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The study of organizational behavior plays an important role in today's life. An appropriate organizational culture can modify individual behavior. The study of organizational behavior is about the group of people working together as a team to achieve a particular goal. Organizational behavior is related to the behavior of an individual in the organization. Two different people act differently in the same situation, it is next to impossible that two people are going to act the same way in the same situation. It depends on the manager how well does he know his team member and what reaction does he expect from his team members while working on the same project. There is a lot of scope in the organizational behavior, for example:
Impact of personality on performance
Impact of culture on organizational behavior
Motivation is simply the reason for an action, which gives you purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that motivate someone to any kind of work, weather its eating or studying. Eating is motivated by hunger and studying is motivated by the desire for knowledge. Whenan effective speaker uses motivation, then the motivation can influence individuals or groups to work towards a goal and achieve them as guided within given period of time. There are two types of forces negative and positive motivational force. Negative motivation is based on fear. It means when a person is under pressure of have fear of loosing something that he really care about, for example: when you have fear that you can loose your money, or when you can loose you life or something valuable. Positive motivation is based service. Service means helping others like offering support, knowledge, material, or emotional help. There is a relationship between fear and service. When the level of fear is high then the level of service so low and when the level of fear is low then the level of service is high. When a person is not afraid then he will help people more because there is nothing to be afraid of. Another opposite to fear is curiosity, if you are curious to know something or to do something you have to get rid of your fears because if you are scared then you cant be curious. Motivation is important for everyone, for example students, employees, sportsman, doctors, etc. A motivated person is achieving his goals and aims faster than the others who are not motivated.
Motivation in organization
Motivation is as important in the organization as in any aspect of life. It plays a vital role. It is the job of a manager or a group leader to keep his team members motivated. He/ she should study different ways and methods of encouraging the staff. If the team is motivated in the right way it can result into great success, if there is lack of motivation then it can result into great failure.Motivation is a successful way to motivate a team. Motivation through communication is a vital way to express their thoughts and ideas it really helps to motivate the group. Motivation, ability, and the work environment influence an employee's performance.Motivation explains that the one who is motivated is more successful than the one who takes work more casually.
Ensuring that the employees have the relevant tools and enterprise required for the job. The employees must consider themselves competent to handle the job. The right tools, right office equipment, skills training or other relevant which outputs may be necessary for them to perform the jobs effectively. Employees feel valued and their motivation level is enhanced when managers seek their feedback and try to view things from their perspective. This can be done by conducting anonymous surveys or by interacting directly with the employees. By giving the employees to choose the ways and methods of doing a particular job helps the employees to enjoy certain degree of freedom and this in turn encourages the employees to be innovative and try out new ways of doing things.
Employers feel more fulfilled and satisfied if managers assist them in discovering their true potential. Conducting self-development programs for employees can do this. These steps can help create an environment where employees are intrinsically motivated. Rather than working for the sake of rewards or recognition, they work because they find the job satisfying and rewarding.
Employers feel more fulfilled and satisfied if managers assist them in discovering their true potential. Conducting self-development programs for employees can do this.
These steps can help create an environment where employees are intrinsically motivated. Rather than working for the sake of rewards or recognition, they work because they find the job satisfying and rewarding.
Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task. It just means that the pleasure they anticipate from some external reward will continue to be a motivator even when the task to be done holds little or no interest. An extrinsically motivated student, for example, may dislike an assignment, may find it boring, or may have no interest in the subject, but the possibility of a good grade will be enough to keep the student motivated in order for him or her to put forth the effort to do well on a task.
Employee engagement describes an employee work environment in which employees are motivated, excited, thoroughly involved and engrossed in their work and contribution, and willing to offer their discretionary energy to accomplish work goals. Find out more about how to create a work environment that fosters employee engagement.
Employee Motivation: Their expectation from the Employer
The employees have different reasons for working. The reason for work may vary from person to person. But there is always something or the other behind their work. The something obtained from work impacts morale, employee motivation, and the quality of life. To create positive employee motivation, treat employees as if they matter - because employees matter. These ideas will help you fulfill what people want from work and create employee motivation.
What People Want From Work: Employee Motivation
Some people work for love; others work for personal fulfillment. Others like to accomplish goals or feel as if they contribute to something larger than themselves. Whatever your personal motivation for working, the bottom line, however, is that almost everyone works for money. Find out the latest thinking and research about what people want from their work - employee motivation.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Physiological Needs: Biological needs, such as needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. These needs are basic in nature and every individual needs to live and perform the various activities.
Safety needs: Safety needs are psychological in nature. Every individual wants stability and consistency in a chaotic world. Every one needs security, freedom from physical violence, crime, etc. It gives peace of mind and one can concentrate on his work. If a person doesn't feel secure his productivity would suffer.
Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness: Love and belongingness are the next need. Through the expression of these needs, people overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. Every individual needs love from someone or the other.
Need for Esteem: Each individual needs esteem in the society .He looks for self-esteem which results from competence of a task .Secondly the attention and recognition and attention from others. Desire for status and the aspiration for status symbols, like expensive cars, are an expression of this need for esteem.
Needs for Self-Actualization: The ultimate need that is expressed only after the foregoing needs are satisfied. Self-actualization is the desire or the willingness to become more and more one is. It may be the desire to be what one is capable of becoming. People who has everything may have desire to seek knowledge, esthetic experiences and oneness with God.
Communication is transfer of information and understanding from one person to another. It is a way of explaining your feelings to others through thoughts, ideas, and facts.
There are four type of facets in all type of communication i.e. sender, receiver, information behavior. In any type of communication the sender is trying to communicate a message, the receiver is the person at whom the message is directed, a message is sent to convey information, information is meant to change behavior. We communicate to share our ideas and opinions, provide feedback to others, get information from others, gain powers and influence, develop social relationships and maintain self-expression and our culture.
There are two types of communications:
The verbal communication is the basis of communication between people.
Verbal communication includes oral, written and email.
Non-verbal communication is usually understood as the process of
Communication through sending and receiving wordless messages.
Non-verbal communication includes:
b. Expressive behavior
c. Body language
Flow of information is regulated by several factors. Proximity of workers to one another, the rules governing who communicates with whom, the status hierarchy, and other elements
Such as job assignments and duties.
Types of communication network:
The flow of information is centralized or directed through specific members
The communication flow can originate at any point and does not have to be directed through certain central group members
2. All channels
Barriers against effective interpersonal communication are:
3. Overloaded with information
Emotions: when people communicate an idea or matter with each other, the receiver can feel how can the sender feel about the matter.
The message, which is exchanged, is interpreted differently for different people. It's always best to avoid responding or reacting to the subject matter when you are upset or angry because most of the time you don't think clearly about the matter and take wrong decisions when you are angry.
Filtering: This where the sender manipulates the information that he communicates to the receiver. Filtering the information may mislead the receiver into thinking into something favorable and the let down may be upsetting if it's found out that the information has been filtered.
Overloaded with information: If there is too much of information given to the to a person about the same matter then it can be very confusing for him. The human brain can only take in so much information to process, overloading it with information will exceed our processing capacity.
Defensiveness: Its human nature that they refuse to understand the situation when they feel that are being threatened or have any disadvantage. It consists of putting out sarcastic questioning their motives or being overly judgmental about the matter.
Jargon: Jargon should be avoided when talking to someone who isn't familiar with your personally or within the organization.
Types of communication inside and outside the organization:
There are two types of communication internal/organizational communication and external communication. In the internal/organizational communication the communication takes place within (or across) organization. In addition to the usual than telephone communication the modern organizations may use email or fax to communicate internally.
In the external communications the communication is between the organization and those outside the organization. Modern organization may design technology system so they can communicate with other organizations.
Formal and Informal communications:
Formal communication is defined as communication, which occurs through the official organizational channels or is undertaken by an employee to do their job. For example: official meetings, letters and a manager asking an employee to carry out a particular task.Informal communications is that which occurs outside the recognized communication networks foe example lunchroom or hallways between employees.
Upward and downward communications:
Downward communication is created by the directors and managers and passed down to the workers in the organization. Downward communication can increase efficiency by synchronizingorganizational procedures and can ensure that everybody is working towards the same overall aims and objectives. Types of downward communication include job descriptions, evaluations and organizational systems.
There are advantages to downward communication organizations have began to encourage the upward communication. Encouraging upward communication may increase motivation and make employees feel valued and respected, which enable managers to understand how employees are feeling. Types of upward communication include suggestion, feedback, surveys, and employee-manager discussions.
This is communication that occurs between the employees at the same level in the organization. This can involve decision-making it can create efficiency, as employees do not have to wait for the managerial approval. On the other hand if the manager is not kept informed or if the manager fails to set boundaries there is potential for conflict.
This occurs when communication between workers in a different section of the organization and where one of the workers involved in on a higher level in the organization. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank in the city.
Strategies to improve communication:
Employees suggestion scheme,
Open door policies,
Improving stages of communication flow.
The word "personality" originates from the Latin word persona, which means mask. Personality acquired attributes and quality through learning.
Personality is the dynamic organization with the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment. Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characters possessed by a person that influences his or her motivation and behaviors in various situations (Ryckman, 2004).
Determinants of Personality
Heredity has a great influence on biological and mental features. Heredity refers to the transfer of personal characteristics from father or mother to their children.
The components of environment that effects are culture, religion, family, school, and place of work.
A situation is an antecedent to behavior. Situation plays a vital role in personality
Conscious is something when we are aware of at any given moment. Preconscious is something when with a little effort everything can be brought into consciousness and unconsciousness is something when everything is inaccessible warehouse of anxiety thoughts and drives.
Instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish between reality and fantasy, operates according to the pleasure of the principle.
Ego develops out of the instinctual drives in infancy understands reality and logic, mediator between id and superego.
Stages of development:
Freud's stages of development are important fro personality development.
Carl Jung is known for the theory behind MBTI. It is a 100-item instrument developed by Myers and Briggs, the instrument generates sixteen personality types.
These are 16 types are based on the combination of four aspects-
Extroversion & Introversion
Sensing & Intuiting
Thinking & feeling
Judging and perceiving
Personality Job-Fit Theory
According to john Holland's theory, most people are one of six personality types:
Holland has proposed a personality- job fit theory. People having careers suitable to their personalities are satisfied and contribute more to their profession. People who resort to careers not suitable to their personalities face many problems.
Cattell's produced a standardized test, the 16-personality factor (16-PF) test, which could be used to rate individuals on the 16 factors. When the test is administered to groups of people from different occupations, group profiles may emerge. For example, writers tend to be highly imaginative, while airline pilots are tough-minded, and creative artists are intelligent, sensitive, yet controlled.
16 personality traits
Abstractedness- imaginative versus practical
Apprehension- insecure versus complacent
Dominance- aggressive versus passive
Emotional stability- calm and stable versus high-strung and liveliness enthusiastic versus serious
Openness to change- liberal versus traditional
Perfectionism compulsive and controlled versus indifferent
Privateness- pretentious versus unpretentious
Reasoning- abstract versus concrete
Rule consciousness- moralistic versus free-thinking
Self-reliance- leader versus follower
Sensitivity- sensitive versus tough-minded
Social boldness- uninhibited versus timid
Tension- driven and tense versus relaxed and easy going
Vigilance- suspicious versus accepting
Warmth- open and warmhearted versus aloof and critical
From the point of view of broad life styles two type of personalities have been identified type A & B.Time urgency and impatience, free-floating hostility or aggressiveness, impatience, rudeness, being easily upset over small things
Never feel urgency and are patient, relaxed, do not display their achievements.
Psychological and physiological - Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that biological processes and needs also influence it.
Impact behaviors and actions - Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
Multiple expressions - Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in out thoughts, feelings, close relationships and other social interactions.
Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust
The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believes that learning to control one's body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
Motivation is essential in all aspect of life. It is not only essential for any organization but its importance is felt in all sphere of life. Motivation is the driving factor which keeps things moving. Without motivation the organization cannot achieve their goals, the life of the people would be meaning less. Motivation is when someone or something prompts you to an action or energizes or stimulates you to a goal or object. Motivation can also come from within, from a change of environment or through others. There is a subtle difference between the two but either of these can invigorate action if you welcome them wholeheartedly.
Sometimes we do need a spark to ignite us and do your best this year to be in search of such a stimulus wherever you go or just when you find some time with yourself alone - inspire yourself and motivate yourself to an action or cause above and beyond yourself. It adds more meaning to life and adds a sparkle to our self. But we should not hold off any action in wait of inspiration or motivation, always remember that action precedes both of these. If we act well and in time there can be nothing better and even an action can inspire and motivate you to do better and carve a new path that you had not thought of before. Action is perhaps larger and more inspirational and motivational than inspiration and motivation alone. Motivation is simply the reason for an action, which gives purpose and direction to behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that motivates someone to any kind of work.