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Organizational culture can be define as the basic assumption and beliefs that are shared among members of an organization, that operate unconsciously and communicate in a basic taken for granted ways of doing things an organization's view of itself and its environment (Schein cited in Johnson, Scholes, & Whittington 2008). Likewise, George & Jones (2008) argued that organizational culture influences the way employees think, feel, and behave toward each other and toward people outside the organization. Whereas, culture itself consists of attitudes, values, beliefs, rituals and experiences that are shared by people and that control the way they interact with one another.
Whether company T is having a shared culture or not can be answered in two ways; yes or no. Company T considered to have a shared culture is identified from its work attitudes and behaviors of its subordinates and managers. Both managers and subordinates are applying and sharing the same management style; aggressiveness and competitiveness. On the other hand, even though the organization believe to have a shared culture but in reality the 2 x 4 management style in company T eventually leads to lying, cheating, and stealing. Thus, putting subordinates and managers in a dilemmatic situation whereby in order to survive in the company they need to follow the aggressive macho management style and if they are not they will get retrench from the game.
The Strong Culture in Company T
Early researched by Saffold (1988) identified strong culture organizations are supposed to generate an almost tangible social force field of energy that "empowers" employees and drives the organization toward advanced performance and success. Moreover, a strong culture is intended to produce commitment, dedication, enthusiasm, even passion, in workers. On the other hand, Peters & Waterman cited in Alvesson (2002) argued that strong culture lies behind eight factors : "a bias for action, close to the customer, autonomy and entrepreneurship, productivity through people, hands-on, value-driven, stick to the knitting, simple form, lean staff, and simultaneous loose-tight properties."
By understanding what strong culture is and its eight factors implied, company T is possibly not really having a strong culture. Even though the organization plant are seems to be functionally organized and people are enforce to work hard in order to survive, nevertheless at the end the organizational culture implemented in company T is actually directing employees to lie, cheat and steal. Therefore, company T is not really presentable in having a strong culture
The Achievement Culture in Company T
Based on previous studies Daft, Denison & Mishra, McDonald & Gandz cited in Samson and Daft (2009) there are four types of culture an organization may have adapted. Firstly, adaptability culture, it emerges in an environment that requires fast response, high risk decision making whereby managers rewards creativity and employees are given autonomy to act freely in relation to meet customer needs. Secondly, the achievement culture, it values competitiveness, aggressiveness, personal initiative, and willingness to work long and hard to achieve results. Thirdly, the involvement culture, it focuses on the involvement and participation of employees to rapidly adapt to changing needs from the environment. Fourthly, the consistency culture, it exist in a stable environment, focus internally and has a consistency orientation. Cultures itself can vary across organizations; nevertheless, organizations within the same industry may often reveal similar cultural characteristics because they are operating in similar operations (Chatman & Jehn cited in Samson & Daft, 2009).
Looking at the characteristics of the four types of culture, Company T would be more likely falls under the achievement culture due to several factors. First, 2 x 4 management is a term being used by company T expressing the aggressive macho management style culture. Furthermore, managers referred the company culture as a 'jungle ', means that workers as 'animals' and manager as the 'monsters'. Verbal abuses like yelling, screaming and dramatic arguments are acceptable in the workplace and it also perceived as the fun part of the working life. Dramatically, those who were good at playing the 2 x 4 management game will easily get promoted. Second, there is an intensive competitiveness between shifts and among the employees itself. Company T has implemented two shifts A and B to share the work load whereby the two shifts are frequently being compared and expecting them to compete in order to encourage people to work hard. Third, since there is always pressure to deliver the number of outcomes based everything on results as well its quality, therefore making the functional loyalty becoming very strong from all levels top to down.
Problems of Adapting the Achievement Culture in Company T
In the surface competitive and aggressive culture in company T appear to be overwhelming since it encourages people to work hard. Eventually, there are two opinions regarding the culture adapted in company T. One party feels that it appears healthy because it promotes 'good', clean competition and also it is part of the working culture in order to survive in the company. On the other hand, due to the aggressive and competitiveness culture it creates dysfunctional which are lying, cheating, and stealing. Furthermore, employees and manager are likely to turn away from their responsibility; no one wants to get blame and lack of trust between each other.
Changing the Organizational Culture in Company T
Generally, organizational culture has been built up and used over a long period of time and thus making such changes outside the bounds will be very difficult and need extra effort. Furthermore, it will also be difficult to persuade or influence employees if the organization intended to change its current culture or corporate strategy. This happens when the organization's culture become so strong and promote so many groups cohesiveness (George & Jones, 2008). Ravasi & Schultz (2006) have observed changes tend to require alterations in the ways people interpret distinctively about their organization. In short, changes require people to make new sense to develop new interpretations of what their organization is about. Meanwhile, organization must be managed by the people who have the ability to lead, control, organize, and making plans in order to ensure it does not lead to problems.
Aggressiveness and Competitiveness are company T distinct organizational culture characteristics. On the other hand, there are drawbacks of adapting this kind of culture which are lying, cheating, and stealing. Thus, the drawbacks have becoming a system that already worked. Part of the difficulty in introducing change is that many managers as well employees like the excitement and the tricks. Besides, most of them survived in company T because they were good at playing the game and handling a job which required considerable skill, knowledge and tough mentality.
There is a possibility to change the existing organizational culture in company T for better purpose even though changes will hardly to be accepted in short period and thus it takes time probably over long term period. Suggested approaches to make changes advised by George and Jones (2008), a company should have a board of independent-minded directors who are not bias and not afraid to challenge managers as well employees and thus top managers should be changed regularly. Additionally, Baker & Castellano (2009) proposed every organization to establish a decent code of ethic in order employees and managers to behave respectively by introducing reward system and incentive. Whereby, rewards and incentives are given not only due to their good performance but also given to those who can report and manage to stay away from unethical work behavior or wrongdoing.
Role of the Manager in Shaping the Culture in Company T
Managers have to think and put concern on how to shape a well fit organizational culture, whereby it has been identified in the previous section that culture plays an important role towards the organizational success. In respond to that, the concept of culture itself helps manager understand the hidden agenda and complex aspects of organizational life. The first important role managers need to do is to envisioning and promoting the conceptualization of the new organizational culture by encouraging and rewards integrity as well responsibility. Manager as a leader in company T must give good examples to their employees, for instance, in terms of the work attitudes and behaviors since in nature staff will follow their managers (Senior & Fleming, 2006).
After examining the culture of company T it came out to a conclusion that organizational culture affects the behavior and work attitudes of its employees and the organization success. Correspondingly, organizational culture needs to be evaluated regularly for the benefits of all stakeholders. As a result, managers and subordinates needs to work together ethically in managing the organizational culture