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In business, the recruitment process for a new employee to join a firm has been completely changed by the internet and nowadays all the traditional process of recruitment have been passed into a new process known as E-Recruitment. Based from Schreyer & McCarter (1998), E-Recruitment was refers to the recruitment process which including exchange the human resource database between employers and employees, post or receiving resumes and placing job vacancy in anytime, anywhere. Whilst, Millman (1998) was cited in Rozelle & Landis (2002) studies who suggested that online recruitment offers an efficient way to identify a practically unlimited number of job seekers in the computer technology services. In Chapman and Webster's (2003) survey research in the USA which found that most organisations will consider implemented technology in recruitment and selection to improve the efficiency of work, reduce administrate costs, expand the applicant pool and standardize the service systems using in company.
In the Othman Ibrahim, Norafida Ithnin, Noor Awanis Muslim (2006) studies, online recruitment as a fundamental business process that may introduction a good workflow systems, removal the complexity process, reduce the waste paperwork, and reliable the database applications. From Othman studies also mentioned that purpose of online recruitment is to add value in existing process control, to dramatically improve the workflow, deliver a significant saving in cost per hire and incorporating with agency and traditional media of suppliers. These dual communicate internet has been a wealth information and contacts for both employers and job seekers in services system.
Besides, E-recruitment in Mona Salehi (2010) studies has been as one of the highly used applications on the internet and which are designed as a powerful medium between employers and job seekers to allow interact in a fast, efficient and effective way. From Salehi studies has stated that from a job seekers view, an e-recruitment has provides a unique opportunity to explore the employment opportunities through a broad database of jobs. Therefore, job seekers can easily post the resume online and get the feedback immediately from the potential employers. Whilst, for the employer's perspective, E-Recruitment act as a delivers tools between the job seekers with them and functionally in a convenient, low cost, and efficient way to providing a direct access in a continuously expanding database of resume.
According to Pastore (2002) studies, the growth of online population which using the E-Recruitment service has been predictable and the population of growth have closing to the digital divide gap. This increase may due to the added value in convenience which provided by online recruitment websites. Therefore, the job seekers may able to view the multiple openings and post the resume for employers view without leaving the comfort of homes. In Dixon (2000) which mentioned that some corporate companies even use the own organization web sites to recruit people. So, most of the E-recruiters has provide a free charge of services to let the applicants or jobseekers can post their resume online (Galanaki, 2002). Thus, the growth of resume is predictable with the free posting. Therefore, it have about millions of resume are posted to famous E-Recruitment web sites and it has been becoming a true market which uncontrolled and unconstrained by geography (Cappelli, 2001).
Eventually, online recruitment emerged as useful and advantageous method compared to traditional methods (Jansen & Jansen, 2005). In the light, online application has become an essential tool for the companies to adopt complicated recruitment and selection strategies to get the right employee at the right time (Azrina Hafizah binti Abdul Aziz, 2006). Therefore, traditional recruitment procedures maybe cannot cope up the industry requirements especially in selecting the right candidate quicker. That's the reason where the E-Recruitment services may act as a capable tool to reaching in various segments of the job searching market and dramatically changed the way of job seekers to find suitable and matching positions.
Nowadays, most job seekers willing to use third-party recruitment websites or electronic recruitment services to gather job information and post the resumes to the employer by using Internet technology (Bartram, 2000; Scheyer & McCarter, 1998). The third-party of E-recruiters will provide a service to companies who are interested to use the web sites as job advertisements or post a vacancy position. While, this is a posted resume at a fee lower than most traditional recruitment methods. Therefore, more of the third-party E-recruiters often would link job seekers to companies' pages even though the applicants using third-party sites (Zusman & Landis, 2002). Once third-party sites received or collected these resume from the job seekers then those third-party recruiters will forward the database immediately to the appropriate organizations (Recruiting Report, 1999). That information can then be stored in the information system for immediate or future use.
In the USA, Cober and Brown (2006) found that over 50 per cent of new job seekers were use the source of the internet to search a job and that this was expected to increase in the future. In Crispin and Mehler (2006) research found that 20 per cent of the external new hires were from corporate web sites and another 13 per cent were search from jobs boards. In the UK, Total jobs (2004) found that two thirds of UK organisations choose to use an independent web site to matching the recruiters to job applicants and may through job advertisements. Thus, it has declaration that the internet would be a part of recruitment practices within organisations. In addition, from the HR Focus (2000) report state that more than 75 percent of human resource professionals are started using web job boards or E-recruitment service to replace the use of traditional recruiting methods
Arthur (2001) found that 96 per cent of US companies were online with spending on electronic advertising expected to rise from $48 million in 2001 to $460 million by 2006. In the UK, online recruitment has become popular for both organisations and job seekers. For instance, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (2006) found that 64 per cent of UK organisations would used e-recruitment and predict that the growth of the Internet will be consider as a recruitment tool. Those number of Internet users in worldwide has been predicted to reach 750 million in 2008 (Turban and King 2003). This tremendous growth has led to the adoption of e recruitment system among organizations across the world.
In sum, E-recruitment as activity which may fast growing in globally and could worth in a billion of Ringgits Malaysia in each annually (Yoon & Sivanand, 2005). Thus, the presence of E-Recruitment in the labour market has frequently become a true market which consisted with thousands of resumes being posted daily by job seekers to online hiring sites. It has determine as a faster cycle time, cheaper, and convenient recruitment system for both the employers and the job seekers compare to the traditional approaches. Therefore, E-Recruitment may make the paper wok be eliminated and replaced with the internet technology to complete the work task.
2.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
Actual System Use
Behavioral Intention to Use
Perceived Ease of Use
Figure 1: TAM model sourced from Davis (1989)
TAM was developed by Davis (1989) to predict the individual's acceptance of information technology in online system. Besides, TAM model also defined as the mediate affective response between usefulness and ease of use.In Davis (1986) studies has mention that TAM act to analyse the new technology system to be adoption in job search. Therefore, widen of E-recruitment service maybe reach to South-east Asia especially in Malaysia which desirable to test the perception of jobseeker and experiences of using e-recruitment. The main purpose of TAM was to provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance, user behaviour across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations (Davis, 1989).
TAM is act as extension of Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Unlike TAM, TRA takes in the social influences such as subjective norms. Based from Davis (1989), it has defined as user behaviour is determined by the intention to be performing the behaviour and subjective norms (Davis, 1989). TAM has received much attention from researchers to explaining and predicting usage intention and acceptance behaviour (Yi and Hwang, 2003). Additionally, TRA has predicted that people also would take into account to test the effects of actions (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980).
In online user behaviour studies have state that the performance and expectations of usage in E-Recruitment has become one of the factors that may predict the user acceptance and adoption in the internet service (Hong, Thong, Wong, & Tam, 2001). Consequently, TAM normally would consist with two primary significant beliefs. Those are perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU). Perceived usefulness is refers as the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance the job performance (Davis, 1989). While, perceived ease of use is defined as to extent when a person believes that using a technology will be free of effort (Davis, 1989). Taking into developing country context, technology acceptance model approach assumes that perceived of usefulness is influenced by perceived of ease of use (Vankatesh and Davis 2000).
Recently, Venkatesh and Davis (2000) have upgraded the original TAM to the model labelled TAM 2. The purpose of TAM 2 is to explain how subjective norms and cognitive instrumental processes would affect the perceived usefulness and intentions. In contrast, TAM is a model specific to IT adoption that focuses on two beliefs such as perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEOU) (Davis, 1989). Therefore, TAM appears to be able to account for 40 percent to 50 percent of user acceptance while in TAM2 that have about 60 percent of user adoption using this updated version of TAM (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). Thus, TAM2 act as an extended the original model to explain perceived usefulness and usage intentions including social influence such as subjective norm, voluntariness, and image, and experience.
In addition, TAM system may add different factors in TAM not just using perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. From Compeau and Higgins (1995) has found that performance expectations are undertake users behaviours to help perform well in job or task. However, expectation of job seekers in usage of E-recruitment would be more effective than traditional sources if job seekers satisfaction with it. While, in Bandura (1986) studies has stated that application specific self-efficacy (ASSE) is the judgement of capabilities to organize with whatever skills one possesses.
Besides, privacy risk in TAM which may determine the jobseekers resume and applications should be protected (Gutterman, 1999). In Galanaki (2002) studies described that the major ethical issue should be concern is confidentiality and trust between employers and job seekers in E-Recruitment services. Therefore, privacy risk should be considered if want increase the satisfaction between organizations with new job seekers. Moreover, Eastin and LaRose (2000) have defined that stress encountered when using the internet is the number of stressors encountered. The perceived stress would be increase when the expectation decreasing.
Moreover, in Davis (1992) studies also predict that enjoyment may be one of the additional of value in TAM system. Enjoyment refers to which the activity of using a computer is perceived to be enjoyable in own right (Davis et al., 1992). Besides, Teo (1999) predict that enjoyment may relate to the use of Internet in online service areas. Besides, according to Igbaria (1994), perceived fun refers to the performance of an activity in a no clear reinforcement situation. While, in Moon and Kim (2001) studies define that perceived playfulness consisting with three parts such as concentration, curiosity and enjoyment.
In Chau (1996) studies has divided the construct of perceived usefulness in TAM model into two parts such as perceived near-term usefulness and perceived long-term usefulness. Based on Jiang et al. (2002) research has developed that utilization of the internet technology model to explore user acceptance of internet. Testing the utilization of the internet is positively related to perceived near-term usefulness and perceived long-term usefulness. However, the deployment of the internet technology model would use to investigate the usage of the internet.
In sum, TAM model is a use of new technology to determine the individual's attitude toward using this technology. From Davis (1986; 1989) studies has been discovered that technology acceptance model (TAM) is one of the best-known approaches to explain and predict user acceptance of information systems. Therefore, organization may predict the primary factors such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and additional value in TAM model to examine validity and reliability of acceptance system.
Perceived Ease of use
Self Respond System Usage
Davis et. al.
Perceived Ease of Use
Intention to Use
Perceived ease of Use
Perceived Ease of Use
Behavioural Intention to Use
David Yoon Kin Tong
Perceived Ease of Use
Application-Specific Self Efficiency
Table 1: Studies on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
Perceived usefulness is defined as user attitudes toward using the system will change the evaluation of the behavioural outcomes and may enhance the job performance (Davis, 1989). In Nielsen (2000) studies, perceived usefulness is defined as the ease of using a web site to achieve and search desired information. Besides, perceived usefulness refers to the perception of users that the usage of information system will improve work performance (Davis, 1989).
In recent reports has state in concerning the usability, benefit, quality and success of e-recruitment may led researchers to express interest in conducting an evaluation of the use of e-recruitment applications (Smith, 2001). Therefore, usefulness of website has been associated with a number of outcomes that may relate to a job seeker's web site search behaviour (Richard T. Cober, Douglas J. Brown, Lisa M. Keeping and Paul E. Levy, 2001). For example, usefulness has been associated with users in desire to continue to use web sites and behavioural outcomes (Nielsen, 2000).
In a study of 360 customers, Chau (2001) found that the usefulness of online service system has a significant influence with behavioural intentions. Besides, Bhattacherjee (2001) also found that perceived usefulness would have a significant influence with the user's satisfaction and intention to use. In Devaraj, Fan, & Kohli, (2002) studies who established that perceived usefulness has an significant impact to the user satisfaction in E-Recruitment system. The research findings of Koufaris (2002) and Chiu, Chang, Cheng, and Fang (2009) also indicate that perceived usefulness has a great influence upon reuse intention of on-line customers.
Effective e-recruitment service providers often support jobseekers with a wide-ranging of job information and act as a career enhancement tools in the web (Tong and Sivanand, 2005). Perceiving usefulness as ancestor of usage in E-recruitment to receive the information easily and maybe a tool to enhance the effectiveness and convenient in job application (David Yoon Kin Tong, 2008). Thus, jobseekers could use the job information available in internet to applying for jobs (Fountain, 2005). Prior recruitment research has a significant relationship between website content usefulness and organizational attractiveness (Cober et al., 2004; Williamson et al., 2003). Hence, organizational attraction would be considered influenced the scope of useful in providing information to a job seeker.
The relationship between the usefulness with the effectiveness has been determined in the previous survey data in Jie Lu and Guangquan Zhang (2003) studies. The result was indicates that 67 per cent predict that "provides useful information" is important, 58 per cent express their concerns about "provides user-friendly navigation to information" and "provides fast service",50 per cent of the companies think "guarantees transaction security" an important factor, 48 per cent indicate "guarantees services or products offered" an important factor, about 35 per cent of companies mention "provides lower cost than traditional methods", and 33 per cent record "provides more options to customer services or more product selection" as one of the important factors. Thus, in the final result that was found that "providing useful information" was the most important factors and has a significant relationship between perceived usefulness and effectiveness of e-recruitment.
In brief, perceived usefulness has refers to the degree to which a person believes using the new technology will improve performance or productivity in a form of extrinsic motivation which refers to the prospective adopter's belief that applying a system will be beneficial. Therefore, most of the organizations more prefer to choose a positive usage of technology use to add value in the traditional methods and enhanced the job application.
2.4 Ease of Use
Perceived ease of use defined as the degree to which users believe will be free of effort when using the system (Hsiu-Fen Lin, 2010). Nowadays, more users strongly desire in an easy-to-use technologies compare to complexity which would be one of the barrier causes non-use system (Katz & Aspden, 1997). Ease of use refers to the amount of cognitive effort required to use a website and shown to be an important factor in technology adoption and website success (Patrice M. Mareschal and Joel P. Rudin, 2010). In Davis (1989) studies, perceive ease of use defined as the possibility of users in free of effort software.
In general, from job seekers viewpoint, a complex system will be hard to use and less likely to be adopted since it requires significant interest of users (Teo, 2001). Similarly, in the e-recruitment context, jobseekers would more significant effort in the system if it is easy to use (David Yoon Kin Tong, 2008). Consumer behaviour research has shown that ease of use is affects by the online consumer attitudes and behaviour (Brink, Gergle, & Wood, 2002; Nielsen, 2000) and the difficulty of system may lead to dissatisfaction (Hoffman & Novak, 1996).
Moreover, internet recruiting can let the users may quickly and easily to access a website to search the information in twenty-four hours per day or seven days a week and could reducing the need for employees in job pursue (Feldman, 2002; Galanaki,2002,Smith, 2004). Therefore, as indicated on Radcliff (2000) articles that job seekers may using a few key words to search for job vacancies online in easier way than searching through newspaper and could responding to online advertisement quicker than submitting hard copy resumes to companies (Radcliff, 2000). In practice, recruiters are likely to use computer-based application forms if they better reflect candidates' knowledge, skills and abilities. (Linda Barber, 2006).
The usability of websites has traditionally been defined as the perceived ease with which applicants can access desired information from a website (e.g., Karat, 1997; Nielson, 2000). Besides, it also defined as which a specified users may desired using a system when a product may achieve goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use (Nadianatra Musa, Syahrul N. Junaini and Yanti R. Bujang, 2006). Usability of the career websites through which resumes and applications are submitted is another important feature that needs to be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of the recruitment process. This implies that users of could able find relevant information quickly and easily from the organization web site. Therefore, all the information in how to create or edit profiles, submit applications and search through job listings should be presented in clear language way (Gilles Depardieu, Pamela Islam, 2008)
As increasing in usability may increase the accessible sites would generally more usable for everyone (Pemberton, 2003) including people with or without disabilities. Increased usability mean organization would achieve goals in an effectively, efficiently and satisfactorily way to the users. When users have a positive experience towards web site then more likely the users will continue to use the site often and through the word of mouth to tell others about the site. This phenomenon will dramatically increase in online population and may manage efficiently in organization (Dobele et al., 2005). However, badly designed in E-Recruitment systems will prevent job seekers applying for job online. Therefore, usability testing is an important research area in online service system (Nadianatra Musa, Syahrul N. Junaini & Yanti R. Bujang, 2006).
In addition, from an employer or organization viewpoint, a standard application forms must be available in online and should be presented in a consistent format (Gilles Depardieu and Pamela Islam, 2008). Thus, it may make organization may easier to collect information from applicants in an efficient way. Organizations should provide efficiency tools for easy routing and allow may direct access to the information that the job seekers wishes to search (Hannon, 1998; Zusman & Landis, 2002). An efficiency E-Recruitment software system will provide flexibility to users to upload the resumes and other information in a standard format and organization may preview the resume exactly in the first place (Gilles Depardieu and Pamela Islam, 2008).
According to Braddy et al. (2003) showed that the ease of navigation to a job advertisement on a company's website was related to positive general impressions of the organization under investigation. Therefore, in Efthymios Constantinides (2004) research determine that Convenience is also a motivator for users to stop and interact with online vendors. Therefore, users would associate the convenience system with easy and fast information browsing, shopping and settling of the online transaction. Whilst, the organization must try to understand how the users are likely to perform the activities online and adjust the procedures accordingly.
In the study of Web acceptance, Sanchez-Franco and Roldan (2005) found the relationship between perceive ease of use was significant and positively related with E-Recruitment. For example, Karr (2000), in a study of students which reported that 26% of students rejected potential employers from their job search because of the poor design of their websites. Hence, organizational attraction is believed to be influenced to the extent a website (Patrice M. Mareschal and Joel P. Rudin, 2010). Whilst, in Nielson (2000) found that the inability to easily navigate a company's employment web site resulted in only 26% of applicants being able to search for a job and successfully submit an online application.
In sum, the perceived of ease of use are related to the user friendliness, quickly and easy to use (Misic 1999). Therefore, those content in the E-Recruitment system must easy to understand and easy to use. Those content such as content layout and classification (Cho 2001), structure, user interface, appearance and visual design, intuitiveness, readability, search facilities, and ease of navigation (Yang et al. 2005). Usability is to ensure that interactive products are easy to learn, effective to use and enjoyable from the user's perspective. Hence, usability is extremely important for a online application system.
2.5 Cost Saving
Liang and Huang (1998) found that transaction costs play a key role in consumer selection of electronic channels. Based from Rosita bt. Mohamed Othman and Nadianatra bt. Mus (2007) studies found that achieve cost savings can be in three areas such as reduced direct costs in newspaper advertisements, job fairs fees, reduced mailing cost and reduced workload for human resource department. Thus, savings may associated with Internet recruiting that can be partially attributed to the decreased dependence on posting various job advertisements in newspapers and in flyers (Phillip W. Braddy, Lori Foster Thompson, Karl L. Wuensch & William F. Grossnickle, 2003). Moreover, it has been predicted that Internet recruiting will virtually eliminate the use of recruiters in the future (Web Recruiting Advantages, 2001). If this prediction holds true, the cost of recruiting employees will drop significantly.
E-recruitment is the reduced costs tool which associated with internet advertising compared to print advertising. Therefore, a small cost will be involved when posting an advertisement on the internet compared to the potentially unlimited audience of the medium media (Bussler & Davis, 2001-2002. Cober, Brown, Blumental, Dowerspike & Levy, 2002, Millman, 1998, Wyld, 1997). Online recruiting can also produce cost savings and higher applicant yields. Based from the Cober (2000) has determined that companies have reported shifting from traditional to online recruiting sources could savings about 95%.However, from Ian Watmore (2005) report has mentioned that there are potentially significant savings in agency fees and advertising costs which can be achieved by adopting E-Recruitment in organization.
Moreover, a major human resource trade association recently conducted a survey to measure the advertising costs of traditional recruiting methods versus Internet recruiting. It found that traditional advertising costs are more expensive than Internet recruiting (IDC, 2000). An electronic job posting is usually cheaper and can be placed more purposefully than traditional printed media (Beck 2002). Further cost saving potential could be realized by using online job postings that are much cheaper compared to postings in printed media. However, it should be noted that the full cost savings are often only realised if the whole recruitment process is online.
Based from the job seekers perspective, the interviewees who used online recruitment gave a number of reasons for their adoption of these methods. The majority of interviewees named the need to reduce recruitment costs and to improve the efficiency of the recruitment process as significant drivers for the adoption of e-recruitment (Emma Parry and Shaun Tyson, 2008). This is with support of the survey data in June 2004 which organisations were asked to indicate the reasons why they used e-recruitment web sites. The most common reasons were cost- effectiveness (75 per cent), followed by ease of use for candidates (64 per cent), a larger candidate pool (53 per cent), ease of use for the organisation (52 per cent), speed to hire (52 per cent) and company policy (50 per cent). Therefore, cost effectiveness in E-recruitment would named be an important factor that may encourage and increase interest of job seekers to use it.
In addition, the relationship between the cost saving and effectiveness of E-recruitment has been predicted. In organizational, administration burden to the HR department will be reduced by using e-recruitment system. From the Integrated Environmental Solution (IES) research has found that 47 percent of survey respondents used E-recruitment system for renovation recruitment and administration and fifty-five percent expected to reduce their use of other recruitment methods in the future. This finding is very similar to Crantified survey where 49 percent of respondents also expected to reduce other recruitment methods in the next five year. Further cost saving can be achieved by reducing spend on using recruitment agencies which can be expensive. (Linda Barber, 2006).
In brief, according to Schreyer and McCarter (1998) mentioned that purposes of software for recruiting are available and cost-effective. Thus, E-Recruitment may be used to enhance the value chain of workflow and offering efficiencies way in the management of the recruitment process (Keynote, 2005). Therefore, the job applications can be processed and delivered between the job seekers and employer in a less expensive value. It may increase continues using in the E-Recruitment if the service are cheaper than traditional approach.
2.6 Time Saving
In Internet Recruiting Poll Results (1999), online job posting provides a fast and easily accessible approach to recruitment that can support more conventional approaches of announcing job openings such as bulletin board, newspaper and trade press. More specifically, usability is associated with the likelihood of web search termination (Hoffman & Novak, 1996), and the total amount of time spent using a system (Ahuja & Webster, 2001). As Bussler & Davis (2002) estimated that time saving is the one of the most widely adopted assumptions on e-recruitment. Thus, e-recruitment could help the company to save the recruiting process time. In particular, e-recruiting system can reduce the hiring time by two-thirds with fast-tracked, starting with an immediately response by candidates and employers may receive applications that day vacancy is posted on web(Rudich, 2000), (Sunderland, 2000), (Weingarten, 1998).
According to Mohammed H. M. Al-Ali (2009), E-Recruitment may cut the time-to-hire by as much as 75% and recruit the right employees more quickly into the organization. Internet recruiting would greatly speeds the hiring process (Crispin and Mehler 1997) as job openings can be advertised almost immediately. In turn, employees may post the resume and reply the application immediately and employers can respond to the new hires with equal efficiency. In addition, online recruiting provides the opportunity of reaching an extremely broad base of individuals (Crispin and Mehler 1997). Those because an electronic job listing can remain posted for an indefinite amount of time and can be accessed by interested applicants at any time.
Major time savings were faster internal and external communication processes by using electronic media. Although some organization may prefer using executive recruiters for posting higher level job openings (Radosevich, 1998), online approaches can be used to broaden the pool and speed up the selection process as well (American Society for Training and Development [ASTD], 1999; Byerly, 1999; Lavigna, 1996; Noran, 1999; Phusitasai, 1998a; Propsner, 1999; Richtel, 2000). Therefore, organizations can spend less time to gathering (WebRecruiting Advantages, 2001) and the vacancy of job may post on web pages shortly after a position becomes vacant (Crispin & Mehler, 1997). Thus, applicants can respond to recruitment messages much more rapidly than in the past. Besides, as we know job-search websites can overcome time barriers as well as provide convenience, cost savings, and effective solutions for both employers and job seekers (Miller, 2001; Pearce & Tuten, 2001; Perry, Simpson, NicDomhnaill, & Siegel, 2003; Tomlinson, 2002).
In addition, the relationship between the time saving and effectiveness of e-recruitment has been determined through the previous survey. All the Information has been published within the scope of survey carried out in the USA. The iLogo Survey which cover with over 500 companies responding from all over the USA it was clearly concluded that the main advantage of On-line Recruitment was time saving with 86% of the respondents agreeing on this point. The respondents said that they saved the time on average with six days on advertising a job opening, four days on receiving resumes from applicants, six days on having the HR department process and screen them, and up to four days on communicating with applicants (On-line- recruiting: What works, what doesn't", http://www.proqest.umi.com,March 2000).
In sum, an important factor of a process is speed time to finish the recruitment process. Online users may expect in fast loading the web pages. Therefore, web designers of organization must keep in mind that the average time customers per page viewed is low and steadily diminishing over time. Besides, time efficiency could make the workflow between the employer and job seekers become more faster such as recruiters can post a vacancy jobs in 24 hours a day and potential job applicants can post their resumes 24 hours a day.
2.7 Employer Brand
Employer reputation defined as how individual users would affectively the viewing towards a company as an employer (Cable & Turban, 2001). There is empirical evidence that job seekers are more attracted to firms with strong positive reputations (Cable & Turban, 2003). Brand equity refers to the added value a brand name gives to a product or service (Aaker, 1991). Brand equity empowers companies to negotiate lower costs of distribution, increased effectiveness in marketing communication, and expanded growth opportunities from brand extensions and licences (Yoo and Donthu, 2001). In Braddy, Thompson, Wuensch, and Grossnickle (2003) research has been found that partial support for the concept that websites will easy navigation to improve recruitment image.
As we know, brand is the visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that users associate with a company or a product or service. A typical brand identity includes a brand name, positioning statement, category descriptor, organizational values and brand standard (FlyingLizard.co.nz, 2009). The reputation, up to date and spend a lot of innovation resources design in the E-Recruitment system may increase more trusted and access by the user. Therefore, E-Recruitment website should be design effective and structurally to provide a positive first impression to the users (Nickel and Schaumburg, 2004). Importantly, in the early stages of job search, more of the job seekers will influenced by the opinions of the employer image (Kilduff, 1990).
The study from Pearce & Tuten(2001) and Hogler (1998) presented that the organisation with a strong brand name could easily attract more applicants apply and interest to access it. Therefore, E-recruitment has been a core service system that can increase the image of organisation especially when building a corporate recruitment site (Fister, 1999). According to Metz and Junion-Metz (1996), there are various aspects of web pages that can be manipulated to enhance the online recruitment brand in technology areas. The best design is one that is simple and which may enhance more visitors could follow and access the site with ease.
Customer loyalty has been identify as the foundation of brand equity (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2000; Clarke, 2001) because a worth of brand value will be increase as much as the number of consumers willing to pay the price asked. Loyalty has been defined as a favourable attitude toward a brand resulting in consistent purchase of that brand over time (Assael, 1992). Loyalty online has proved to be significantly related to word-of-mouth of users and willingness to pay more in the online system (Srinivasan et al., 2002).
Besides, another key factor for organisations in adopting e-recruitment is the desire by an employer to promote organization images and to increase profile of the choice amongst potential candidates (Bryan Andrews, 2006). Therefore, most job seekers are always encouraged to submit online applications to the organization by creating an own profile and access the standard online forms. Within the execution activities, employer branding has comprises all long-term marketing to personnel marketing, personnel attraction which includes all activities used to directly attract candidates in order to make them apply for a specific open position (Beck, 2002).
In Grace and O'Cass (2004) studies found that the service experience would influence the development of brand attitudes. An attitude thus refers to a tendency for respond to an object in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way (Allport, 1935; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) and is the consumer attitudes would in positive, neutral or negative way towards the good, service or brand under consideration (Roest and Pieters, 1997). Besides, in Bolton (1998); Oliver (1980); Roest and Pieters (1997) stated that satisfied consumers develop positive brand attitudes and brand preference toward the object they are satisfied with.
In the online world, trust is one of the issues that would make the researchers associate with the success or failure of service (Efthymios Constantinides, 2004). Trust has been found to be important in creating brand loyalty because of the absence of physical stores or the physical touch of the product (Reichheld et al., 2000). Based on Aaker (1996) considers that trust as a characteristic of organisation associations as between the employer and job seekers. As the objective of personnel attraction is to generate a critical mass of qualified candidates, it includes passive search activities such as job postings as well as active search activities such as the search in online resume databases (Armstrong, 1995; Beck, 2002).
According to Harris Interactive (2001) around 70 per cent of the US Web users are seriously concerned about the safety of their personal information, transaction security and misuse of private consumer data. Therefore, the more users trust the service that suppliers by the organization then the more users will continue the relationship between both of them. An effective community via the Internet establishes social exchange in order to reinforce the relationship between organization and job seekers in order to enhance better service or goods (Sands, 2003). In addition, trust has become an integral component in future network infrastructures (Fayad & Hamza, 2006). Thus, trust has recently been recognized as a vital property in online systems.
Yet, many studies have concluded that Internet users have serious doubts about data security and E-privacy is uncertain to release personal data via the Internet (Laukka, 2000; Hoffman, 1999). E-privacy and E-security is seen as a significant factor for building user trust in Internet applications especially in services website (Chellappa, 2003; Egger 2000). Prior research acknowledges that the risks to applicant's information privacy and misuse information in the E-Recruitment setting may offset any convenience, time, and financial savings afforded to the users (Culnan and Armstrong, 1999; Lwin et al., 2008; Miyazaki, 2008; Sprott, 2008; Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003).
Besides, in prior research has viewed that perceived security control may acts to increase trust between the employer and job seekers (Koufaris and Hampton-Sosa, 2004; Suh and Han, 2003). From Pavlou (2003) & Pavlou and Gefen, 2004) studies, it has follows a perceived lack of E-service security and reliability such as derived from the lack of environmental structures to increases assessed levels of privacy risk. Indeed, Olivero and Lunt (2004) have theorized this study but do not test a related relationship between a lack of environmental control and consumer perceptions of risk.
Moreover, perceived risk has been found to lower the user's evaluations in different types of goods and services (Dowling and Staelin, 1994; Mitchell, 1999). Privacy risk in an online setting has been studied from a variety of perspectives including legal issues (Caudill and Murphy, 2000; Milne et al., 2004; Miyazaki and Fernandez, 2000) and users risk perception (e.g., Featherman and Pavlou, 2003; Miyazaki and Fernandez, 2001; Miyazaki and Krishnamurthy, 2002; Wolfinbarger and Gilly, 2003). E-services such as E-Recruitment that require the transmission and storage of sensitive information are likely to be deemed less useful by users who consider possible exposure to security, potential privacy losses, and the misuse of personally identifiable information.
In addition, relationship between employer brand and effectiveness of e-recruitment has been predicted. From the previous survey, 37% of the survey respondents indicated that better employer branding was a main consideration in adopting online recruitment methodology. A large proportion of the case study organisations also felt that there was greater potential to develop a strong employer brand when using online recruitment processes. For example, a sample of 503 responses contained 58 per cent men and 42 per cent women. The single largest group was between the 22 and 27 years of age which represent the online consumer's sample who are reported to be younger and well-educated (Nunnally and Bernstain, 1994).These sample included individuals who had a considerable level of Internet experience with more than seven years, had access to a high-speed connection and used the Internet every day in about 49.6 per cent. Therefore, loyalties of customers are crucial to business survival especially in an electronic commerce context (Reichheld and Schefter, 2000).
In brief, the recruiting reports has suggests that being successful when attracting applicants entails maintaining a favourable recruitment image (Gatewood, Gowan, & Lautenschlager, 1993). Therefore, organizations should attempt to relay the valid of information in ways that ability to build user trust in the future and enhance organization brand (Nickel & Schaumburg, 2004).
2.8 Chapter Summary
E-Recruitment would be the one of effective and efficiency technology in the future. Therefore, this chapter have addressed five major effectiveness factors when using the E-Recruitment services such as perceived of usefulness, perceived of ease of use, cost-saving, time-saving and employer brand. Each of the independents variables will have a significant relationship with the dependents variables. Therefore, a better and efficiency services provided by organization may have a positive influence with the job seekers that wanted to continues in the future.