Theory And Practice Of Managing Human Capital Commerce Essay

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The theory and practice of Employee Resourcing has evolved, and is now somewhat more complicated within the modern organizations. The long days of recruiting people by placing advertisements in newspapers are getting fewer and fewer. Companies would turn to the technological marvel otherwise called as the internet. Due to this, and in response to a coursework, the author would present a convincing argument regarding the practice and theory of employee resourcing set in the modern settings. The author will cite pertinent examples, and indicate how resource issues could be avoided through organizational good health.

1. Employee Resourcing Defined

For many, employee resourcing is defined as a portion of human resource management which labels the workforce as human resources, and maximizes each resource adequately [1] . Employee resourcing also refers to the obtaining and retaining of such resources, and letting them go should the need arise. There are many instances wherein resources would have to be let go, either when they are no longer working efficiently and have to leave the company, or when it is the personal choice of a resource.

Moreover, employee resourcing is concerned with recruiting, selecting of best candidates for the position, and drawing contracts for each position [2] . It is the responsibility of human resource management to initiate and gauge each candidate against the requirements of a position, and determining the best applicant for the post. In other words, employee resourcing is accountable from conception of the recruitment process, to the point wherein an employee would leave the company, either by resignation, termination, end of contract, or for other reasons.

Yet despite the noble responsibility of employee resourcing in a company, there are those who would condemn the division's actions as being unjust and as an insult to humanity. Dr. Kevin Morrell, a premiere speaker about the topic, says that alongside the term 'human resource' comes inequality in an employment relationship [3] . There is a tension which stresses the difference between the management, or the owners of the resources, and the human force, which are just resources and completely exhaustible. This tension is disguised as power, and employees are made to feel grateful for being welcomed into the company. Due to this inequality, resources would be pushed to their very limits, until they could contribute no longer and have to leave the company.

Other companies would hide such inequalities in the form of 'flexibility [4] '. They would impose an evaluation which was supposed to work in such a way that the employees think they have more freedom, but they are actually made more liable to a company. There are many 'casualties of flexibilities' [5] such as losing time for one's family, society, changing loyalty, relationships, among many others. These flexibilities could come in the form of flexible working hours with no overtime pay, whilst asking the employees to work pro-bono in the weekends. This example of flexibility could render an employee to over fatigue.

2. The elements of Human Resource Planning

Whilst human resourcing is for maximizing the human resources, human resource planning on the other hand is required to anticipate coming business and environmental demands which could hamper the production, and to provide qualified candidates to satisfy such demands [6] . It is a process which focuses on identifying key resource needs in the light of changes, and to develop solutions to answer impediments in order to not compromise the company's overall physique. To simplify, it is the act of planning in order to give the most valuable talent to the company at the most vulnerable time.

An example of human resource planning is when a Human Resource officer would have several applicants for a position which was just filled, in order to have a back up candidate in case their current candidate failed to do the right responsibilities. This way, once the other candidate fails, then the resource officer could simply check his or her files and select the next qualified applicant.

2.1 Talent Management

This refers to the part of human resource management wherein the management ensures that the right talents are attracted, retained, motivated, and developed within the company [7] . This is the first step in human resource planning, wherein resource officers would plan on how to best attract suitable candidates for the position.

2.2 Recruitment and Selection

After attracting the best candidates for the position, it will be followed by the recruitment and selection of qualified aspirants. The job's responsibilities would be thoroughly analyzed, proper aspirants would be attracted whether it is internally or within the company, or externally, which is finding candidates through other media. Finally, qualified candidates would be interviewed, tested, and would be filtered accordingly to ensure that the position goes to the best qualified candidate [8] .

These two items conclude the human resource planning, wherein plans are made to keep and attract proper candidates who have the needed talents and capabilities to answer to the needs of an organization. They would be filtered through the recruitment and selection phase, and in the end, only the most qualified candidates would be kept.

3. Recruiting Women

Though in the past, men have always held key positions within companies, contemporary organizations are now reaching out to include more women in their workforce. Such an example would be recruitment for prison officers, wherein the Head of Employee Resourcing at the Scottish Prison Service mentioned that women make excellent officers. For the Scottish Prison Service, they prefer to recruit people based on personal qualities, and does not dwell upon gender discrimination [9] .

Aside from this bold step towards recruiting people in different genders led by the Scottish Prison Service, there are also those who prefer to draw more women in top positions in their companies [10] . These women were given trainings and adequate learning in order to understand their roles and responsibilities, and how to best prepare them for every scenario that they might handle.

4. Recruiting through the Internet

Human resource personnel have an edge over other personnel from the past millennia, seeing as they are now blessed with technological advancements which allow them to reach a far broader scope of candidates and aspirants. The Internet could be said as one of these marvels, as 47% of companies are leaning towards recruiting through the Internet in 1999 [11] . Imogen Daniels of Institute of Personnel and Development (IPD) mentions that the Internet as a 'recruitment tool' would be utilized in the coming years. Daniels also mentioned how he foresees that even more and more companies would switch to the method of recruiting through the Internet in the future [12] .

A survey conducted by IPD shows astounding results regarding recruitment through the Internet. Accordingly, companies use the Internet for the following reasons:

Figure Internet as a recruiting tool [13] 

The figure above shows that majority of corporations who use the Internet as their recruiting tool utilize it by receiving applications from candidates through e-mail. Thirty-six percent of the corporations post their own vacancies through their companies' personal intranets, and twenty-five percent utilize the Internet in recruiting in the means of using their companies' websites to advertise their open positions.

The Internet is being utilized in contemporary organizations to recruit new staff, advertise for openings, and indicate job requirements. It is also being used by companies to post for their professional staff.

Figure Advertisements in the Internet [14] 

The figure above demonstrates how majority of companies who are using the Internet for their recruitment purposes is posting for jobs which are open for professional staff. It is followed by a thirty-six rate of openings for managerial staff, and a twenty-three percent for skilled manual workers bring the rear. Therefore it could be concluded that companies use the Internet for gathering their employee resource for professional staff, managerial staff, and skilled manual workers.

5. Online Resourcing

Aside from the blatant recruitment through the Internet, Online resourcing is also rampant in the world of employee resourcing in the contemporary setting. Yet there are critics who say that companies fail to maximize online resourcing in terms of some recruiters' prerequisite background in IT environments [15] .

Online resourcing works by forwarding a large number of applicants to the company who has opened a position with the online resource site. Then the company would select the most promising CVs from the pile, and proceed to process those candidates. Yet there are instances wherein promising candidates do not display a fraction of their promised skills in their CVs, therefore costing the company more expenses in terms of training the new personnel and management [16] . Some companies would prefer to use contractors, instead of having regular employees. By using contractors, they are saving in terms of not giving the employee health and medical benefits, dental, and other perks which could only be abused by regular employees.

6. Resourcing Issues

Despite the changes in employee resourcing in the contemporary setting, there are still resourcing issues which are rampant throughout the country. It is said that these issues are related to organizational good health. The author wishes to translate that to organizational environment and over-all standing. For example, if the environment of a workplace remains to be too toxic and too stressed, then the resources would become stressed as well, therefore dramatically decreasing production and the level of service that particular resource could provide. Other resources might catch the first employee's attitude, and what would happen next would be a group of resources who are refusing to work due to their hard situations.

According to Angela Baron, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) Adviser on Employee Resourcing, the recruiting and retaining of staff is the biggest obstacle in employee resourcing [17] . Due to the economic crisis, people would opt to be underemployed rather than be unemployed, therefore they would join companies with little devotion and commitment. When they are able to see better opportunities with other companies, they would leave their initial organizations for the sake of growth. This scenario makes it hard for employee resourcing to retain staff. Since a company would have to train its staff adequately, once a trained staff resigns, or leaves his post, then it would merit to more expenses for the company in terms of training more people.

Whilst some companies fall down and become bankrupt, there are those which are flourishing despite the unstable market. Therefore, the three Rs of employee resource are felt throughout the realm: Recruitment, Retention, and Redundancy [18] .

The causes of the three Rs could be linked to little specialist skills, unqualified applicants, and too small wages, which are felt dramatically in the public sector. Despite the lowering of wages, the living standard and cost of living continue to grow particularly in London, and other major cities [19] . With these reasons, unhappy resources are popping up in every company.

There are those who would opt to hire new people in order to solve their company's resourcing issues, but there are surefire ways of saving money while handling the issues at hand. One of such actions would be to hire internally, instead of searching externally for talents. There might be cases wherein they are paying a lot for one staff that is doing no work. Such would be grounds for dismissal, and they could use the former's salary to compensate another worker for a job well done. Promotions could boost the morale of the people, and are crucial in keeping workers happy and productive. The company does not always have to cut back on people - they could consider the talents they might lose when they let people go [20] .

Companies could look into their resources and determine the function and responsibilities of their current employees. They could promote some, deploy them to better fitting locations, and encourage growth and a sense of oneness between the employer and employees, which are moving toward a common goal.

7. Conclusion

It is important that a company is able foresee future impediments and provide safeguard measures to avoid them from manifesting. In line with this, the human resource team should be able to accommodate any resource needs which might come up in the future by keeping CVs on file and keeping an eye on potential candidates. Hiring externally is also not always a solution: a company might cross-train people, retain those who are good in their jobs, and train them to new positions that they are capable of handling in order to save on recruiting new people which would add to the company's payroll. Giving higher pay to one person with bigger responsibilities is always cheaper than hiring a new person who has no experience inside the company's environment [21] .

There might also be instances wherein an organization would hire more people for a problem, but instead of fixing the problem in itself, they would hire people who have no idea on how to address the deficiencies. If there are serious problems with the workflow, then such problems should first be addressed before bringing in new people.

This paper shows that the modern setting has dramatically changed the practices and theories of Employee Resourcing, and how resourcing issues affect the workplace in itself. By keeping the company's environment safe and conducive for resources, then the company is almost guaranteed to get higher production and better results from their resources.