The Size Of Organisations In Modern Times Commerce Essay

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The business organizations are bigger than past and some organizations doing their business in foreign countries. Meanwhile there are so many competitors also. So the need of human resource for an organization is increased in other word skilled and effective employees. For this reason the need of personnel management changes in to human resource management.

At the operation level personnel management is mainly an administrative record-keeping function. Basically personal management is concerned with employees and their relationship with work.

The main focus of human resource management is improving employees work ability through sustain organization's reputation. Basically the whole human resource activity for an organization's is called human resource management. There are several functions in human resource management those are done by the human resource manager. Functions like HR planning, recruitment, training, job evolution, remuneration, performance management, retrain skilled workers, exit procedures, labor relationship with organizations, work place health and safety rules, rewards system, motivation,

Definition of HRM ΄human resource management involves all management decisions and practices that directly influence the people, or human resource, who work for the organization΄.

(Source Fiher etal p.7. 2003) 1

Human resource management is focusing the whole activity of an organization. But personal management is generally concerned with the payroll and similar tasks.

Human resource management's tasks are normally proactive. One the other hand personal management's tasks are reactive.

Personal management is free from organizational influence. While on human resource order has follow from the seniors.

According to the case study CARE is a non-profit organization established for helping people who were the victims of world war release II. Gradually CARE spread their activities to many countries likes Asia, Latin America, Africa. CARE provide school-lunch, maternal health, disaster relief, forestation, agribusiness development and job training to those countries.

However CARE faced many difficulties to provide their service. Because lack of human resource management. Many employees of CARE did not perform effectively in their jobs. Little human resource management was done but it's not sufficient for the employees.

Hence, CARE started practice in human resource management. Meanwhile the situation of CARE changed gradually. Now the employees of CARE are more concerned about their job. Job description gives them clear view of their own duties and responsibilities. Training programs help employees to increase their work skills and performs effectively to their positions. CARE's new compensation system and remuneration system motivated their employees to work effectively to their jobs. The salaries of CARE's are now more equitable and streamlined that helped recruit excellent professional and managerial talent. Meanwhile CARE also increases salaries by 35 to 75 percent to attract people. (Bartol and Martin,1994,p342). The establishment of performance management influenced CARE,'s employees to improve their jobs performance. Moreover if they perform well and work effectively to their own positions they will be awarded with annual increment or promotion.

It can be conclude that practice of human resource management in CARE helped them to continue their


To understand the role, task and activities of a human resource practitioner first we need to understand the importance of human resource practitioner. To produce product and service organizations needs some elements such as human resource or labors, raw material, machineries, capital. One of the key elements for an organization is human resource. For example without human resource any production cannot run. But organizations also cannot run well with unskilled human resource.

So the duty of a human resource practitioner is organize all human resource factors that are used for the production or service or the organization's estimated goal.

However human resource practitioner has many roles to play. Such as,

- HR planning is one of the significant tasks for human resource practitioner. The practitioner has to makes recruitment plan for an organization. Organization's has own strategy so the practitioner has to follow the strategy.

- Human resource practitioner organize introduction and orientation program to introduce employees with their jobs and roles and regulation of an organization.

- Training programs help employees to develop their work ability and increase their work effectiveness.

- one of the important responsibilities for a human resource practitioner is to maintain work place healthy and safety roles. He or she has to provide employees good work place, toilet facility and medical facility and also provide safety equipment like, fire blanket, fire extinguisher and first aid box.

- Human resource practitioner allocate monthly payment among employees and offer employees various award to increase their performances.

Labour management relationship-

Retaining skilled staff-

- Recruitment and selection is a process which through job seekers are recruit for organizations or companies. There are some steps in recruitment like,

Job analysis,

Job description,

Person specification,

Internal recruitment and external recruitment.

And the most prevalent selection processes are

Application blank.

Selection interview.

Employment test.

Assessment centre.

Reference checks.

Hr manager of an organization's has to follow the Workplace health and safety roles. He has to offer all the safety equipments for the workers such as fire blankets, first aid box, hygienic toilet, fire exit. In the meantime hr manager also take some steps to retain there activities world wide.


Line manager is a manager who is liable for a staff or team to an upper level of management. Basically line manager look his own department and other employees of his department work under him. Line manager follow the upper level commend.

Role and responsibilities of line managers

- Line manager like accounting manager his or her duty is to manage his own department staffs and provide guide line.

- The operations coast of an organization's depends much on an operations manager.

- The work ability of staffs in particular department depends on line manager. Line manager of a department provide technical expertise to their staffs to work productive and fast.

- Line manager allocate employees work schedule and time schedule.

- Line manager monitor work processes of his department and provide report to upper level to let them know about his department progress.

- The responsibility of line manager at operations level to make sure that the product or service they produce will be quality full.

For an organization marketing managers are people who deal with other companies and customers.

The people and performance study conceded out for the CIPD by a team at Bath University1 found that front line managers played a key role in environment of implementing and enacting HR policies and practices. They found that where employees thinks optimistic about their relationship with their front line managers they are more likely to have higher levels of job satisfaction, commitment and loyalty which are associated with higher levels of performance or discretionary behavior. Discretionary behavior is defined as that which goes beyond the requirements of the job to give that extra performance which can boost the bottom line. Line managers also play the strongest part in structuring people's actual experience of doing a job. (HUTCHINSON, S. and PURCELL, J. (2003)

According to the case study in 1980 care experienced serious difficulties to provide their service because of little practice of human resource management. But CARE understood the importance of human resource management so they start practicing in new way. Job description gives CARE employees a clear view of their duties. Orientation program helps new employees to familiar with organization for this reason employees are more serious about their jobs. The new compensation system of CARE provides more equitable basis pay and new salary structure helped recruit marital and talent employees.

To make staffs more familiar with their jobs company should take some training programs. For example, CARE should represent their previous activities and difficulties to make staffs conscious and provide guide line if they facing same type of difficulties. So they can overcome quickly and perform their job effectively. One the other hand CARE is international organizations so the company should engage local trainer to train their staffs. It will help staffs to understand their job properly because local trainer uses local language and also some lo


Modern business organizations are more technical based, competitive, productive, and there are some service provide organizations as well. The aim of an organization is achieve more profit. And the key element for an organization is human resource. Moreover, without proper planning of human resource any organization wound not be able to reach their goal. HR planning is a process for an organization's which through they can predict their future human resource needs.

Success of an organization depends on human resource planning. Organization's makes plane to judge HR demand and supply issues and developing their staffs working skills.


Job analysis- Job analysis is process to collection and recording of information concerning the purpose of a job.

Job analysis information informs the HR practitioner about the nature of a specific job, in particular, the major tasks unbroken by the incumbent, the outcomes that are expected, and the job's relationship with other jobs in the organization hierarchy and job holder characteristic. The basic premise underlying job analysis is that jobs are more likely to be described, differentiated, and evaluated constantly if accurate information is available to reward manager.(Bratton and Gold. 2005)

cal method to describe the duty and responsibility of job.

: By forecasting the human resource demand it can determine what types of employee and what amount of employees will be required in the future.

: Internal supply shows the situation inside the organization. Such as terminations, age distribution of workforce and retirements. External supply forecasts relate to external labor market conditions and estimates of supply of labor to be available to the firm in the future in different cat


The recruitment process of Mcdonald's in uk and the recruitment process of Superdrug.

Mcdonald's recruitment process for customers care assistant.

Apply system- to apply for a Mcdonald's job the applicant has to apply on online. The applicant has to provide his or her information and answer some quick questions.

Interview- After applied for the position applicant called for an interview. Generally in which store the applicant applied the manger of that store takes interview of applicants. If the applicant answer all questions correctly he or she has to select for that positions.

Orientation programme- applicant who select for the job he or she has to attend the orientation programme. In the orientation programme applicant learn about their job duties and job description.

Health and safety exam- to join before first day work applicant has to sit for a healthy and safety exam on online. He or she has to answers all the health and safety questions and has to achieve the certificate.

Superdrug's recruitment process for customer adviser

Apply system- to apply for the customer adviser the applicant has to complete an application form and has to submit in store. The authority check the application form and if there is every thing is all right the applicant call for an interview.

Interview process- the manager of that store take interview of applicants. Basically the applicants has to answer some product related question and customers care related question.

Selection- if more than one applicant is select for the job he or she has to take part on product enquiry. Product enquiry is a process which through authority measures the applicant performance. In this process who perform well he or she select for the job.

Comparison and use of media: the two organizations use different application system. And but in interview process are almost same in two organizations. Mcdonald's send their applicant for a orientation programme but Superdrug has no specific orientation programme. In Mcdonald's applicant has to set for a health and safety exam but Superdrug has no system like this.

If the organizations evaluate their total recruitment process in different media such as websites. Its helps applicant to find out what process they have to do.


The employment interview is a one of the most important part in selection process. Organization arrange interview to fined right one for their jobs.

However there are few types of interview such as,

- Directive interview is the most structured interview process. There are fixit question for applicants.

- There are some interviews that may be very formal applicants asked formal questions. But there are some interviews that are not structured applicants asked questions about their aim.

- in non directive interview applicants has to answer a broad question like applicant previous jobs experience. Applicants can talk freely with interviewers.

if the applicant applying for the role is within the arts, media or communications industries then you may be asked to bring a portfolio of work to the interview and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to in clued.

in this interview applicant may be face several interviews with a interviewer each time. Generally each interviewers ask questions to identify applicant different sets of competencies.

Specific types of interview

Face to face interview- sometime applicant has to face one interviewer or sometime there are two interviewers.

Panel interview - in a panel interview there are several people sitting as a panel with a chairperson to coordinate the question.

Group interviews - in a group several applicants are present and asked questions serially. Some time one applicant asked questions to the other applicants


The organizations recruit the right person through the selection process.

Selection process of Priamark

At first the selection authority of Priamark checks the applicant's application bank and the curriculum vitae. If the applicant able to full fill the application bank he or get more priority for selection interview. In selection interview authority check the communications skills of applicant. After the interview authority check the reference of the applicant if reference is correct the applicant select of the position which he or she applied.

Selection process of Next

The first stage of Next selection process is checks the application bank. If any applicant fails to provide the requirement what the company need he or she disqualify for the job. And who are selected for the job they have to meet a face to face interview with the store manager. The interview includes questions and some physical work. The authority care fully check the reference of applicant if there is any fake information provide by the applicant the application cancelled by the authority. Select for the job applicant must pass the physical test. If an applicant full fills the all requirement he or she get the contact letter.

Above two organizations use quite same method for selection. But there is a difference in interview Tec nick. The reference of applicant check by the both organizations.


Job evaluation is a method through which a pay level or grade allocate within a salary structure.

At first stage of job evaluation the all positions need to be analyzed. In determining the positions and the criteria (skills, education level and responsibility) needed to be performed that particular position. After this process the comparative worth of the position is understand.

Job evaluation is a way of estimating the nature , quality or value of positions so that they can be distribute official to a salary structure . job evaluation involves a number of factor that are required in having the necessary ability, skills and knowledge of the job and on that support. The job is distributed officially to a grade for example, a customers service officer may need good existing skills. So if the position need some form of technical advice or support to the customers, like in a computer help desk position give a higher grading than the lower level of customers service role.

The main factors of determining pay are

Responsibility- in an organization a person who is holding a responsible position his salary is comparatively more than other such as a team leader of an organization is paid more than a crew member because is responsibility is to maintain all crew member.

Skill- a person who have all the skills needed for an organization he got good salary as he knows better and have much experience on that position.

Effort required- in the work where more effort needed like the payment of a construction labour is more than a receptionist.

Working condition- the workers in where have more hazard the salary for this position is more.

Education- the person who is more educated and experienced he got more salary as he knows better than a illiterate person


Organization developed some Tec nick to increase employees work ability and increase productivity. This tec nick or this system called reward systems.

Range of reward system

Financial awards

Bonus- some organizations gives bonus money to their employees annually or occasionally e.g the Helifax bank give bonus money to their employees in a annual basis one the other hand Superdrug gives bonus to their employees on charismas basis on their sells.

Awards- many organizations gives award to their employees who perform well in their position.

Promotions- In an organization upper level employee's gives promotion. For example in a bank if the assistant manager performs well in his position he will be awarded with promotion. related pay-

Non financial awards

Holiday tripe

Gym facilities

Performance related pay- performance related pay is one kind of reward that helps individual to increase their performance. Employees inspire by the performance related pay if they perform well they will awarded with bonus money.

Benefit and limitation of performance related pay- the key benefit of performance related pay is employees work effectively to their positions its drive the organization toward the goal.

However, there are some limitations of performance related pay like if any employees fail to achieve his or her goal he or she would be de motive. And that create a negative impact on organization aim.


There are many researches that found link between motivational theory and reward. The most famous method developed by Abraham Maslow. It also known as a Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Basic needs- if the organization provides employees sufficient salary which through employees meet their basic need.

Security needs -to meet the security needs organization should provide safe working environment to their employees.

Group needs- organization can meet the group need to provide an appropriate team work structure.

Self esteem needs- with promotion and job titles self esteem needs can be meet.

Self actualization needs- it can be meet by give chance to the employees to independence, and doing what they enjoy.

By the above process organization can easily motivate their employees and can take their highest effort of performance.


The success of an organization totally depends on its employees. If employees perform well organization run well and can achieve profit. To measure individual performance organization use the performance management tack nick.

Organization generally uses this kind of method to monitoring performance.

Organization keeps records to its staffs that help the organization to learn about staffs working ability.

If any staff continually doing mistakes organization can give the staff feedback to review the staff performance.

In some organization manager take interview among his staffs to find out the experience one.

Some time organization gives extra task to their staffs to measure staffs ability.


If any staffs of an organization's want to leave his or her job there are some formalities to leave the job.

Exit procedures of Superdrug

Resignation letter- if any staff of Superdrug wants to leave his job he has to send a resignation letter to the zonal manager.

Application- staff who want to leave he or she has to write a application to specific reason for his or her leaving.

Interview- the manager of that store take interview who want to leave.

Exit procedures of Mcdonald's

Formal notice- if any crew member of Mcdonald's wants to leave he or she has to give a formal notice to his work place one before.

Exit question- the manager of that store first ask the leaving staff some question why he or she want to leave the job. If the manger found the reason which for the staff leaving is considerable the manager send the staff to a exit interview.

Exit interview- in an exit interview staff has to answer some work related question and do some paper work to cancel his or her work contact.


When someone dismiss from his or her position it's called redundancy. If any organization fail to consult employees - and their delegates if applicable - in a redundancy situation, the redundancy dismissals will almost certainly be unfair.

Selection criteria for redundancy:

The criteria should be as objective as possible. We should consider skills, performance, attendance, experience, attitude, qualification and finally disciplinary record of the employees. The employers have to consider the type of work carried out including whether the jobs are interchangeable, whether other groups of employees are doing similar work to those groups in the groups from which selection is proposed to be made and whether the employees inclusion in a pool in a consistence with in employee's previous positions. The employees should ensure that expert deployed or appointed to make a list for redundancy are properly capable of assessing of the employees in the pool for selection (redundancy) and ensure that the experts have been given guidance how to apply the selection criteria.

(Armstrong, m, 2006)