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The present paper examines the Uganda Wildlife Authority as an organization and its administrative establishment. Within this framework, further discusses the organizational structure and process underlying Uganda Wildlife Authority management in the context of lead agency for conservation in Uganda. Consequently, this work articulates and provides significant insights largely considered important ingredients to propel the organizational changes. It also describes the highlights of leadership and power as intertwined systems within the framework of Uganda Wildlife Authority, and how it's being exercised. Besides the organizations strategic vision and the mission, purposely set for the realization of the organizational goal. Similarly, the aspect of culture and diversity presents the core corporate values, which portrays the Uganda Wildlife Authority corporate identity. Thus, provides the culture of staffs behaviours and their attitude in relation to Uganda Wildlife Authority as an organization charged with managing Country's national heritage, which it does in trust for the people of Uganda and international community. My main conclusion is that, the realization of the objectives sets primacy for stable and credible organization.
The Uganda Wildlife Authority [UWA] was established 1996, by a merger of the former Uganda National Parks [UNP] and the Game Department [GD] organizations. The UWA is the statutory body that is charged with conserving and sustainably managing all wildlife in the Country in accordance with the government of Uganda [GoU] obligations. Uganda Wildlife Authority therefore, manages 10 National Parks, 12 Wildlife Reserves, and 14 Wildlife Sanctuaries of significant importance. Furthermore, UWA provides technical guidance, and appropriate support to 5 Community Wildlife areas in the Country. The Uganda Wildlife Authority does in trust for the people of Uganda, and the global community. The operations of Uganda Wildlife Authority is entirely governed by the Uganda Wildlife Act  its operation. Essentially, the Board of Trustee [BoT] appointed by Minister responsible for Wildlife, steers the organization, and provides direction in respect to policy issues. The Chief Executive Director, is leader of the organization, and answerable to the [BoT] on Uganda Wildlife Authority operations.
The UWA administrative framework varies from protected area to protected area, but all maintain the cardinal principles of the organizational established structure processes laid down. This is due to staffing positions, and demand for the human capacity at respective areas of professionalism. Thus, UWA maintains focus and direction based on the vision, mission including the key elements of core corporate and fundamental values set for the organization to stand out as an institution open to absorb multi-dynamic system of governance. It is increasingly, considered pivotal institution responsible for the management of the Country's natural resources for the economic growth, and the organization is led by esteemed leader with vision striving to achieve the organizational goal collectively through its mission.
Study area and Objectives
The study focuses on UWA as an organization responsible for all protected areas in the Country and entrusted to manage wildlife and natural resources encompassed in Conservation Areas. The study narrows itself to analyse the management and administrative mechanism for UWA given its set up and related administrative framework. UWA general headquarters are based in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda, and the seat of power, and overall supervision springs from the headquarters, as co-ordination centre. The headquarter offices are located at Kamwokya, Plot 7 Kira Road, alongside the British High Commission (BHC) headquarters in Kampala, Uganda.
The overall objective of this study rolls down on the concept of management, business administration, personnel and organizational frame work at the UWA as an organization. The other specific objectives mainly includes: 1) to describe the organization and its structural set up, and organizational changes. 2) to discuss the aspects of leadership and power in protected area context. 3) to examine the culture and diversity in relationship to the organizational framework.
Materials and Methods
The materials essentially, include the secondary documents sourced from internet, lecture materials, available literature on Moodle platform and desk research mainly from the University literature review from the library archives. The methodology used for analysis includes diagrammatic illustrations, which helped to crystallize the models, and reduce to meaningful information in respect to the discussion of organization's scenario, and overall framework. The additional analysis mainly focused in trying to navigate the connection between leadership and power as used in administration also played part in building up this paper.
2.0 Findings and Discussion
2.1 Organizational structure at UWA General Headquarters
UWA organizational structure (see Figure1.1) has a set process that trickles its tentacles to various protected areas, and this provides operational and administrative hierarchy within the overall framework of UWA establishment. The establishment employees over 5,341credible number of staffs. In this framework UWA structure, and reporting protocol in relationship with working culture and her partners and all stakeholders is reflected at all levels. For example, the structure is set up to accommodate departments and hence ease protocol in the hierarchy, and channels of communication as fundamental aspect to create healthy working environment, which is transparent and decision-making reflect the integrity of the organizational credibility.
The set-up structure function is to create an information network linking the horizontal departments of UWA headquarter establishment and the protected areas at various locations in the Country. Therefore, it also provides leeway for the departments to link directly with respective Conservation Area Manager on the ground. The structure process enhances the two way mechanism flow of information on either direction as feedback channels in respect to decision-making. The important aspects taken into consideration in the organizational structure set-up of UWA, behavioural principles and culture associated with good leadership.
Chief Executive Director
Director Tourism development & Marketing
Director Planning, Monitoring & Research
Deputy Director Field operations
Tourism Dev't Manager
Monitoring Officer 
Research Officers 
Figure1.1. illustrates part of UWA Organogram Structure
Source: Adapted key departments from UWA Annual Report [2008-09]
Often, by standards of the structure and in accordance with impeccable UWA policies, the Office of the Chief Executive Director (CED) is an apex relatively considered as red tape, and a pillar for UWA on day-to-day decision-making. This Office channels all information within the UWA establishment to her line departments, and arguably, gateway to external leakage with donor community, private sector and all stakeholders. The responsibilities and powers of the CED are embedded in the Uganda Wildlife Act (2000), and he reports to the UWA executive BoT on the progress and new development being undertaken.
Based on the research questions and the overall objective therefore, briefly talk little on UWA line departments, but more emphasis will be directed to the focal department responsible for co-ordinating all affairs that relate to the Conservation areas of research interest. UWA establishment reflects four lead departments under the overall supervision of the CED of UWA each line department is headed by calibre of Directors. For example, Director Conservation (DC) deputized by Deputy Director Field Operations (DDFO), Director Planning and Research, Director Finance and Administration, and Director Tourism Development and Marketing. These departments have complex tentacles that stretch down words up to the Conservation areas framework with various tasks.
UWA Directorate of Conservation solely takes the overall supervision of all Conservation Areas, under the direct management of Conservation Area Managers (CAM), who are responsible for the respective protected areas including human resource capacity. On the other hand, the Conservation Area Managers are answerable directly to the Deputy Director Field Operations Office on day-to-day co-ordination with CAM on administrative issues. This is the main echelon of information flow and feedback from and to the Conservation areas, and is considered relatively explicit within UWA system. Furthermore, the structure contributes to institutionalizing information flow and administrative management by providing access to channels of communication and procedures within the establishment.
2.2 Uganda Wildlife Authority Vision
UWA embraces vision to be a leading self-sustaining Wildlife Conservation agency that transforms Uganda in to one of the best eco-tourism destination in Africa.
The most significant aspects of UWA establishment was best on the desired direction guided by the ultimate vision, to propel the organization to achieve its fundamental rights for the economic development of the Country, whilst utilizing her natural resources sustainably in abide to alleviate poverty and improve livelihood of the common man kind especially those affected and influenced by the presence of the protected areas within their landscape.
2.3 Uganda Wildlife Authority Mission
Of interest, the mission provides the scope to conserve economically develop and sustainably manage the wildlife and protected areas of Uganda in partnership neighbouring communities and other stakeholders for the benefit of the people of Uganda and the global community.
Indeed, the mission opens up UWA position in liaising and working alongside stakeholders at all levels. This kind of arrangement is automatically mated in all UWA established protected areas. It ensures that influenced and affected local communities and stakeholders are brought on common platform, and their interests are taken into account in reflection of their contribution either directly or indirectly. This new era of management regime attracts ownership, and local communities and relevant stakeholders will be accountable in decision-making as well.
2.4 Organizational Changes
Administratively, human weakness always have delineated from organizational changes on one way or another depending on the prevailing environmental circumstances [Cohen and Eimicke, 1995]. Therefore, UWA is not immune to this scenario, and building on the past experience. UWA an autonomous body, which emerged from amalgamation of the former UNP and GD Organizations both institution were managing similar systems, but with varying principles and under the same Ministry. As a result, the GoU decided to merge these organizations, and the World Bank provided technical expertise to guide the process, and build stable and credible organization Uganda is proud of today, and responsible for her national heritage.
In this regard therefore, attempt to discuss little more about what is described as organizational changes. The question imposed, what are the ingredients of organizational change? And, how can organization manage change? These questions attract varying schools of sought, and of course it's not an easy going, but in most cases it's relatively evitable in dynamic world.
The diagrammatic model analysis tools approach provides guidance on the UWA as an organization to build on a structured thinking process for managing organizational planned futures changes as part of dynamic process. In figure [1.2] structure illustrates the process of change, unplanned, past change and therefore, develop the structured thinking process.
Potential problem/Opportunity analysis
Figure1.2.Illustrates Change in diagrammatic model
Source: Adapted and modified from Altier 
Altier  argued that learning from model form of approach provides direction for organizational change. Of course, in-depth analysis of the above description reflects entirely four scenarios of change with management implication for UWA as an organization. First and foremost, planned change depicts that the UWA management desires appropriate analyses of the situation for change, and all necessary conditions set were achieved in line with target. However, perhaps, in any system, whenever possible, in the event of new development an intended and accomplished planned past change was relatively considered misshape. Therefore, UWA with guiding principles must articulate all issues and strategic thinking or change it via gradual planned future process.
Secondly, unplanned change, appears relatively important for UWA management based on the fact that, earlier plan did not work out successful as intended. As a result, the organization has witnessed impediments whether the actual change was relevant or undesirable for the organization's management. This leads to another question why it occurred? Well, to remedy this scenario UWA must establish corrective measures to avoid history to repeat itself. The management must gather relevant data and information necessary about unplanned past change, the entire management of UWA must explore with strategic thinking referred to as problem analysis, its vividly considered of importance to deal with factual data required for change.
Thirdly, planned future change entirely means change that reflects the most important for UWA management concerns, because the organization is determined to make headway and build better system through proper and consistent consultation with all stakeholders for the planned future change, upon exhaustively explores all options at its disposal. The unanimous decision taken is considered turning point for new face of the organization. Based on strategic thinking process discussed in the context of the structure above, the inferential decision process arrived at on platform it's recognized as decision analysis structure process. According to Thompson  point out that, the underlying philosophical ingredients responsible for any organizational changes and must be mated for better results as briefly outline below:
a) analyze the organizations and identify the change required, and create shared ''post-change'' vision and common direction.
b) create a sense of urgency by communicating real issues, and appoint interim committee and support a strong change leaders role.
c) line up political sponsorship of all required stakeholders, and project manager, craft an implementation plan of what when and how to move.
d) get ''buy in'' communicate ''quick hits'' and involvement of all players at all levels including donor community.
e) ensure to separate from the past structures or practices that no longer work and develop enabling structures / mechanisms that will facilitate the smooth change. It is important to reinforce and institutionalize the change at all level of establishment. Generally speaking, staff movement and changes, new staff comes in and others walk out of the system. Thus, the need to adapt to changing circumstances and acquire literally new knowledge on leadership and management takes responsibility to disseminate information all staff. This alone will improve on leadership and management style and therefore, strengthen and build a winning reputable organizational team.
Fourthly, unplanned future change, this is where UWA now assert its mandate as management echelon because such change may breed problems. In this regard, UWA as an organization will exercise its authority to critically analyse the footprint of the unplanned future change, and implore in-depth. This will help build on the strength and weakness of anticipated change and develop appropriate strategies with stakeholders to prevent situation or be in position to respond with potential problem analysis approach to diffuse the unplanned future change or buy in and accept. On the flip side of the coin, it is widely believed that such organizational changes bring in new blood, and opens up window opportunities to promote the organizations corporate image in the outside world through potential opportunity analysis.
2.5 Leadership in an organization
As discussed in the context leadership, refers to qualities possessed by an individual, and entirely revolves on the functions of management in steering UWA as an organization. Leader (CED) stands on a platform of the organizational structure [see page 3], and creates enabling environment. Conversely, below are the organizations staffs at various position of administrative structure from the line up of the red tape to the cleaners. Partington and Stainton  described leader as a person who performs functions that involve looking ''up'' to the environment and looking "down'' to the organization establishment. The notion sets primacy of environment for the leader to search for resources, and be able to defend the organization's credible competence [Partington and Stainton, 2003]. Of course, through the vision, the leader demonstrates its ability by ensuring that the organization is perceived as capable of performing, and ably achieves its obligation. The ingredients for leadership is to promote UWA's corporate image to the legislative and the appointing authorities. Let alone the interest groups, public image and create working environment conducive for all including international community as part of the ward stick used for performance checks and balance.
Consequently, looking down the bottom-line up of UWA, the leader captures four cardinal functions:-i)to fuse the organization with values ii) to develop the organization distinctive corporate image and competence iii) to distribute motivating incentives equitably to all staff, and iv) to structure and mediate internal conflicts in an transparent manner. In recognition of the leadership, by infusing UWA with values which includes defining UWA's mission and roles adapting the mission to the needs of UWA growth and survival. This calls a leader to define a core set of the objectives, operating principles, and continuously communicate the relevancy of these values to all staffs of UWA. In addition, to infuse a sense of value, a leader must convince staffs to adapt and essentially simulate the UWA perceptions.
Higher Assignments and more Accountability
Demand for more Responsibility
Figure1.3. Schematic model
Figure1.3 represents self-motivation model of responsible leadership
Source: Adapted and modified from Thompson 
Figure1.3 demonstrates the potential to sustain the culture of organization change Thompson  point out that, the staff must be empowered based on leadership ingredients such as trust in position of responsibilities and accountability. Increasingly, empowerment within the establishment attracts reward in system to support it. Of course, the rule of thumbs places more emphasis to reward outstanding performers, and such rewarded can either be moneywise or through progressive promotion to uphold continued motivation based on the hierarchy.
Of importance, the organization largely can benefit from developing its staffs building on their abilities and enhance translates into self confidence and therefore, stimulate them for higher tasks and responsibilities. Of course, success will flow the opportunities to take on higher assignments and become self-driven. The organization will gain outside credibility coupled with increased informal power associated with cultivated influence, and hence foster innovation and change. It is imperative that, elements of continued human resource capacity building will be of significant importance to sustain high calibre staffs within the organization.
In accordance to UWA establishment the term Power, refers to the ability of the leader in an organization to influence and effect the actions of its staffs and between organizations framework as conferred upon by the legislative instruments. Instruments within his reach automatically influence the magnitude of his ability to exercise power and authority. Of course, this empowers the CED to strive to keep an open line of communication with UWA administration, while simultaneously provides open and effective leadership to the organization. It flows from relationship and interactions between staffs which build up with confidence over time.
2.7 Culture and diversity
Strictly speaking, UWA as an organization maintains its art of values and norms, which determine its corporate image before the public, and the nature of behaviour associated with the UWA staffs. This attribute is well rooted almost all established Uganda Wildlife Authority estates. It has increasingly been translated to stimulate organizations radical performs, which has enormously build staff capability in achieving the organizations common goal, and act in a response manner to opportunities and threats to the organization. UWA culture and its diversity in nature has shaped the staff and cultivated enthusiasm to perform tasks, set objectives and administer resources at their disposal to achieve the set goal for the benefit of all and the organization.
On the other hand, interestingly UWA with its diverse culture maintains the culture of organizations corporate identity by nature of dressing attire quite, unique to UWA establishment. It has further shaped the attitude and way of staff behaviour, and willingness to take measure to counter adverse challenges at their working environment. For example, UWA maintains the legacy of integrity, teamwork; professionalism, respect for all and self-discipline staffs, and these translate to the employess with a sense of respect for others, and exhibit a high degree of executing their duties and responsibilities.
Drawing my conclusion from the above discussion therefore, UWA essentially is considered as the heart of the organization, which holds the vision and mission. The staffs within UWA establishment cultivate enthusiasm and appreciate the fundamental purpose and commitment to UWA mission. The organization creates functional structure that allows information to propel through established systems within and out of the organization through the apex as exit point. It also increasingly, provides avenues for leeway, which permits horizontal connectors with respective departments and protected areas network for easy feedback and action.
As regards to change, change is relatively inevitable in any system therefore, UWA as an organization must be able to respond to change pressure, and adapt the environment.
Generally, the aspects of leadership and power are largely considered intertwined systems when exercising administrative matters. Thus, it is on this basis that the extent of this aspect in relation to the span of control in leadership, they should be considered and pursued simultaneously. This allows building relationships and good governance among partners and stake holders and enhance UWA meets its mission. Finally, the UWA establishment upholds its core values and therefore, increasingly considered vital corporate image for the organization.