The Response Rate Analysis Commerce Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In the first section, the response rate of the study is presented followed by descriptive statistics about the respondents. In the next section, the reliability of the instruments used in the study is assessed and established by the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha. The data received from the respondents were tested for normality in the next section. Subsequently, the organisational culture prevalent in the respondents' organisations were analysed with respect to organisational performance. Finally, the hypotheses as stated in chapter 1 are tested. In the latter section, the linear relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance is evaluated by using the Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and linear regression. The different attributes of the organisations and employees are also evaluated through linear regression. In relation to whether gender impacts organisational culture and organisational performance, independent samples t-test are performed.

To perform such statistical analyses, the data received from the 236 respondents were entered into the Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 software. The frequency and other statistical tables generated during these analyses are attached in Appendix C.

4.2 Descriptive Statistics

4.2.1 Response Rate Analysis

Out of the 278 respondents targeted, a total of 236 responses were obtained indicating a response rate (No. of responses/sample size) of 84.9 %.

All the questionnaire was filled in and submitted electronically by the respondents. The important questions were made compulsory and thus no questionnaire could be submitted unless all the compulsory questions were filled in. Therefore none of the responses were discarded.

The total usable response rate was 84.9 %. According to Bryman and Bell (2007) a response rate of greater than 50% is enough for statistical analyses to be performed. Thus the usable response rate of 84.9% was considered to be largely sufficient for this study. The response rate for each of the organisation targeted is shown in the figure below.

Figure - Response rate in terms of organisations

A relatively large response rate were obtained for Anglo African Outsourcing (12.7 %), DCDM (12.7 %), Infosys (12.3 %), Harel Mallac (11.3%) and MACCS (10.2 %) as the respondents were very keen in taking part of the survey. The other organisations were not as willing and enthusiastic to participate and much effort was made to achieve a sufficient response rate. Answer+, Ceridian, Emtel and Huawei had a response rate of greater than 6% but less than 10%. ADBN Ltd, Astek and MNS had very low response rate. As for the case of EC and SSML, the latter consisted of nine staffs and the former had only one staff.

4.2.2 Organisation Size

The size of the organisation was captured by means of the number of employees employed in the organisations. The results obtained from the respondents are shown in Figure 12. 7 respondents (3 %) rated that their firm consisted of less than 10 employees. 20 staffs (8.5 %) rated their firm's size to be between 11 and 25 employees. 76 respondents (32.2 %) rated that their organisation's size was greater than 25 but less than 60 employees. Quite astonishingly, 4 employees (1.7 %) rated their organisation to between 61-100 employees. 129 respondents (54.7 %) rated their organisation to be larger than 100 employees.

Figure - Response rate in terms of size of organisations

4.2.3 Position

The positions of the respondents were categorised as Subordinate, Junior Manager, Senior Manager and Executives. The four distinct levels for the position of the employee in his respective organisation contribute differently towards the organisation and its culture. Employees at the Executive levels are generally lean. They contribute towards the organisation by setting strategies, policies and objectives as well as assist the other management levels. Junior and senior management ensure that the objectives set by the higher management are met while the actual work executions are performed by those at the lower level in the hierarchy of the organisation.

The results in Fig. 13 show that more than half of the employees responding to the study are at the lower levels in the organisational hierarchy. 187 respondents (79.2 %) were Subordinates. 31 employees (13.1 %) were positioned as Junior Managers, 12 staffs (5.1 %) were at Senior Management level and 6 employees (2.5 %) were Executives.

Figure - Response rate in terms of job positions

4.2.4 Gender

Figure 14 shows graphically that the 236 respondents consisted of 136 males (57.6 %) and 100 females (42.4 %). This result indicates that both genders are comparatively significant in the study. The ICT sector employs both sexes and equal opportunity of employment is given to both sexes. A difference of 15.2 % may indicate that males are more attracted to work in the ICT industry than females.

Figure - Response rate in terms of gender

4.2.5 Age

The respondents were asked to rate their age in terms of five groups. This segmentation was important as cultural phenomena are reinforced or modified as age increases. Figure 15 illustrates the age groups of the respondents. 63 respondents (26.7%) are less than 25 years old. 85 respondents (36%) are between 26 and 30 years of age. 73 repondents (30.9%) are aged between 31 and 40. 13 respondents (5.5 %) are above 40 but less than 51 years of age. 2 respondents (0.8 %) were above 51 years old.

Figure - Response rate in terms of age

Most respondents were found to be less than 40 years of age. Accordingly, the ICT industry as the new pillar of the economy, induce students and young persons to join the industries in this sector. Retirement age is 60 years and very few employees in this sector are above 50 years of age.

4.2.6 Experience

Figure 16 reveals the experience of the respondents in their current position. It is foreseen that as experience of the employee increases, the latter assesses, understands, adapts and is more conscious of the organisational culture prevalent in the organisation and therefore impacts overall performance in the organisation. Thus performance and output of an employee varies with work experience.

The experience of the respondents was segmented into four groups. Most respondents, 27 respondents (11.4 %), have a work experience of less than 1 year, indicating that they have recently joined the company and are thus experiencing organisational socialisation. 92 respondents (39 %) are in their present position in the organisation for 1 to 3 years. 98 respondents (41.5 %) have 4 - 6 years of experience in their present organisation and 19 respondents (8.1 %) have greater than 7 years of experience in their current position in their present organisation.

Most of the respondents had between 1 and 6 years of experience.

Figure - Response rate in terms of years of experience

4.3 Internal reliability of the measuring instruments

The purpose of this section is to discuss the reliability of the measuring instruments used in the research. It has to be noted that even though previous researches have verified that the measurement instruments used are reliable (Cameron and Quinn, 2011), the instruments used in this study were again tested for reliability. Collis and Hussey (2009) argue that such tests are important to ensure that the results obtained are consistent and reliable.

The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the reliability of both the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and the performance assessment instrument.

4.3.1 Cronbach's Alpha coefficient for OCAI

The reliability of the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) was evaluated by using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Table 3 shows the Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each of the four organisational culture types in terms of the ratings for the six dimensions of organizational culture - "Dominant Characteristics", "Organisational Leadership", "Management of Employees", "Organisational Glue", "Strategic Emphases" and "Criteria of Success".

Table - Cronbach's alpha coefficients for OCAI

Organisational Culture Types

Mean

Standard Deviation

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha's Rating

Clan

20.28

4.365

0.815

Good

Adhocracy

20.56

3.945

0.7

Good

Market

21.4

3.289

0.59

Acceptable

Hierarchy

20.98

4.18

0.79

Good

According to Bryman and Bell (2007), a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70 or more is generally considered to be the rule of thumb to indicate a good level of internal reliability. Cronbach's alpha scores lying between 0.50 and 0.69 represents an acceptable level of reliability and values less than 0.50 indicate a poor level of internal reliability. Table 3 shows that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient values for the four types of organisational culture ranged from acceptable to good.

The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the Adhocracy, Hierarchy and Clan organisational culture types were 0.7, 0.79 and 0.815 respectively and were considered to be good. This indicates that with the same scale used the same consistent results can be expected if the research exercise is repeated. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the Market organisational culture type received a scale reliability of 0.590. This was considered as being internally consistent and reliable even though it was viewed as being a border-line score (Lee and Yu, 2004; Meijen, 2007).

The reliability scores depicted in the table are consistent to a certain extent with the results found by Cameron and Quinn (2011). Quinn and Spreitzer (1991), Yeung, Brockbank, and Ulrich (1991), Zammuto and Krakower (1991) have tested the OCAI instrument and received high reliability results with the lowest score of 0.71 for the Market organisational culture type. This is in contrast with the reliability of 0.590 for the market culture type obtained in this research. Both this study and those performed by above researchers received high reliability values for Clan, Adhocracy and Hierarchy culture types. A comparison is shown in Table 4 below.

Table - Cronbach's alpha coefficients comparison for OCAI

 

Quinn and Spreitzer (1991)

Yeung, Brockbank, and Ulrich (1991)

Zammuto and Krakower (1991)

Current Study

Clan Culture

0.74

0.79

0.82

0.815

Adhocracy Culture

0.79

0.8

0.83

0.7

Market Culture

0.71

0.77

0.78

0.59

Hierarchy Culture

0.73

0.76

0.67

0.79

The item statistics and item-total statistics show the reliability of the scale in case respective items were deleted. These statistics for each of the organisational culture types are attached in Appendix C. The table below shows the item-total statistics for the Market culture type.

Table - Item-Total Statistics for the Market culture

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Dominant Characteristics - Market

17.47

8.77

0.228

0.583

Organisational Leadership - Market

18.22

8.402

0.247

0.579

Management of Employees - Market

17.83

8.652

0.217

0.59

Organisation Glue - Market

17.9

8.296

0.313

0.55

Strategic Emphases - Market

17.85

7.25

0.529

0.455

Criteria of Success - Market

17.74

7.412

0.44

0.492

The last column in the table shows the value of the Cronbach's alpha coefficient if the respective statements were deleted. The values in this column range between 0.455 and 0.590 indicating a relatively consistent result. It can thus be inferred that this scale is consistent even though the Cronbach's alpha coefficient is less than 0.70 as any items if deleted would not cause a significant change in the Cronbach's alpha coefficient score (Meijen, 2007).

Thus the culture research instrument used in this study is considered to be consistent and reliable.

4.3.2 Cronbach's alpha coefficient for performance

The reliability coefficients were also computed for the scales used to assess organisational performance. They are shown in the table below.

Table - Cronbach's alpha coefficient for performance assessment

Performance Dimensions

Mean

Standard Deviation

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Rating

Open Internal Results

3.572

0.897

0.66

Acceptable

Rational Results

3.562

0.774

0.721

Good

Human Relations Results

2.871

0.79

0.513

Acceptable

The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the rational results was found to be 0.721 and was considered to be good indicating that the scale used is reliable and consistent (Bryman and Bell, 2007). The border-line values of 0.66 and 0.513 obtained for the Open-Internal results and Human Relations Model Results were acceptable and was thus considered as reliable and consistent as well. Table 7 shows a comparison of the reliability values obtained from different researches.

Table - Cronbach's alpha coefficient comparison for performance assessment instrument

 

Khan, Iqbal, Khattak and Ghafoor (2012)

Jiménez and Navarro (2007)

Current Study

Open Internal Results

0.84

0.77

0.66

Rational Model Results

0.78

0.84

0.721

Human Relations Model Results

0.81

0.83

0.513

The item statistics and item-total statistics for each dimension of performance assessment are shown in Appendix C. The table below shows the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient if respective items were deleted for the Open Internal Results. The SPSS software package was unable to provide such values for the Human Relations Model as this dimension consisted of only two items.

Table - Item-Total Statistics for Open Internal Results

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

Open Internal Results - Quality

6.93

3.08

0.396

0.659

Open Internal Results - Internal Processes

7.11

2.257

0.499

0.527

Open Internal Results - Personnel Activity Coordination

7.4

2.164

0.538

0.468

The Personnel Activity Coordination in the Open Internal Relations Model would drop the Cronbach's alpha coefficient to a low score if it were deleted. On the other hand, quality was found to have almost no impact on the Cronbach's alpha coefficient as the score would remain at 0.659 in case it were deleted. No items were deleted as in such case the results obtained from the study would not be comparable with other studies.

The results from the tables above show that the performance instrument used in this study is reliable and similar results would be yielded if the research was to be repeated.

4.4 Normality Tests

The data received from the respondents for organisational culture and organisational performance were tested for normality. The results obtained are attached in Appendix C indicate that the variables have a normal distribution. The negative value for skewness indicates more observations spread on the left of the mean while the positive kurtosis values confirm that the distribution is more peaked with observations clustered around the means and longer tails (Collis and Hussey, 2009).

4.5 Dominant Organisational Culture and Organisational Performance

In this section the organisational culture and organisational performance as rated by each respondent is analysed and presented.

Analysis of the data received from the 236 participants indicated that 38 respondents (16 %) rated their organisation to have a Clan organisational culture type, 39 respondents (16 %) considered that the Adhocracy organisational culture was prevalent in their organisation. 45 subjects (19 %) answered that their organisational culture was of a Market type and 55 respondents (23 %) rated their organisational culture as being Hierarchy.

It was also found that 59 respondents (25 %) rated that their organisation consisted of a mixture of the different organisational culture types.

The pie chart (Fig. 17) below shows the segregation of the different organisational culture types.

Figure - Respondents' dominant organisational culture

This demonstrates that a large number of organisations in this sector adopt a mixture of the different types of organisational culture. A high percentage of respondents (23 %) have rated the culture of their organisations as being hierarchical or bureaucratic. This is explained by the fact that the bureaucratic style of management has long existed, since the 1960s (Cameron and Quinn, 2011), and organisations still bound with the adoption of such cultures where standardised rules and procedures prevailed as such have led organisations to succeed in the past. Thus they continue to adopt such an organisational culture.

The performance associated with each of the organisational culture was also assessed and is shown in the bar chart (Figure 18).

Figure - Dominant organisational culture and impact on organisational culture

The market culture was found to have a low performance compared to other types. Where a single culture dominated the organisation, it was found that the Clan culture achieves better performance. Organisations having a Clan culture performed better than others and even better than those organisations which adopted a mixture of two dominant cultures. The performance of the Clan culture was also found to be same for those organisations which a mixture of all the four organisational culture types.

The Clan culture shares similarities with family-type organisations where employees are empowered and there is a high cohesion between team members encouraging team work, participation, commitment, and values and goals sharing. Such a culture is generally effective in dynamic and turbulent environments where activities are coordinated by ensuring that employees are aligned with the same values and goals (Cameron and Quinn, 2011). This could explain the high performance associated with the Clan culture as compared to the other three organisational cultures.

Those organisations which have a mixture of three organisational culture types were found to perform much better than other organisations with other types of organisational culture. From the research only 4 % of the respondents rated that their organisations had such culture types. The results obtained are comparable with those of Gordon and DiTomaso (1992) where they found that a combination of two cultural traits led to better performance.

4.6 Hypothesis Testing

In this section the hypothesis as presented in chapter 1 are tested. Correlation, regression and independent samples t-test were used to determine whether to accept or reject the null hypotheses.

4.6.1 Relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance

The first hypothesis was:

H01 There is no relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance

H11 There is a significant relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance.

The relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance were investigated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient which indicates the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the two variables. It is measured within a range -1 to +1. (Collis and Hussey, 2009). A value with no sign indicates a positive relationship between the variables whereas for a negative relationship, a negative sign (-) is used in front of the correlation coefficient. The significance of the strength of the relationship is indicated by the p-value. All significant relationship between the variables where p-value is less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) are indicated by a double star (**). Relationships are regarded as significant if -0.15 ≥ r ≥ 0.15 (Meijen, 2007).

Table - Pearson's Correlation between Organisational Culture and Organisational Performance

Organisational Culture

Organisational Performance

Organisational Culture

Pearson Correlation

1

.508**

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

N

236

236

Organisational Performance

Pearson Correlation

.508**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

0.000

N

236

236

The result from the table 9 reveals an r value of 0.508 with a p-value of 0.000 which is less than the significant level of 0.05 suggesting that there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

This result is similar to the results obtained by other researches (Denison and Mishra, 1995; Garmendia, 2004, Gordon and DiTomaso, 1992) in the assessment of the impact of organisational culture on performance.

4.6.2 Relationship between the four organisational culture types and performance

As the current study is based in the CVF model of organisational culture which categorise organisational culture as being Clan, Adhocracy, Market and Hierarchy types, four sub hypotheses emerge. The hypotheses are:

Clan:

H02 There is no relationship between the Clan organisational culture and organisation performance

H12 There is a significant relationship between the Clan organisational culture and organisational performance

Adhocracy:

H03 There is no relationship between the Adhocracy organisational culture and organisation performance

H13 There is a significant relationship between the Adhocracy organisational culture and organisational performance

Market:

H04 There is no relationship between the Market organisational culture and organisation performance

H14 There is a significant relationship between the Market organisational culture and organisational performance

Hierarchy:

H05 There is no relationship between the Hierarchy organisational culture and organisation performance

H15 There is a significant relationship between the Hierarchy organisational culture and organisational performance

Table 10 shows the summary of the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the four organisational culture types and organisational performance.

The Clan organisational culture show positive correlation with r values 0.49, 0.269, 0.204 and 0.423 for Open Internal Model, Rational model, Human Relations model and overall performance respectively. This organisational culture, which has a p-value of 0.000 that is less than the significant level of 0.05, suggests that there is a significant relationship between Clan organisational culture type and overall organisational performance. Thus the null hypothesis H02 is rejected.

Table - Pearson's correlation between the four organisational cultures and organisational performance

Variables

Open Internal Model Results

Rational Model Results

Human Relations Model Results

Overall Performance

Clan Index

Pearson's Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

0.49**

0.000

236

0.269**

0.000

236

0.204**

0.002

236

0.423**

0.000

236

Adhocracy Index

Pearson's Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

0.447**

0.000

236

0.333**

0.000

236

0.212**

0.001

236

0.435**

0.000

236

Market Index

Pearson's Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

0.445**

0.000

236

0.277**

0.000

236

0.95

0.144

236

0.359**

0.000

236

Hierarchy Index

Pearson's Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

0.514**

0.000

236

0.254**

0.000

236

0.124

0.58

236

0.392**

0.000

236

Table 10 reveals r values of 0.447, 0.333 and 0.212 for Open Internal Model, Rational model, and Human Relations model respectively for the Adhocracy organisational culture. This indeed suggests that Adhocracy organisational culture is positively correlated with these performance dimensions. Similar result is achieved for the overall performance as the r value is 0.435 with a p-value of 0.000. As the p-value is less than the significant value, the null hypothesis H03 can be rejected and it can therefore be stated that a significant relationship exists between this organisational culture and organisational performance.

The r values of the Market organisational culture are 0.445, 0.277, 0.95 and 0.359 for Open Internal Model, Rational model, Human Relations model and overall performance respectively, indicating positive correlation between the two variables. The p-value is 0.000 with respect to overall performance and is less than the 95% confidence level. This suggests that there is sufficient evidence that a relationship exists between the Market organisational culture and organisational performance and thus the null hypothesis H04 is rejected.

Similar results have been obtained for the Hierarchy organisational culture. The r values of 0.514, 0.254, 0.124 and 0.392 for Internal Model, Rational model, Human Relations model and overall performance respectively, demonstrate that two variables are positively correlated.

As the p-value for the overall performance is less than 0.05, the null hypothesis H05 can be rejected. Therefore a significant relationship exists between the Hierarchy organisational culture and overall performance.

Positive correlation exits between overall organisational performance and clan and adhocracy organizational culture types. There is statistical significance for the association of the four culture types with Open Internal Results and Rational Results for organisational performance.

4.6.3 Organisational Culture As a predictor of Organisational Performance

Multiple scholars have attempted to show that organisational culture can be used as a predictor of organisational performance.

The hypothesis is:

H06 Organisation performance is not dependent on organisational culture

H16 Organisation performance is dependent on organisational culture

To assess whether organisational culture can be used as a predictor of organisation performance, linear regression test was used as with such a test the outcome of the dependent variable can be predicted with the dependent variable.

In section 4.6.1 the existence of the relationship between organisational culture and organisational performance was confirmed as the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) yielded a positive value of 0.508. Similarly, the regression test revealed the same value of r.

The r square value of 0.258 suggests that 25.8 % variation in organisational performance can be predicted by organisational culture. The value of 0.255 for the adjusted value of r square indicates that most of the observations lie away from the regression line.

The b value shown in Table 13 indicates that organisational performance changes by 0.532 for each unit increase in organisational culture.

Table - Model Summary for organisational culture as a predictor of organisational performance

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.508a

0.258

0.255

0.47331

a. Predictors: (Constant), OverallCulture

Since the p-value of 0.000 is less than the significant value of 0.05, there is sufficient evidence that organisational culture can be used to predict organisational performance. Thus the null hypothesis H06 is rejected. This result is congruent with those of Gordon and DiTomaso (1992).

Table - ANOVAa for organisational culture as a predictor of organisational performance

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

18.229

1

18.229

81.37

.000b

Residual

52.422

234

0.224

Total

70.651

235

a. Dependent Variable: OverallPerf

b. Predictors: (Constant), OverallCulture

Table - Coefficientsa for organisational culture as a predictor of organisational performance

Model

Unstandardised Coefficients

Standardised Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

1.49

0.207

7.205

0.000

OverallCulture

0.532

0.059

0.508

9.021

0.000

a. Dependent Variable: OverallPerf

The equation relating organisational culture with organisational performance can thus be written as:

Organisational Performance = 0.532 (Organisational Culture) + 1.490

Equation - Relationship between Organisational Culture and Organisational Performance

4.7 Analysis of Biographical variables with Organisational Culture

4.7.1 Age and Organisational Culture

It is assumed that as an individual's age increases with time, cultural values are continually modified and impacts to a greater extent. Age is an important determinant of values and behaviour (Perryer and Jordan, 2002)

A summary of the results of linear regression of age with organisational culture is shown below in Table 14.

Table - Summary of regression tests for age groups

 

R

R Square

B Coefficient

Beta

t

Significance

20 - 25 years

0.101

0.01

-0.119

-0.101

-1.555

0.121

26 - 30 years

0.251

0.063

0.273

0.251

3.967

0.000

31 - 40 years

0.107

0.011

-0.12

-0.107

-1.639

0.103

41 - 50 years

0.089

0.008

-0.203

-0.089

-1.364

0.174

51 + years

0.068

0.005

-0.388

-0.068

-1.043

0.298

The table shows the regression analyses of the five age groups showing the relationship of age towards organisational culture. The correlations between age and organisation culture (r values) are 0.101 for subjects between 20 and 25 years of age, 0.251 for subjects between 26 to 30 years old, 0.107 for 31 to 40 age group, 0.089 for subjects having age between 41 and 50 and 0.068 for respondents above 51 years old.

From the results obtained, it is observed that 6.3 % change in organisational culture can be related to the age group 26 - 30 years. This age group was found to have the highest beta value of 0.251 as compared to the other age groups indicating the importance of the variable in determining the overall culture of the organisation. The large t-value as compared to the other age group also indicates that the inclusion of this age group improves the predictive power.

It was expected that the r values of the different age groups would be sensitive as age increases. As age group increases, people become more mature and they are more consistent in their work. Subjects at the lower age groups were expected to have a relatively low impact on organisational culture as compared to respondents at the higher age groups. However the result does not demonstrate this expectation and show only that the 26 - 30 age group was sensitive to organisational culture.

Since a high percentage of the respondents belonged to the 26 - 30 age group, it is deduced that culture is significantly manifested during these periods of organisational socialisation. The employees of this age group are mostly fresh graduates from the university who are subjected to their first work experience. They try to get along with the organisation and the work itself. Their values and beliefs of these young employees are constantly enacted as they try to adapt to the culture of the organisation.

4.7.2 Job position and Organisational Culture

The table below show the results of the regression tests performed for employee's position and organisational culture. The r value of 0.044 indicates a low correlation between position and organisational culture.

Table - Model Summary for impact of job position on organisational culture

 

R

R Square

B Coefficient

Beta

t

Significance

Position

0.044

0.002

0.033

0.044

0.668

0.505

Further regression tests of the four categories of employees were performed and the results shown in Table 4.14 indicate that none of the positions have a relationship with organisational culture. The r values are 0.034, 0.041, 0.073 and 0.102 for subordinate, junior manager level, senior management and executives. As indicated by the beta values and r values subjects at the higher management level have a greater relationship towards organisational culture.

Table - Summary of regression tests for job position

 

R

R Square

B Coefficient

Beta

t

Significance

Subordinate

0.034

0.001

-0.044

-0.034

-0.52

0.603

Junior Manager

0.041

0.002

0.063

0.041

0.627

0.532

Senior Manager

0.073

0.005

-0.175

-0.073

-1.127

0.261

Executives

0.102

0.01

0.339

0.102

1.572

0.117

As a large percentage of respondents rated their organisations are being bureaucratic (23 %) (Figure 17), it means that the employees adapt to standardised rules and procedures in the organisation.

4.7.3 Experience and Organisational Culture

The regression analysis conducted between the years of experience and organisational culture is shown below in Tables 17, 18 and 19. The r value of 0.026 demonstrates the low correlation between them.

Table - Model summary for relationship between years of experience and organisational culture

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.026a

0.001

-0.004

0.5245

a. Predictors: (Constant), Experience

Table - ANOVAa for relationship between years of experience and organisational culture

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

0.043

1

0.043

0.156

.694b

Residual

64.373

234

0.275

Total

64.416

235

a. Dependent Variable: OverallCulture

b. Predictors: (Constant), Experience

Table - Coefficientsa for relationship between years of experience and organisational culture

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

3.493

0.071

49.059

0.000

Experience

-0.017

0.043

-0.026

-0.394

0.694

a. Dependent Variable: OverallCulture

Further regression tests conducted indicate that relationship between organisational culture and experience is significant for experience of less than 1 year, 1-3 years and above 7 years. The r values and beta values show that 7 or more years of experience is an important variable in predicting organisational culture followed by experience of 1 - 3 years and subsequently experience of less than one year.

Table - Summary of regression tests for years of experience

 

R

R Square

B Coefficient

Beta

t

Significance

less than 1 year

0.13

0.017

-0.213

-0.13

-2.001

0.047

1 - 3 years

0.14

0.02

0.15

0.14

2.162

0.032

4 -6 years

0.016

0

0.017

0.016

0.247

0.805

7 + years

0.128

0.016

-0.246

-0.128

-1.98

0.049

These three age range produce significant t-values indicating that their inclusion made a difference in the overall culture of an organisation.

It is expected that as experience increases, employees sink into the culture of the organisation and are more consistent in action. This is seen at the high management level where senior management and Executives, imbued with responsibility and power, act as leaders and diffuse culture into the organisation. They seem devoted to their work and the organisation. They thus impact organisational culture to a significant extent.

The results also show that experience of 4 to 6 years has no significant impact on organisational culture. Their responses to the organisational culture questions are not congruent suggesting that this age group is not conscious about organisational culture. They may be attributed to the fact that this age group swap companies frequently. At the other end, employees with less than three years of experience seek for work experience and adapt to the culture of the organisation.

4.7.4 Organisational Size and Organisational Culture

The relationship between the size of the organisation, in terms of number of employees, and organisational culture was investigated through regression testing. A summary of the results is shown below in Table 21.

Table - Summary of regression tests for organisation size

 

R

R Square

B Coefficient

Beta

t

Significance

1 - 10 employees

0.51

0.003

0.156

0.051

0.775

0.439

11 - 25 employees

0.276

0.076

0.518

0.276

4.392

0.000

26 - 60 employees

0.185

0.034

-0.207

-0.185

-2.875

0.004

61 - 100 employees

0.159

0.025

-0.645

-0.159

-2.471

0.014

101 + employees

0.043

0.002

0.045

0.043

0.66

0.51

An r value of 0.51 was obtained for organisations consisting of less than 11 employees. The r value for companies having more than 101 employees was 0.043 indicating a low correlation. On the other hand, it was observed that the other organisations had low correlation between their size and organisational culture. The r values of organisations with 11 - 25 employees, 26 - 60 employees and 61 - 100 employees are 0.276, 0.185 and 0.159 respectively. This result show that as the organisation size increases, relationship between organisation's size and organisational culture decreases.

Irrespective of size with time all organisations develop a culture as it survives. Respondents belonging to the 101+ size group had difficulty in assessing the culture of their organisations. This is because confusion arises because of sub cultures. Large organisations consist of several departments and each department develop a specific sub culture which share certain core attributes of the dominant culture prevailing in the organisation. The organisation between 11 and 100 employees have a relatively flattened hierarchy and show positive relationship to organisational culture. Small organisations, typically less than 10 employees show low relationship with organisational culture.

4.7.5 Gender and Organisational Culture

To verify whether there is a difference between male and female respondents on organisational culture, an independent samples t-test was used.

Table - Group statistics for gender

Gender

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Organisational Culture

Male

136

3.4926

0.54234

0.04651

Female

100

3.4342

0.49758

0.04976

Mean of males for overall culture is 3.49 and the mean for females is 3.43. The results indicate no significant difference in response between the two sexes. Therefore it can be inferred that both sexes are conscious about organisation culture.

Table - Independent t-test for gender

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Organisational Culture

Equal variances assumed

0.012

0.913

0.847

234

0.398

0.05848

0.06901

-0.07748

0.19444

Equal variances not assumed

0.859

222.818

0.391

0.05848

0.06811

-0.07574

0.1927

From the independent samples test, the F value is 0.012 with a significance of 0.913. Since the significance value of F is greater than 0.05 (F>0.05), the "equal variances assumed" row is used. The result indicates no significant difference between males and females respondents on organisational culture.

4.8 Summary

The empirical results obtained in this research have been discussed in this chapter. The response rate was described followed by descriptive statistics which showed the characteristics of the chosen sample. The instruments used to measure organisational culture and organisational performance were evaluated for reliability using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

The research questions set and their associated hypotheses were tested using Pearson's correlation and linear regression tests. The tests demonstrate that organisational culture has a positive impact on organisational performance and thus organisational culture can be used as a predictor of organisational performance. The different organisational culture types also showed positive relationship with organisational performance.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.