business management, organizational change, trainer, coach, mentor and as senior manager. HOPE Super Jobs is a multi-cultural domiciliary care / recruitment agency serving the community, which offers a specialised service for children with disabilities and vulnerable adults. The company has highly trained staffs that reflect the community at large providing a safe environment for themselves and their service users.
The company acts as conduit between councils and service users. It provides a great range of services at competitive rate and regularly reviews the service users need at home and in community, and gets their feedback about the services provided by the company.
The main motive of the company is to provide the care services at a moment's notice and has 24-hour dial-in service for carers and for service users. The company has a philosophy to treat service users and carers as the most important people.
HOPE Super Jobs (2011) are "specialist care providers for children with multiple disabilities and complex healthcare. Disabilities such as Autism, Aspergers syndrome, ADHD, ADD, Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy, Spinal bifida , ALS, Muscular Dystrophy, Dizziness, Parkinson's Diseases, Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain, Fibromyalgia, Brachial Plexus Injury. We are also developing an after school system where we help children with learning disabilities by using the PEC system at home".
HOPE super jobs also provide these services:
Escort services for London Borough of Redbridge
Catering staff to different restaurants
Home help like shopping and house keepings
Cleaners for hovering, dusting and washing etc
According to HOPE Super Jobs (2011), they provide training courses, which include:
Equality & Diversity
Telephone Skills and communication
Interpersonal & Assertiveness Skills
Teams & Team Building
Introduction to Care and security
Health & Safety
Adult Basic Skills
Harassment & Bullying in schools
"The purpose of the literature review is not to provide a summary of everything that has been written on research topic, but to review the most relevant and significant research on the topic" (Saunders et al. 2009).
The review includes a brief background of research on training and development, some rationale to the gaps being investigated and, questions that will be explored.
Training and Development presents a comprehensive, systematic approach to developing training programs. According to Buckley and Caple (2009), training has always played an important and an integral part in furthering many kinds of human learning and development.
"The purpose of the training and development is to enable an individual to acquire abilities in order that he or she can perform adequately a given task or job and realize their potential" (Buckley, Caple 2009: 9).
Methods of Training
Definition of training
Definition of literature 150-200 words
systemic approach of training 2007 buckley figure and explain
According to Slide Share (2011), there are two methods of training:
Cognitive methods are theory base training which gives to trainees. It includes lectures, demonstrations, discussions and computer based training etc.
Behavioural methods are giving practical training to trainees. This method is very useful for skill development. It includes games and simulations, role-plays and case study etc.
Method of Development
Slide Share (2011) present development method is concerned with education of employees and this is future oriented method because this prepares employees for future programs.
There are two parts of development:
On the Job Training
Off the job Training
The techniques, which are mostly used for on the job training are coaching, mentoring, job rotation and job instruction technique.
Off the job trainings techniques are which an employee take these trainings while he/she is not on the job. The few methods are sensitivity training, transactional analysis, lectures and simulation exercises.
On the job
Off the job which training in company
Different streatgys of trainings
Internal training and external 2002 martin and Jackson
Training advanantages--- benefits buckley and capel 2007 200 words
Company benefits for this training 50 words
Training need in orgnation change heading 100-150
Organization main kiyon hote hay hope ko kiya faida ho ga
Evalution of training programmes heading change company main kasey hotee hay
At last summary of above its plan but explain in final dissertation
The main topic of this dissertation is itself a question, which is as follows:
"Why Training and Development is necessary for working with organisations that deal with Learning Disability and Vulnerable Adults?"
The further sub-questions will be examined as follows:
Why HOPE Super Jobs provide on the job trainings?
Why HOPE Super Jobs is working with disable people?
What are the effects of employee trainings on HOPE Super Jobs?
How carers rate HOPE Super jobs after getting training?
What motivates carers to join HOPE Super jobs?
"The hypothesis can be tested by collecting data and analysing the results. The results are expected to provide answers to the hypothesized relationships and to reinforce or modify existing theory" (Hair et al. 2011, p. 39).
Saunders et al (2009) defines the deductive and inductive approach as:
Deductive Approach: Some research projects use the literature to help the researchers to identify theories and ideas that will test using data is called deductive approach.
Inductive Approach: Some research projects which researchers will be planning to explore data and to develop theories from them that you will subsequently relate to the literature is called inductive approach.
Deductive Vs Inductive
Hypothesis Tentative Hypothesis
Figure: Burney, A,S,M (2008)
The researcher will mostly use deductive approach to test the hypothesis but where needed inductive approach will also be used or in other words, it can be mix of two approaches.
Research methods explains the research that how the researcher will design the research, research philosophy, sources of data (primary and secondary), methods of data collection and analysis of data, ethical issues and limitations of this research.
Fisher (2004) puts research methodology in a question form as "HOW" the objectives are going to be achieved. Saunders et. al (2009) also add, as it will also justify your choice of method in the light of those objectives. Research methodology is a very important component of any research, which can make the difference between irrelevant, and a relevant work. It also determines the accuracy and validity of any research activity. This part of the proposal clearly states all activities the researcher wishes to undertake in order to meet or achieve research objectives.
According to Saunders et al. (2009), there are three main key areas, which use in research methodology:
Survey design explains about the target population, practical questions like True-False, interviews and e-mails response and scaling method. Data collection is thus another important aspect of the research methodology. Data analysis is an extremely important aspect to consider when conducting research e.g. analysis through Pie charts, bar diagrams, histograms, T. test, Z. test, ANOVA, null and alternate hypothesis.
Types of Research Methodologies
There are two types of research:
Qualitative: This method uses techniques as case studies, ethnography and discourse analysis.
Quantitative: quantitative methodologies use experiments, interviews and surveys.
The researcher will use the survey research methodology for research and a questionnaire will be develop to address the issues. Questionnaire offers the most cost effective method for securing feedback on the importance of training and development for working with disable people. The reseeracher will also add a comment / suggestion question at the end.
The researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative methods. As the researcher choose a case study so first data will be analyse qualitatively and then quantitatively where needed. The researcher will conduct this research on HOPE Super jobs and for this informal approval as been gained from the Managing Director.
The researcher is planning to design a questionnaire, interviews to staff and, then personal observations to collect the data. The researcher will review the literature on training and development to support researcher's study which is already been done by many authors.
Are you Using Qualitative/Quantitative
Qualitative methods are quite suitable for studying organisations, groups and individuals (Ghauri and GrØnhaug 2005, p. 111). "Although quantities experimental research is not considered qualitative, descriptive surveys with open-ended questionnaire often used as one form of data collection, particularly when a broad overview of a population is required" (Grbich 2007, p.6).
Three major elements sum up to make a qualitative research (Miles and Huberman, 1994; Ghauri and GrØnhaug, 2005).
The data is gathered through personal observations and by interviews
Interpret and analyse the techniques and findings of the research
The report is written in the form of theory especially for students
According to Experiment Resource.Com (2011), "The primary aim of a Qualitative Research is to provide a complete, detailed description of the research topic. Quantitative Research on the other hand focuses more in counting and classifying features and constructing statistical models and figures to explain what is observed".
Figure: Quantitative and qualitative methods and techniques, Jankowicz (2005)
The above figure clearly shows the difference between qualitative and quantitative method. Quantitative method is best with experiments and statistical reviews. If there is a case study, the qualitative and quantitative methods both applied at same time.
"In qualitative research, findings are not arrived at by statistical methods or other procedures of quantification" (Ghauri and GrØnhaug 2005, p.109).Qualitative and quantitative method both use to analyse the data depending on expected outcome and data collection.
As the researcher's topic is a case study. Therefore, the researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative method. The researcher will design questionnaire, conduct interviews and observations etc. In addition, quantitative method will also used to analyse the data or the result of interviews.
The scope section in research will define that how narrow or broad is this research. It will explain the number, gender, age and ethnic background of the company. As the researcher select, the company, which is HOPE Super jobs so the scope of this company is, describe in below lines.
According to Joseph, M (2011) HOPE Super jobs currently employee 117 people and still in process to providing training to more peoples to employee them as support workers and other staff.
The more detail about gender, Age Group and ethnicity details are in below table and diagram.
No. of Employees
Hope Super Jobs have 84 Male and 27 Female staff from different part of the world and from different age group.
The age group of all employees is listed in below table and diagram.
No. of Employees
Source: (Joseph, M 2011)
The above mentioned table and diagram shows that from age group 18-21 Hope Super Jobs have 16 employee, from 22-39 age group 54 employees, 40-59 age group 35 employee and 60+ are 7 employees.
According to Joseph, M (2011) the ethnicity details of all employees in HOPE Super Jobs Ltd are in detail in below table:
Trinidad and Tobago
Source: (Joseph, M 2011)
Method of Analysis
The researcher will analyse the data by providing valuable tables and diagrams like Histograms, Bar charts, Pie charts, trend line, scatter diagram and if needed after discussion with supervisor statistical tests (T. test, Z. test, ANOVA, chi square, null and alternate hypothesis etc) will be used to interpret data. In addition, interpretation of interviews will be described.
The researcher will also analyse data by using qualitative and quantitative analysis.
According to Saunders et al. (2005) the data when analyse qualitatively it includes following:
Qualitative data are non-numerical data, this data require classification and are analysed by conceptualisation
It involves, summarising data, categorising data and structuring data to draw conclusion
It can be relate by using deductive approach or inductive approach
The use of computer software's to analyse data
According to Saunders et al. (2009), quantitative analysis includes the following:
Data can be collected and subsequently coded at different scales of measurement.
Then data entered for computer analysis and all recorded data have numerical codes.
Table and diagrams to show highest and low values, trends, proportions and relationship between variables.
Use of statistics to analyse data such as chi square, t-test, ANOVA, correlation etc.
"Research ethics relates to questions about how we formulate and clarify our research topic, design our research and gain access, collect data, process and store data, analyse data and write up our research findings in a moral and responsible way" (Saunders et al. 2009, p. 184).
According to Saunders et al. (2009) there are some ethical issues, which are as follows:
Keep privacy for all participants who are involved in this research;
Confidentiality of data provided by individuals and their secrecy ;
Reaction of participants while collect data, including embarrassment, stress, discomfort, pain and harm;
Behaviour and objectivity as researcher to remain ethically neutral;
Proper Acknowledgement to the actual writer from where the information came from or if use any secondary data;
Acknowledge to those people who contribute and helped to the completion of the research.
Maintain objectivity when reporting and during the stages of analysing the research.
The use of internet and e-mail to collect data also generates specific ethical concerns, where data are public and private.
The researcher during the research will bear in mind all the research ethics that are discuss above to conduct research and university's code of ethics on research and plagiarism.
The time lines are listed in below Gantt chart that shows all activities, which researcher will carried out during her research.
conduct Literature Review
Draft Research Strategy and method
Enter data into computer
Draft findings chapter
Update literature read
Complete remaining chapters
Submit to tutor and await feedback
Revise draft, format for submission
Print and bind
Gantt chart for dissertation Source: (Saunders et. al, 2009)
5 May 2011: Submission of dissertation proposal
9 May 2011: Research work start
6 August 2011: Research work finish
8 August 2011: Submission of draft dissertation
1 September 2011: Submission of final dissertation
The above table shows the detail timescale and different stages for dissertation.
The estimated budget is as follows:
Telephone calls for interviews
Photocopy and binding
In conclusion, this dissertation proposal is very significant part of the research because it presents all the required information like finalise topic, objectives, research questions and methodology which researcher will use for final dissertation. This research proposal will be very helpful for the researcher to organize all activities according to given timescale. This dissertation is also a base to final research.
This research will be very interesting and helpful for HOPE Super Jobs, all other organisations and carers who are working with disable peoples.
Finally, the researcher takes care of the feasibility of the proposed research and will conduct her further research when it is approved and allowed by the university.
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