The Understanding Of Business And Management Research Commerce Essay


'The impact of such data in areas like employee selection and recruitment has not been fully understood or managed by companies, and both recruiters and recruited could post or access data for different purposes. People, especially college or university students and graduates are interested in so-called 'cool' stuff (e.g. photos, diaries, ideas) to help them signify their individuality, diversity and 'cool' lifestyles (Gittlen, 2008) among other things. Companies might be using social networking sites to verify information provided by candidates through other means (CVs, interviews)'.( Yue Teng and José-Rodrigo Córdoba-Pachón,(2010) Social Networking Sites and Graduate Recruitment: Sharing Online Activities? published by School of Management, Royal Holloway University of London)

Cost and effectiveness are two of the main factors driving networking sites adoption for recruitment. Many companies like Ernst & Young & Cadbury Schweppes PLC® have set up their own social networking space for recruitment. Through this social networking sites, a more dynamic and effective two-way communication process can be established between the recruiter and the applicant. It is also beneficial on the part of the candidate as he/she can provide much richer information than just the CV/application forms which would act quite impressive.

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The author clearly states the personality traits one can judge from the social networking sites. These traits also help the employer in judging the potential of the candidates and make productive decisions. The audience selected in this article represents the students of employment selection course, who are active participants of the social networking sites. This enables the survey to be realistic as they are aware of both the sides that is from the employer's perspective and also from the employee's perspective.

But there are a few reasons because of which this article can be criticised. Firstly it poses a challenge to the validity of the conclusion. On the grounds of validity, this research can be proved wrong. As the use of SNW is not that extensive, there is very little written about the subject. Due to this one cannot fully rely on this technique for screening the candidates and select the best candidate for the organisation.

The study also identifies that SNW may result in unfavourable impact. The profiles on these websites contain information pertaining to an individual's age, sex, race, religion and more. With this access to information, an applicant can easily pursue a lawsuit if they feel they are being discriminated against. As HR professionals, one must ensure to evade collecting/viewing this information. One recommendation to approach this is to have another individual print off the profiles and then black/white-out all the information considered illegal in selection. Overall, it is crucial to be alert when using these websites in the selection process.

This article loses its impact due to the lack of evidence to support the conclusion. As there is not much research done on this subject, the author has relied more upon the personal opinion than the empirical data. In the absence of any supporting evidence, there is no way of judging the reliability or validity of his conclusions and this seriously undermines the work.

'The first issue that relates to drawback of e-recruitment and that is the discrimination issue forwarded to Internet non-user' [(Flynn, 2000), (Hogler, Henle & Bemus, 1998)].

'It is claimed that e-recruitment may have a disparate impact on certain groups of particularly ethnic minorities. People may lack access to computers or do not have the skills necessary to use online recruitment. Therefore, employers need to remember that although the Internet has increased the geographic scope of recruitment, at the moment, it remains limited in its demographic scope' (Hogler, Henle & Bemus, 1998).

In this article the author identifies several abilities of the candidates which can be judged from the social networking sites. One of that ability is the cognitive ability which can be defined as 'brain-based skills one needs to carry out any task from the simplest to the most complex. They have more to do with the mechanisms of how we learn, remember, problem solve, and pay attention rather than with any actual knowledge' (Dr. Pascale Michelon, DEC 18, 2006, What is a Cognitive Ability/ What are Cognitive Abilities?)

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Lisette Howlett, the founder of, said: "Social networking and recruitment sites can also work hand-in-hand by attracting young, web-savvy candidates. University students still dominate sites like Facebook and employers are able to catch fresh graduates before they even hit the job market. But the key to successful recruiting via sites like Facebook and MySpace is to remember these sites are 'social' and therefore any information retrieved online about an individual must be interpreted and used intelligently."

This article can raise a simple question which requires research is "Candidates who have the potential but are technologically deprived loose the chance of getting selected for the appropriate job?

The other important research question is 'evaluating the impact of faking in the social networking sites for favourable results?

These questions need further research and analysis to have a proper understanding of social networking sites as a selection method.

The social networking sites must be used as joint objects or tools of work between two different groups of people- recruiters and the job applicants.

"Engaging with the social networks takes a strategic plan - work out what you want and how to promote yourself and you stand a much better chance of getting a result."(Lisette Howlett, the founder of

'Fortunately, online networking has forever changed the dynamics of looking for a job by creating for you a "one-to-many" advantage.  Instead of thinking of their activities as a job search, job seekers in the age of social networking must conceptualize their activities as part of an extended people search.'(Sherrie A. Madia, The Importance of Social Networking for Job Search)


Title of the Report

Effectiveness of E-recruitment

Student Number



MSc. Human resource management and employment relation


Brunel Business School

Submission Date

24th January 2011, 12:00hrs

Word Count

excluding references and Appendix

Sr. No

Pg. No.


Executive Summary






Literature Review






Pros of E-recruitment



Cons of E-recruitment



Research Methodology



Findings and Results






Limitation of the study












Executive summary

Purpose: An integral part of this investigation is aiming at exploring the effectiveness of e-recruitment. This research focuses on the importance and evident reasons for implementing and practicing e-recruitment in organizations for successful and cost effective hiring.

Design/methodology/approach: job seekers and students of Brunel University and Human resource managers of Hollister and co. and Abercrombie and Fitch were surveyed on the topic effectiveness of e-recruitment.

Findings: Research analysis exposed that the jobseekers were quite happy with e-recruitment process.

Practical implications: This research explores various efficient factors of E-recruitment.

Keywords: recruitment, internet recruitment, e-recruitment, recruitment methods

Paper type: Research paper


The last few years has seen a substantial explosion in the use of the Internet and has increasingly gained vital importance. E-recruitment has become inevitable particularly in the present business scenario of knowledge economy, globalization and increased war for talent. The use of the internet as a means of connecting the job seeker and the employer, and as a medium for conducting certain elements of the recruitment process enables employers/recruiters to reach a wider pool of potential applicants and to fill positions faster with less cost to the organisation. The human resources departments are taking a benefit of the progressing technology and organized web-based equipments for engaging and evaluating resumes. There has recently been a ''headlong rush" to use the Internet for recruitment, with some reports indicating that as many as 90% of large US companies are now recruiting via the web (Anderson, 2003; Cappelli, 2001). Online searches have demonstrated to be reasonably popular among job seekers.

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The internet has become an integral part of Human Resource Management in the last few years and the so-called "e-recruitment" or "internet recruitment" is increasingly gaining importance. However, detailed research results are barely available and it is obvious that further research is needed in the field of e-recruitment. This investigation basically consists of two major parts. The first part, focuses on the Literature review of e-recruitment and in the second part, an empirical survey is presented and evaluated. Conclusions are drawn from both the parts and possible normative implications are expressed and discussed. Based on literature and existing empirical studies.

Literature Review

E-recruitment, also known as online recruitment, is the use of technology to attract candidates and aid the recruitment process. Many different organizations use e-recruitment as a cost-effective method of recruiting new staff. The growth of e-recruitment has been driven by a combination of actual cost savings in the recruitment process, increased ease and efficiency for the employer, along with an improved experience for candidates. It is popular among job-seekers - latest figures from the British Market Research Bureau show that using Internet is the favoured job-hunting method for one in four UK adults.

The Internet has transformed the whole recruitment landscape in nearly a blink of an eye. 'The terms e-recruitment, online recruitment, internet recruitment, or cybercruiting, mean the formal sourcing of job information online. It is fairly a new practice. The first references to e-recruitment appear in articles of the mid-1980s (Gentner, 1984; Casper, 1985), while logical reference to the online recruitment in the HR journals commenced a decade later, in the mid-1990s, when IT companies and universities started to use the Internet broadly. Since then, the online recruitment industry has been developing and it is estimated that in Europe it will have soared in value from just over £50 million in 1999 to £3.8 billion by 2005 (Taylor, 2001).

3.1) E-recruitment Definition:

'E- Recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment .They advertises job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their Curriculum Vitae's in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements.'(

In Schuller's (2002) words E-recruitment is "the targeted approach to applicants as well as the management of applicants by the enterprise via the medium Internet".

Previous studies show that a human resource department still uses both traditional method and e-recruitment in recruiting process. More than 75% of HR professionals are now using Internet job boards in addition to traditional recruiting method (HR Portal, 2003).

3.2) Pros of E-recruitment:

One of the pros of e-recruitment is that it facilitates the recruiters to reach the large pool of candidates and bring in the potential and qualified applicants. Millman (1998) cited in Mohamed Othman and Musa N, (2006) suggested that 'online recruitment offers an efficient way to identify and classify a virtually unlimited number of job seekers. Similarly, e-recruitment allows employers to broaden the scope of their search, as a result significantly increasing the likelihood that high-quality candidates will be found (Markevieius, 2000).' It has been sustained that e-recruitment can bring the qualified candidates to the employers. From relevant literature, applicants through the Internet are mostly young, computer literate, educated. (Ganalaki, 2002 and Zall, 2000).The chief advantage of e-recruitment is its Cost-effectivity, publishing job advertisement on the Internet is a lot cheaper than newspaper, magazines and other media, itcosts less than publishing in other media for example newspaper. Also, employers can place the vacancy positions on the job board website as it is also at a lower cost. Companies achieve cost savings in three areas; reduced direct costs of newspaper advertisements, job fairs and head hunter fees, reduced mailing cost and reduced workload for human resource department. Time saving is another huge advantage of e-recruitment. Bussler & Davis (2002) in particular, said that e-recruiting system can reduce the hiring time by two-thirds; it can help companies achieve faster recruiting cycle. There are three results: faster posting jobs on the Internet, once a job is posted human resource department starts receiving resumes the same day and the Internet can speed up the processing period by automating some tasks .iLogo, research (1998), states that the Internet helps companies to attract competent applicants and Internet users tend to be tech-savy and evidently more computer literate than non-users. Additionally, 'E-recruitment can bring a never-ending list of links to sites where employers can advertise their vacancies and potential candidates can peruse the available jobs and submits their resumes. Moreover, it can reach people at a worldwide level while newspaper can reach people only at a local level [(Chaskelson, 2000), (Ganalaki, 2002)].' It also has a global reach of 24x7 almost instantaneously and that is undeniably a huge advantage.

The key benefits of e-recruitment are not solely dependent on this process as an end in itself, but as a vital component in an organisation's holistic recruitment policy and this is where an important aspect of the debate is focused. Recruitment is a multi-faceted industry, in which other media: broadcasting, recruitment and headhunting agencies, Internet search engines, press and poster advertising are all playing an essential part in a complementary strategy.

3.3) Cons:

E-recruitment also encompasses its problem areas. Through the e-recruitment process, employers are immersed with millions of resumes; screening and checking the authenticity of resumes are two major problem areas. 'Although job boards are able to handle high volumes of both job seekers and employers, they do not, `solve the problem of quality.' Reaching a consistent set of quality candidates online is a goal yet to be realized for most corporate users. As one executive interviewed by Forrester so eloquently put it, 'We have to sift through lots of resumes, like kissing frogs before you find the prince' Lawrence 1999 cited Bartram (2007).It is not easy to pick that right candidate from such a wide pool. 'For the majority of the jobseekers internet is still not the option (CIPD 1999). The discrimination issue forwarded to Internet non-user is a huge drawback of e-recruitment. There are people deserving enough but because they lack access to the computer or they don't have the skills to use OR loose the opportunity (Flynn, 2000).Moreover, organisations face difficulty to recruit executive level talent on the Internet. Arkin and Crabb (1999) say that executive job applicants still prefer personal contact. Similarly, a point from Seminerio (2001) is that, many companies will want to continue to use more traditional recruitment services for hiring certain employees, such as executive level staff. Arboledas,

Ferrero and Vidal (2001) similarly argued that using e-recruitment tends to use only looking for junior positions and from recent university graduates. It is not suitable for recruiting top management.' John Winchester, Vice President Engineering, Impetus Technologies says, "In the traditional methods of recruitment, consultants did the authenticity check initially and saved time and effort. Sometimes applicants who post their resumes online are not active job seekers. In such a scenario, companies fail to keep a track of them and their contact details."Despite the IT boom in the country, there is low Internet penetration in many locations. Organisations are still hesitant to completely switch over to an online recruitment process because of the limited penetration of the Internet. A significant drawback of the evolution of technology is the loss of human interaction, which is applicable to the online recruitment process. (

Research methodology:

The aim of survey is to determine the effectiveness of E-recruitment. Survey is carried out in the form of postal questionnaire. Survey is divided into two parts .10 sample were distributed to the employers and 10 to job seekers to understand their perspective respectively.

Research Design

Sampling Universe

Students of Brunel University and Human resource managers of Hollister and Co and Abercrombie and Fitch who are familiar with e-recruitment. The both samples are exposed to internet which is extremely necessary for the research.

Sample Size: 20

Quantitative Survey:

This stage was aimed at understanding and identifying what e-recruitment methods are being used, and the experiences of organisations practising e-recruitment as well as the job seekers using the recruitment websites of e-recruitment ,

Findings and results:

The chosen survey method was a standardised questionnaire, as it assures an accuracy of data in comparison with verbal questioning forms. In direct to assess the effectiveness of e-recruitment from the perspective of both Employers and job seekers, two Different set of questionnaires were handed to capture the quantitative data from the organization to assess the significance of e-recruitment sources as well the insight of applicants in term of recruitment sources and other subsequent intentions to pursue the job.

5.1.A) Employers Survey:

Which recruitment channel do you use for recruitment process?

Does change in the global economic scenario alter your recruitment channel?

How is the performance of online Recruitment?

What factors will you consider in selecting a Job Portal?

The primary drivers behind the decision to pursue recruitment channel?

5.1. B ) Findings:

The average age of the respondents is at 26 years with a minimum of 21 and a maximum of 30 years. Specifically three quarters of the interviewees (75.0 %) are female whereas one quarter (25.0 %) are male and all are designated as Human Resource manager.

Most of the employers consider e-recruitment to be an effective median and use the same for recruiting employees. All the 10 employees responded positively to altering the recruitment channel during the change in the global economic scenario, employers choose e-recruitment during global downturn as well otherwise also as it is cost effective in comparison with other employment channels. In the next question where employers were asked about the overall performance of e-recruiting, almost all the employers rated the technology, time, cost, response and search as 'very good'. As Sylava & Mol (2009) states that e-recruitment includes lower cost for hiring, the entire hiring cycle takes comparatively lesser time. Employers consider the cost and popularity of job portal important while selecting one for recruitment. Again while selecting a recruitment channel employers observe the cost effectiveness of the channel as of utmost importance followed by less administrative burden and time. On the whole e-recruitment is a preferred method of recruitment among employers.

5.2. A) Job seekers survey:

Rank the methods of searching job on the basis of its effectiveness in finding job?

(e.g. 1= higher, 6= lower)

Online Recruitment is more effective than other recruitment methods?

Are the online recruitment websites user-friendly and easily accessible?

How is the performance of Online Recruitment?

Are there any issues with Online Recruitment that you would like to put forward?(open ended questions )

5.2. B) Findings:

The average age of the respondents is at 23 years with a minimum of 21 and a maximum of 25years. Specifically three quarters of the interviewees (60 %) are female whereas one quarter (40%) are male studying at Brunel University.70% of the respondents ranked e-recruitment as 1st followed by personal contacts and newspaper as an effective medium in finding job. 80% respondents agreed e-recruitment to be the most effective channel than others. 70 % applicants find e-recruitment user friendly and accessible. In the next question where applicants were asked about the overall performance of e-recruiting, almost all the employers rated the technology, time, cost, response and search as 'very good' while few think there is scope of improvement.

To summarise, the empirical findings support the effectiveness of e-recruitment for both employers and job seekers.


The research clearly displays that e-recruitment has established itself as an imperative part of the recruitment strategy in an increasingly competitive recruitment market. E-recruitment is preferred for its major benefits in terms of cost, and capability to monitor and report on recruitment activities.

6.1) Limitations:

Long and time consuming Process

Server and network problems

Identity Crisis

Registration takes long

6.2) Recommendations:

E-recruiters should consider continuing improvement on the web site privacy

protection, particularly shielding their members' personal information and resumes from being viewed by their employers. This improvement is possible if the system is designed to allow jobseekers to bar their own company from viewing their applications

More emphasis should be given for greater penetration of the Internet and the advantages of communications-related infrastructure should be as obvious as that of other physical infrastructure such as roads.

In order to make e-recruitment a success, the organisations will have to look into a successful system implementation, it is not difficult to post jobs online or e-mails. The company will have to develop standards for job descriptions & job holder profiles, develop systems for finding suitable candidates, design easy-to-use job sites.(Hopkins B and Markham J, 2003)