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Leadership is stated as the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task." Definitions more inclusive of followers have also emerged. Alan Keith stated that, "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen
The 21st century has already spawned a sizable volcano of daunting new challenges to leadership. Deregulation, digitization, ecosystems, strategy life cycles, and competition at present, represents change have permanent rhythm for every business firm. This change process gives a role of decision making initiative for the leaders such as:
Broadening the scope of employee freedom by managing less, without sacrificing focus, discipline, and order.
Creating an organization where the spirit of shared values and community dominate, not programs and policies.
Providing for a mission that justifies extraordinary contribution .etc
The best effective decisions made within the available limited resources and constraints to provide an optimum solution for the change process makes a leader and a manager to achieve their objectives in many change process. Further to handle the change initiatives efficiently Â an organization must recognize that succession planning and leadership development are two elements of the same process that of ensuring there are leaders now and in the future who can implement the organizational vision .while succession planning can identify those individuals who have the abilities ,talent and potential to turn the vision of the organization into reality, the alignment to leadership development can ensure that this potential is realized .In so doing, an organization can ensure that there is indeed long term leadership sustainability and opportunities of entrepreneurship this will be a source of having competitive advantage of developing next generation leaders in the years to come for an organization to succeed .
Â Leadership is the energetic process of getting people fully and willingly committed to a new and sustainable course of action to meet commonly agreed objectives whilst having commonly held values. Leader's values must offer 4E's frame work-envision, enable, empower and energize, for establishing a climate for creative thinking and promote innovation in 21'st century has already experienced with deregulation, digitization, globalization, Strategic business management, the result is familiar to every business firm "Change".
Change is a common occurrence in business today. Leading change describes the role of leaders in accepting and managing many change processÂ .many of the change initiatives fail to achieve their objectives because (1) Absence of a definition of what actually would constitute organizational success. (2)Â "Results" a powerful concept if left unmanaged, poses a risk in future. (3) Intransparency ie, lack of clarity of the changing situation. (4) Lack of succession planning and building bench strength.
Leadership attempts to have integrated systems to solve the problems of change process.
"Leadership is about being adaptable to change and uncertainty" (Mark .A. Morgan MD of citi group private bank). An organization to develop the next generation leaders should consider the following important points such as (1) Identifying core set of skills to equip leaders of next generation. (2) Tracking and networking alumni of young professionals. (3) Determining the value of pooling program evaluation efforts. (4) Recognizing the key challenges in finding the resources and enhancing youth programes.
Â Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). However, we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. These two leadership types are shown in the chart below:Trait and Process Leadership Models
While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique.
CONTEMPORARY LEADERSHIP ROLES
The four contemporary leadership roles that are important for the organization to achieve its objectives are:
Providing team leadership
Leadership is increasingly taking place within a team context .as teams grow in popularity; the role of the leader in guiding team members takes on heightened importance.
Organizations have formal mentoring programs where mentors are officially assigned to new or high -potential employees to present ideas clearly, and empathize with problems of their protégés.
Self -leadership propose that there are a set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior and effective leaders help their followers to lead themselves.
To lead the people who are physically separated from you and with whom your interactions are basically to written digital communications like telecommuting with employees you need online leadership.
FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP
There are four major factors in leadership:
You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees.
All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.
Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership.
Change, change, and more change; it seems that is all we have talked about in the last 10 years. Change has become the standard in our everyday life. In many organizations, the banner cry has been to promote change and expect increased performance concurrently. As rapid change continues to be the constant in our lives, leaders need to learn more effective methods to assist their organizations and employees in developing improved strategies for dealing with change. If leaders do not understand their own communication styles in both positive and negative terms, then their change initiatives may be significantly compromised with a substantial number of personnel.
Keeping employees involved during transitions and managing their resistance is essential to using change effectively. Learning to expect resistance to change can be a major hurdle; leaders frequently ignore resistance or view it as a negative event.
Many leaders do not see resistance as a natural part of change, and they attempt to deal with resistance by trying to control it. People need time to deal with change, and resistance is how the time delay is expressed. The simple fact is resistance exists and will not be negated by giving people more data, showing them more pie charts, or providing a more detailed plan. Misguided attempts to talk employees out of resistance by giving them facts and information are doomed to failure. Information is meaningless to a person who is trying emotionally to cope with change.
Employees need assistance on an emotional level. You cannot control others' resistance. You can only make it safe for others to explore their thoughts and feelings about change. The art of managing change is a dynamic process of designing and refining the age-old problem of people/structure/technology and performance.
In the current environment, organizations seem to have little choice: change or become extinct. Although change appears to be a given, choices exist as to how the changes will occur and be implemented. This may leave a gap between the people involved in decision making and those asked to implement the decisions. It is trouble-some to be charged with implementation of changes when you have not been included in the decision making process. Many managers and employees know that changes are coming; yet, they generally have not been involved in the decisions. Typically, they have had little input, have not been able to explore their options, and have little information on the proposed changes--or imposed changes.
For the followers, changes, even when foretold, seem sudden and abrupt. Change to employees may seem to be dramatic, create problems and disrupt established routines. The leader may view the changes as gradual and part of a bigger plan. Although leaders may experience change as exciting and full of new opportunities to succeed, followers are likely to experience the same change as an opportunity to fail.
FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN ORGANIZATIONS ENVIRONMENT
Globalization and developments in the field of information and technology.
New management strategies and the competitiveness in the business environment.
Implementation of news business processes.
New goals and performance standards established in the business
Structural changes in the economy.
NEED FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGE IN THE ORGANIZATION'S ENVIRONMENT
Based on Michael E Porter's five forces of competitive position we can analyze that there is a need for "change" in the organization to survive in the competitive modern business. Michael Porter's five forces:
Existing competitive rivalry between suppliers
Threat of new market entrants.
Bargaining power of buyer
Power of suppliers
Threat of substitute products (including technology change)
LEADERSHIP ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITY IN IMPLEMENTING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION
Organizational culture is the primary source of resistance to change a leader should understand the organization culture and then plan the change process.
The use of value based management model 0f 7-s model can be helpful in implementation of change by coordinating 7-s namely, shared value, strategy, structure, system, staff, style and skill. Leadership should determine clear decision making framework to ensure the organization has means and resources to achieve its goals. Analyzing the change process through a experimental projectÂ with the five factors such as project duration, the project teams performance ,integrity of management commitment, employee commitment and employee effort required to cope with the change that are essential to be implemented.
Change can be implemented through organizational transformation by ensuring succession planning initiatives are closely aligned to leadership and development and organizational vision
Ensuring that succession planning process occurs in such a way that it is in itself a transforming experience. Some the reasons why change initiatives fail to achieve their objectives are:
Absence of clear definition of what actually constitute organizational success
Lack of knowledge about changing situation in business environment.
Lack of integration between succession planning and leadership with organizational vision.
Toxic leadership performance.
Lack of planning premises and constraints, inadequacy of resources and means to implement the planned change process.
TOXIC LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION
Toxic /Bad leadership is one of the main reason we can point out for the failure toÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â implementation of change in the organization. "A Toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over organizations employees but abuses the leader -follower relationship by leaving the organization in a worse condition than when he/she first found them". (Barbara Kellerman)
Barbara Kellerman analyzes Toxic/bad leadership into seven different types:
(1)Incompetent (2) Rigid (3) Intemperate (4) Callous (5) Corrupt (6) Insular (7) Evil.
Toxic leadership can effect organization in change implementation by following way:
Lack of definition of vision, strategy and business plan.
Inappropriate execution of the vision, plan strategy and business plan.
Lack of team building skills and business ethics.
Lack of sponsoring, supporting, measuring results.
Destruction of organizational culture, values and employees trust and confidence.
UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGE PROCESS
Understanding the change process helps the leader of present and future generation to develop the suitable technique to solve problems in initiating change process in organization. A great deal of change management is geared toward assisting others in learning how to accommodate changes in their roles. A tremendous amount of unnecessary resistance can be derailed if the leader helps individuals understand and find new roles. Roles are difficult to manage in a group setting, but if an effort is not made to address the issues of changing roles, the change effort may use up vast amounts of resources for no real purpose. A highly productive person in the old ways can become the saboteur in the new system if he cannot find his new role or niche.
DEVELOPING THE LEADERS OF NEXT GENERATION
Michael G.Winston who has been working with fortune 50 companies partnering with key executives in developing the next generation of leadership explains how they develop the next generation of leaders.
Leadership development initiatives are launched with clear communication from the senior executives explaining the mission, strategy, objectives and expectations for participant's .later stage measurement tools are designed to assess and reinforce leadership accountability for results. Define key leadership requirement and develop a plan to improve critical skills and competencies required to implement the current and projected business strategy and review both current and prospective markets, competitors, customers, channels and determine critical success factor.
An integrated and highly focused set of initiatives is crafted that should reflect the company's strategic agenda, address critical challenges and opportunities and strengthen leadership capability ,programs are generally used as a combination of company's presenters, external world-class subject matter experts,E-learning technologies and post-program project work to reinforce key strategic initiatives. Succession management is a critical activity in business organizations must serve to identify, develop and retain those people who are able to deliver superior performance both individually and as a part of team. This can be done like:
Alignment of top performers to most critical jobs.
Identification of successor candidates for key roles
Assessment of strengths across key competencies
Identification and development of high potentials.
Identification and elimination of key succession gaps.
leadership is created through the emergence of information by the leader or other stakeholders, not through the true actions of the leader himself. In other words, the reproduction of information or stories form the basis of the perception of leadership by the majority. It is well known that the great naval hero Lord Nelson often wrote his own versions of battles he was involved in, so that when he arrived home in England he would receive a true hero's welcome. In modern society, the press, blogs and other sources report their own views of a leader, which may be based on reality, but may also be based on a political command, a payment, or an inherent interest of the author, media or leader. Therefore, it can be contended that the perception of all leaders is created and in fact does not reflect their true leadership qualities at all.
Environmental Leadership is not about changing the mindset of the group or individual, but in the cultivation of an environment that brings out the best and inspires the individuals in that group. It is not the ability to influence others to do something they are not committed to, but rather to nurture a culture that motivates and even excites individuals to do what is required for the benefit of all. It is not carrying others to the end result, but setting the surrounding for developing qualities in them to so they may carry each other. The role of an Environmental Leader is to instill passion and direction to a group and the dynamics of that group. This leader implements a psychological support system within a group that fills the emotional and developmental needs of the group.
It is leadership style that creates the appropriate climate for entrepreneurship and innovation in an organization successful leaders are not only good executives they are also great entrepreneurs .a entrepreneur today has to face several changes in the organization .he has to adapt the change process efficiently and convert the disadvantages of changes into advantages of business for which entrepreneur needs strong leadership qualities mentioned in above paragraphs leadership creativity, ability to solve problems makes a leader successful entrepreneur.