The Transformation Of The Textile Industry Commerce Essay

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Today, the global textile industry keeps on growing. Besides the change in consumer behavior towards higher consumption, the global human and the per capita growths also contribute to a boost in the textile industry. (Anandjiwala, et al., 2007)

The textile industry counts as one of the major drains on resources. The intensive use of energy and water in the industry contributes greatly to the climate change. (Dr. Fry, et al., 2011)

The cotton fiber production is one of the first steps in the textile chain and also it is dominated by the use of pesticides and herbicides to secure the crop yield and to raise the surface revenue, its production is at a peak. (Wollenschlaeger, 2009; Cf. Blackburn, 2009) In the future, the cotton production will not be able to keep up with the demands of the textile industry. Furthermore, the production of large volumes to supply the textile industry brings along an increased environmental impact.

Today, a need to transform the textile industry exists due to the above demonstrated facts. One alternative to the cotton fiber and consequently an opportunity to transform the industry can be seen in man-made cellulose fibers. Due to their lower environmental impact compared to cotton and natural origin from wood cellulose makes the fiber high potential as a supplement product to cotton. Since cotton is made out of cellulose.(Collier, et al., 2001)

1.1 Background

The textile industry has its roots in the 18th century. Before that time the production processes were dominated by hand work; until the invention of the flying shuttle revolutionized the industry. The flying shuttle enabled an accelerated production process of yarn. As a consequence it pushed the following production processes - the weaving industry - to react on the innovation in form of industrial weaving machines. In turn the accelerated weaving process demanded a faster supply of thread from the spinner. Consequently, spinning machines were modified and a tension in the structure of the industry was created. (Dahmén, 1989)

Today, modified production processes and customized supply chain management support the fast fashion trend. Retailers like Zara, H&M, TopShop and Primark are dominating the market and able to react on new trends immediately. Zara for example is able to place their end products from the design until the ready-to-wear garment in a period of two to three weeks. (icmrindia.org) The vertically integrated supply chain, where the company owns the previous and the following business units in addition to their core business accelerates the industry processes. It simplifies the control over the whole process and promotes the exchange of information between the separate processes. Furthermore, it cuts costs.

While the textile industry keeps on growing by reacting on the global human growth and per capita growths as well as on the changing consumer behavior also its environmental impact increases that contributes highly to the climate change.

The climate is influenced by natural reasons as e.g. solar radiation or volcanic eruption but however the influence by the population has a higher impact on the climate. The United Nations Framework Convention in Climate Change defines the term ´climate change` as "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable periods". [1] Thus, human activities are enhancing the green house effect by producing carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide and release it into the atmosphere. These procedures are warming up the earth´s temperature, because the gases are absorbing the sun´s energy that would normally disappear into the atmosphere. In the past 100 years the average global air temperature increased by 0.74°C and the 1990s considered as the warmest decade in the last 1000 years. [2] That shows that especially in the last decade the global warming increased heavily.

The clothing and textile industry has a high impact on the climate change and contributes to a less sustainable environment. Many steps in the supply chain have polluting habits due to the increased use of chemicals and pesticides.

Cotton is one of the favourite fibers that represent almost 38% of the world's textile consumption. Cotton is produced in approximately 90 countries worldwide with the largest producers being China and the United States followed by Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan and West Africa. This six major countries account for 75% of the global cotton supply. Cotton cultivation supports about 30 million farmers worldwide, 80% of which live in developing countries, working as smallholders. [3]

The total area of cotton production include 2,4% of arable land globally and this number has not changed for about 80 years as opposed to yields that have tripled. This occurred mostly due to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, expansion of irrigation, mechanical harvesting, precision farming and genetic modification of seed. These inputs have been concentrated primarily in developed nations, which account for 90% of global cotton fibre supply. [4]

Chemical use on cotton is a well known problem. Cotton accounts for an estimated 25% of global insecticide consumption and 11% of the world's pesticide consumption. Chemicals have very negative influence on the environment. Moreover, they also cause severe human health problems as well as water and air pollution, insect and weed resistance, depleted soils and loss of diversity to name a few. "Although chemicals are most often cited in relation to its production, cotton has also become known as a "thirsty" crop. It evidently requires 7000-29000 litres of water to produce 1 kg of cotton fibre. In retailing terms, this is enough fibre to produce one pair of jeans." [6]

Cotton consumption in terms of pollution has largest impact in India, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Turkey and China. Pollution is caused by processing of imported raw cotton or grey fabrics into final products. These impacts are partly due to the use of fertiliser in the cotton fields and partly to the use of chemicals on the cotton processing industries. Moreover, approximately one fifth of the global water footprint due to cotton consumption is related to the pollution. The majority of waste flows in developing countries enter natural flows enters natural water bodies without any fertilisation. Only in a few rich countries waste water is treated before disposal. [7]

The impact on the water quality in the cotton producing countries is truly dramatic. The total amount of pesticides gets into either ground or surface water. Only 2.4 percent of the world's arable land is planted with cotton yet cotton accounts for 24 percent of the world's insecticide market and 11 percent of the sale of global pesticides. [8]

The water footprint is "the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the nation". [11] The worldwide consumption of cotton products requires 256 Gm3 of water per year and takes a share of 2.6 % of the full global water footprint. About 84% of the water footprint of cotton consumption is located outside Europe. The consumption of cotton products takes a share of 2.6 % of the full global water footprint.[12]

1.2 Problem Description

Today, the need to transformation the textile industry is inevitable due to the increasing externalities illustrated in the environmental impact and the peak of cotton. The main issue is "how to transform the industry?" Partially, initiations by textile companies have been made already towards more sustainability, as e.g. in form of organic cotton cloths. But their effort hasn't evoke a major transformation yet, as the customers still don't want to make any compromises when it comes to price, quality and comfort. (Niinimäki, 2010) Consequently, cotton is still one of the main fibers used in the textile fabrication. (Fletcher, 2008)

1.2 Research Aim

With the above mentioned background our report will focus on how the transformation of the textile industry towards more sustainability can take place.

On a literature base the opportunities and limitations of the textile industry to be transformed will be highlighted and discussed.

At the juncture, the report will only focus on the transformation in the fiber sector of the industry. Sustainable methods regarding fabrication and textile finishing will not be illustrated.

2. Methodology

As mentioned in chapter 1, cotton production faces two main issues: Firstly, it´s high impact on the environment, which contributes to climate change. Secondly, cotton production is at a peak because of the growth of the human population and the increase in textile consumption. Hence, the cotton demand cannot be met in the future. These facts lead to the need for transformation in the textile industry, and subsequently, the following research question arises: Which methods can contribute to a transformation of the textile industry towards more sustainability?

Our research bases on secondary literature in form of articles, books and online resources. The theories arose inter alia from the course literature will be put in relation to our case, the textile industry. A holistic perspective on the topic is guaranteed by a wide range of analyzed literature but furthermore due to an objective perspective on the theories by the report authors.

3. Man-Made Cellulose Fiber

Man-made cellulose fibers were invented in the early 19th century. The main purpose behind the innovation was to be more independent from natural fiber production and to widen the fiber variety.

Today, one differentiates between four main cellulose fibers, divided according to their solvent system: Acetate process, cuprammonium process, viscose process, lyocell process. The acetate fiber counts as closest approach to natural silk. Therefore, it doesn't provide an adequate basis to be discussed for a supplementation to cotton. However, the cupro fiber is close in its properties to viscose, its high environmental production process as well as its costs has led already to a discontinuity of the production in several countries. Conclusively, viscose and lyocell count as one of the closest fibers to cotton regarding their properties. (Erbele, et al., 2003; Collier, et al., 2001) The following figure illustrates a fiber comparison of viscose and lyocell with cotton:

Figure 1: Comparison of viscose and lyocell properties with the cotton fiber (Own creation based on the data in Collier, et al., 2001; Erbele, et al., 2003)

Figure 1 shows a property comparison of viscose and lyocell with cotton. The length and fineness of both fibers match with the cotton data. Due to the man-made production process of viscose and lyocell, the length as well as the thickness of the respective fiber can be adjusted. Whereas, regarding tenacity, viscose is weaker than lyocell and cotton, the strength of cotton is between 25 and 50 cN/tex, and lyocell varies between 40 and 45 cN/tex. Since the average is always implicated in the figure, lyocell shows a higher strength than cotton although it tends to be equal. Both have a high number of crystalline areas, whereas viscose is dominated by amorphous regions. The higher the number of crystalline areas, the greater the fiber strength. Concerning the extensibility, viscose overmatches cotton and lyocell. In addition, lyocell has a higher extensibility than cotton. Cotton is weaker when it comes to moisture absorption since its physical structure demonstrates fewer amorphous regions than lyocell or viscose. As a result, the man-made cellulose fibers are preferred in the hygienic and medical sectors.

Finally, it is clear and obvious that lyocell is closest to the cotton fiber regarding its properties, whereas viscose deviates more drastically from the cotton properties.

Therefore, the following chapter will narrow own on lyocell as a potential fiber to supplement cotton. The chapter points out the production process as well as the environmental impact of lyocell.

3.1 The Lyocell Fiber

According to Bredereck, K., et al. (2005), "The development of lyocell was driven by the desire for an environmentally friendly process to produce cellulosic fibers with an improved cost and performance profile compared to viscose." The name lyocell derives from "lyo," meaning so­lution, and "cell" for cellulose. (Collier, 2001) Therefore, lyocell can be classified as a subcategory of viscose since it is also generated from wood cellulose.

Production of the Lyocell Fiber

The production process of lyocell differs from classic viscose manufacturing insofar as that the wood pulp solvent is directly mixed with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), a non-toxic solvent [1] , to dissolve the cellulose at a high tem­perature. The degradation of the polymer by using a toxic sodium hydroxide solution, as it is needed in the viscose process, is not necessary. Con­sequently, the resulting dilution is filtered and the spinning fluid extruded into hot air and trans­ferred to a water bath [2] . There, the cellulose is precipitated. Then the amine oxide is washed from the filaments, and if required, the filaments are cut into staple fibers.

Figure 2: Lyocell production process (Own creation: Erbele, et al. 2003)The lyocell production process is self-contained. The non-toxic solvent is reclaimed from the spin­ning bath and recycled. Due to the harmless so­lution that is used for the process, the water can be discharge without extra treatment. (Collier, et al., 2001; Erbele, et al., 2003)

Environmental Impact of Lyocell Production

Lyocell is often named the "green" fiber since its production process is environmentally friendly due to use of an organic solvent. Furthermore, as mentioned above, the solvent is almost com­pletely recycled in the end of the process, and the water waste can be discharged without bio­logical purification. (Collier, et al., 2001)

The Lenzing Ag, a leading producer of cellulose fibers that follows strict environmental policies published an eco-balance report in cooperation with the Kopernikus Institute of the University Utrecht in 2006/2007 that compares the environmental impact of cotton with polyester and Lenzing man-made cellulose fibers (figure 2).

Figure 3: Relative ecological damage per fiber barrel (Own Creation: Lenzing AG, 2008)

Conclusively and with regard to the figure illustrated above, the high impact of cotton production compared to man-made fibers stands out. Even though the main difference arises from water and soil pollution, the Lenzing Group fibers [3] show the lowest impact by comparison. Furthermore, according the eco balance report by Lenzing, the greenhouse emission of Lenzing cellulose fiber production is 1.3 million barrels of CO² lower than comparable productions of the polyester fiber. However, if the production of Lenzing fibers were exchanged for cotton production, the CO² emission would increase to 300,000 barrels. Moreover, an additional 340,000 hectares of arable land would be occupied, and water consumption would step up to 2.2 billion m³. (Lenzing AG, 2008)

It is beyond all questions that cotton fiber production has a higher environmental impact compared to sustainable production facilities of man-made cellulose fibers.

4. From Innovation to Transformation

The innovation in the textile industry will be compared to theory in order to identify the important factors for success. Thereafter the authors will highlight the transformation of the textile industry to be able to see if the theory supports the actual transformation occurring in the society today.

4.1 Innovation in the textile industry

Innovation is not only to come up with a good idea; it is the process of growing it into practice. (Tidd and Bessant, 2009) As innovations have started to appear in the textile sector e.g. the man made-fibers, it is now the time to put them into practice. According to Emerson there is no guarantee that there will be success on the market no matter how good the idea is, for success the attention needs to be put on project management, market development, financial management, organizational behavior etc. (Tidd and Bessant, 2009)

The novelty of an innovation has great importance of how the change of society will happen. There are two different types of innovation; incremental and radical. Incremental innovation is when performance is improved or extended. Radical innovation is when something new comes to the world. (Tidd and Bessant, 2009)

According to Nuur et al (….) in order for innovations to take place, it is important to create an appropriate environment where actors can interact intensively, and therefore, processes can develop progressively. The environment where innovation takes place includes the actors in it. The cluster concept was introduced by Porter (1990) and can be defined as the "co-operation in innovation activity between firms and knowledge creating and diffusing organizations, such as universities, colleges, R&D institutes, technology transfer agencies and so on. In the textile sector universities such as KTH collaborating with Domsjö is an example of a cluster concept.

The justification of the cluster concept can be clearly observed in the textile industry. Since cooperation for companies and research institutes when performing innovative processes or activities in textile industry has a great importance. Collaborative efforts and knowledge sharing, designed to create the necessary transformations across industries and along value chains can bring efficient results that will resolve some of the environmental problems which affect the climate. Besides, companies that would succeed in integrating sustainable and open innovation strategies in their operational processes will gain competitive as well as first mover advantage.

Since the man made fiber production is very limited and one of the few factories to find it is in Domjö, in Norway the geographical distance can make the communication between key parts difficult. Porter (1990) argued the RIS (regional innovation systems) approach assumes that localized learning processes benefit from physical closeness. This happens because of knowledge formation and communication processes that become very efficient due to geographical location of companies. It has great positive influence on the textile industry since manufactures and companies benefit from physical closeness to one another. Innovations push and pull each others in the chain. There are several steps of production processes of textile such as cultivating and harvesting, preparatory, followed by spinning, weaving and delivering the end product to the customer through retailer. In such big industry as textile the push and pull system is often used because the consumers usually "pulls" the goods they require for their needs, while the suppliers" pushes" them towards the consumer. If the consumer and supplier can cooperate then they will be able to exchange the knowledge and communicate what is the demand and what are they going to do thus be able to react on time.

As seen the innovation process has started in the textile industry however to become successful the transformation needs to occur and that will be explained hereafter.

4.2 The Transformation of the textile industry

The term transformation is defined in the Oxford Online Dictionary (2011) as "a marked change in form, nature, or appearance." Therefore a transformation of an industry can be seen as development of old habits to new and environment adjusted operations.

Nelson, one among many evolutionary theorists, was using biological concepts and metaphors to explain the movement of how the structure of an economy, or an industry, or technology, or law, changes over time. (Nelson, 1995)

According to Nelson a living creature during development is always influenced by the environment which it passes. It is the same for a technology; the environment in which a transformation takes place influences greatly how the transformation will look like. (Nelson, 1995)

In practice the evolutionary process is about learning, discovery and selection mechanisms in social life. Selection in organizations can be compared to the genes in biological theory. The genes influence the physical shape as organizations and individuals influence the development of technologies, policies, behavioral patterns and cultural traits. Technologies are modified and improved throughout the generations as are genes. (Dosi and Nelson, 1994)

Furthermore, Nelson and Dosi discuss two different views of selection and choice. The neoclassical view believes that the optimal selection is always done because of previous learning and evolvement. A choice is always rational and based on previous experiences. This theory does not take into account that there are not always optimal choices made. On the other hand in evolutionary theory the choices are more looked as leading to learning and evolution which further leads to optimization. In other words for evolutionary theorists selection is about error, trials and discovery. (Dosi and Nelson, 1994)

Another important concept pointed out by Nelson and Dosi was that if for example technology becomes leader on the market, the market will adapt very quickly. However, the model of Silverberg et al. (1988) states if there are only two technologies competing and one of them is potentially better than the other, that potential will not be achieved unless effort is put into improving current practice. (Dosi and Nelson, 1994)

According to Dahmén (1989) a transformation is triggered due to pressure created by tension in the industry. Here, he differentiates between positive and negative transformation pressure:

The positive transformation pressure is dominated by opportunities. The opportunities generate new fields of activities on the market but also offer to enter new markets. Here, the opportunity of transformation is dependent on the quality of entrepreneurship, institutional factors as e.g. characteristics and function of labor and capital markets. On the other hand, there is the negative transformation pressure. The industry is lead by the necessity of change. One speaks about a conflict between new and old products. Old products have to be adjusted to be up to date and to guarantee the place in the market or will be exchanged for new modified products. (Dahmén, 1989)

On the words of Dahmén a transformation always evolves out of industrial tension.

In order to transform an industry, Rogers (1989) points out that a crucial factor for success is the communication between all parts involved in the process. Roger refers to the adoption of innovation, however his theory can be applied to transformation since it also needs to be communicated in order to adapt. According to Roger the diffusion process depends on the four elements (the innovation, communication system, time and the society system) and these in turn influence the overall performance of the innovation on the market:

Innovations differ in their likeliness to be adopted. First, there are innovations with relative advantage. The perception of each individual on the innovation is more important than the idea itself to guarantee success. Second, the compatibility of the innovation with the society norms: If it's not consistent with the potential adopters norms, past experience and needs it will not be adopted as fast as an innovation that is compatible. Third, the complexity plays an important role in the adoption process. An innovation that is too difficult to use and understand tends to be adopted more slowly. Fourth, the trialability, the possibility to try the innovation before purchasing raises the adoption rate. Fifth, the observability that means to which extend the result the innovation brings along is visible. (Rogers, 1995)

Communication channels illustrate how a message gets from one to another individual. Likely to use as channels is the mass media (radio, TV, newspaper). It is most rapid an efficient and creates awareness knowledge. Another channel is interpersonal, the face to face exchange of people with the same social status. This channel is more effective convincing to accept new ideas. (Rogers, 1995)

Time in a diffusion process is seen in the dimension the potential user takes from the first knowledge to the adoption or rejection of the innovation. It is also called the innovation-decision-process, from the knowledge, over the persuasion, decision making, implementation and finally the confirmation in form of rejection of adoption. (Rogers, 1995)

Society system is penetrated by system norms. Norms can be seen as established behavior patterns for the social system members. These norms influence and restrict the decision making processes of an individual but can be influence by leaders. Leaders are influential persons that are able to lead in the spreading out of new ideas. (Rogers, 1995)

Conclusively, one can say that the above mentioned factors are crucial to guarantee the success of a transformation. However, to make it possible drivers are needed to realize a transformation. These drivers will be looked at in the following chapter.

3.1 Drivers of Transformation

We live in a knowledge intensive and fast changing world today which is built upon habits and rules that evolves continuously. According to Hodgson we are all born into and socialized with a world of institutions. Institutions are for example banks, universities, corporations and also systematic social entities such as money, law and language. Institutionalism is based on the concept of habit which is crucial in the human behavior. Institutionalism is based on sociological and psychological research how people behave in different situations. Hodgson states that Institutionalism is a strong predicting factor in economic changes. (Hodgson, 1998)

The founders of the "old" institutionalism, Veblen and Commons (Hodgson, 1998), see habit as the basis of human action and belief. The new institutionalism doesn't think individuals should be taken for granted. The choice and view of an individual can change from second to second.

According to Hodgson (1998), habits and routines may adapt slowly or "mutate", as agents attempt purposeful improvements. Institutions foster and underline particular behaviors and habits, and help transmit to new members of the group. As Hodgson (1998) states: we cannot communicate without some form of language and new institutions depend upon interpersonal communication of information. To be able to transfer the industry knowledge it has to be communicated to the customers to raise their acceptance for alternative products.

Also, Rogers (1995) emphasized in his article "Diffusion of Innovation" the society system is penetrated by system norms. These norms influence and restrict the decision making processes of an individual but can be influence e.g. by leaders. Therefore, leaders are influential persons that are able to lead in the spreading out of new ideas and also to support the acceptance of a transformation.

According to Blackburn (2009), it is important to focus on the points where interventions can be made to realize a change in the industry. He sees the government, companies and customers as drivers and therefore they will be highlighted in the following chapter.

3.1.1 Government

There are several ways in which government pushes the transformation such as by supporting innovation activities, by providing laws that forces the system to move and decrease the negative environmental impact. Furthermore, governments are able to establish certification systems like Eco-labels. (Blackburn, 2009) Today several labels exist already e.g. 100 % eco friendly, Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) and the ISO Standard (The International Organization for Standardization) that controls and coordinates the textile industry to certain extend. (MCL Global, 2010)

Eco-labeling e.g. is a tool to inform the customers. Even if the market is still small, it is now growing very fast: "Survey conducted in Germany, during the years of 2002 and 2006, indicated a substantial increase in the number of consumers concerned with harmful residues on textiles and the ecological impact of textile production." (Blackburn, 2009)

Moreover, the government has the force of substitute the industry in order to support the transformation from conventional to sustainable products.

3.1.2 Companies

Joseph Schumpeter (1934) made the following implications: Firstly, it is very important for companies to react immediately when spontaneous and discontinuous change in consumers' tastes appears. Secondly, it is the companies' job to educate their consumers and by that initiate economic change.

Another implication was taken from the article "Promoting regional Innovation Systems in a Global Context" by Cali Nuur, Linda Gustavsson, and Staffan Laestadius. In this article authors discuss the cluster concept that can be defined as the co-operation in innovation activity between firms and knowledge creating and diffusing organizations, such as universities, colleges, R&D institutes, technology transfer agencies and so on. According to the authors, in order for innovations to take place, it is important to create an appropriate environment where actors can interact intensively, and therefore, processes can develop progressively. (Cali et al., 2011)

Another hypothesis takes place by Franco Malerba. On his words, an innovative system approach considers innovation as an interactive process among a wide variety of actors. It stresses the point that companies do not innovate in isolation, so that innovation has to be seen as a collective process. (Malerba, 2002)

Blackburn (Blackburn, 2009) sees the main task in making sure that the industrial activities are adding value for the consumer.

3.1.3 Customers

The demand of the customers is one of the most important factor in the transformational process. (Blackburn, 2009)

Also Rogers assumes the society has a very high influence on the individual regarding the acceptance of a new innovation. Therefore, he stated that the adoption rate for an innovation depends on its compatibility with the values beliefs, and past experiences of the individuals. Moreover, he emphasizes that the success factor of an innovation is client orientated not innovation orientated. (Rogers, 1995) Furthermore Blackburn is pointing out that changes cannot happen without educating the customers and providing them with actual alternatives. Moreover the products have to be affordable and fit for the purpose. (Blackburn, 2009)

Lately surveys have shown that the number of consumers with awareness regarding environmental impact increased - also, the willingness to act on those matters. (Blackburn, 2009) LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) e.g. is a growing market segment in USA, Western Europe and South East Asia, related to sustainable living and ecological initiatives. The greater part of the segment is well-educated. The Worldwatch Institute reported that the LOHAS market segment in the year 2006 was estimated at $300 billion. "The author Paul H. Ray, who coined the term Cultural Creative's, explains the development as […] a demand for products of equal quality that are also virtuous." (N/A, Fashion Takes Action, 2011)

The concept of sustainability is rapidly spreading. LOHAS made it possible for retail merchants to expand scope and value of organic and natural products. LOHAS gain importance since customers understand if the enterprises work with intentional strategies linked to social and environmental responsibility to create a long term value. (Blackburn, 2011)

LOHAS care about important issues such as ethics, transport, human health, ecological footprint, Triple Bottom Line (people, planet, and profits), energy use and the treatment of animals. This can lead to a valuable ´branded relationship` with the consumer that can increase loyalty and if companies follow the trend it can be easier to enter the new growing market, a new way of life. Nowadays sustainable products can be priced on a higher price level. (N/A, Fashion Takes Action, 2011)

Beside the necessary education of the customers regarding sustainability also external factors can influence the buying behaviour of the society. Blackburn emphasized natural disasters as an external factor. The awareness of consumers rises and turns sustainability into a major force in consumer decision making. One event e.g. that had an impact on the buying behaviour was Hurricane Katarina that causers several large oil spills and evidence of melting ice at the poles. (Blackburn, 2009) Rogers is supporting this hypothesis by emphasizing in his article "Diffusion of Innovation" that the complexity plays an important role in the adoption process. The innovation has to be traceable for the consumers. Here, the reasons and needs for the necessity of transformation have to be communicated. (Rogers, 1995)

Furthermore, the consumer perception is an important factor to increase the transformation acceptance. According to Blackburn (2009) "Perceptions refers to the way in which people filter, organize and interpret sensory stimuli." When product information are limited and marketing campaigns are not convincible consumer tend to create their own opinion of product attributes. That leads to a preconception regarding the textile industry. Davis (1987) found out that a product out of 100% cotton led to higher acceptance than labeling the garment as a polyester/cotton blend. Regarding textiles, most people are not aware of the dangers of ordinary textiles, such as cotton. They believe cotton is natural and only a few people know the process from the cotton crops to the end product and its environmental impact. The benefits of sustainable fabrics are rarely known as well. That is why people that want to support with organic products rather puts it in organic food, not in organic textiles.

4. Discussion

The radical innovation would be if we would have -. Lyocell is incremental evolved out of viscose.

The environment of the textile sector is right since innovation take place however for progress to occur the environment is still not perfect since the transformation from the innovation to the market hasn't occurred yet( Cali et al (…)

5. Conclusion

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