Perhaps the most important question that can arise to our mind recently and in turn, can be corresponding to the successful business is what the creative relationship between organization and behavior can be. Indeed, there is this most arising interest to the professional managers, simply because such strict definition of organizational behavior, human resource management, culture, leadership, motivations, and most noticeably such successful mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations can add value to the successful business in one hand, and the successful society as a whole.
Getting involved with organizational behavior requires from all the involved parties, such as employers, employees, stakeholders, and customers to aware certain modern techniques in proceeding via organization, which consequently can be resulted in more profits.
This paper articulates an in-depth argument about the main theme of organizations and behaviors.
1- The Relationship between Organizational Structure and Culture
One can admit that the relationship between organizational structure and culture is so critical. The organizational structure can work within the organizational culture, yet it is not separate in full. Both are intertwined. Indeed, the organizational culture can be seen more of such larger image, this more general theme which can refer to the larger umbrella includes smaller issues and topics within the organization. Such structure in turn, can indicate to the different practices and methods and as well as such infrastructure within them. This can assist the organization culture to perform with consistency and efficiency that must be such hallmark of the healthy structure of the organization, whereas it is considered a sports team, a company, or even another different format that can be sufficient to create its own culture organizationally (Cole, 2004).
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However, there are many important types of the organizational structures, such as matrix structure, divisional structure, functional structure, pre-bureaucratic structure, bureaucratic structure, and as well as post-bureaucratic structure.
Such structure groups can indeed employ teams of individuals in order to accomplish the performance and take the strengths' advantages, whereas figure out any weakness of the involved decentralized and functional forms.
Accordingly, there will be group of each function in the organization into such division, whereas each division within the divisional structure can include all the needed functions and resources. Hence, it is obvious that teach division can have its own engineering, sales, and marketing departments, as well.
Such structure within certain functional divisions of the involved organization can tend to act certain tasks, such as engineering department that can be staffed with the engineers of hardware or software. This can add value to the efficiencies within the organization. Such type is the best convenient as the producer of services and commodities at the low cost and large volume.
Organizational culture as specified by Galliers (2003) can indicate to these patterns of the basic values, artifacts, norms, and other valuable assumptions that can be shared by all the involved members of the organization. Hence, focusing on the argument of Cameron & Quinn (1999), one can figure out that culture provides these needed guidelines especially for the employees' behavior, the measurements, the interaction patterns, and some expectations of the involved successful business. However, change strategies driven by culture can articulate basic values and principles which may consequently create certain emotional commitment particularly, from those concerned employees, simply to drive, as mentioned by Abrahamson (2000), the transformational processes. Rose et al. (2008), assert that the involved individuals will as a result, feel comfortable with such concept of change to this appeared corresponded moral order and they may focus on their regular performance.
Thus, one can admit that such theme can make the involved structure the required integral part of the organizational culture yet, also may narrow out a little segment of the theme culture as being its responsibility (Capon & Disbury, 2003). Consequently, it is easy to clarify that the organizational structure could handle initially with this set up of culture. The two basic targets of the successful organizational structure are to be ascertain that the effective communication between different department of the organization and to increase the required coordination between various departments.
2- Different Approaches to Management and Leadership
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Even though one can figure out that leadership has never had such similar meanings, especially among common persons or experts, it is easy to define it as such process, through which persons and their own ideas can be highly, directed towards certain direction, through various means, especially those non-coercive. Hence, leadership can be looked at as a feature that may be connected to certain formal status or to a group of individuals that may perform the organisaiton's management (Child, 1984).
Checking the styles of leadership, it is clear that two main styles can be figured out, the favoring harmony with persons and the creating dissonance. The second style is not harmful as long as individuals do not exaggerate (Doyle, 2002).
More styles can be found in the visionary leader who can direct others along with showing and defining certain objective for them, in order to direct them easily towards the involved positive attitude. However, such mentioned leader cannot define this way, which others can understand. He may have his own vision and may share it with others, yet he may leave them figuring out their own direction in their search of realizing objectives. Hence, it is simple to distinguish the manager from such leader. The manager can find related solutions to the faced obstacles and consequently, can guide others systematically, whereas the vision leader cannot do it (Doyle, 2002).
Other experts Finger & Brand (1999), define the leadership styles in three basic types, the democratic, the authoritarian, and the laissez-faire leadership. Additionally, one can aware other two main dominations of leadership, the charismatic and bureaucratic. It is important to notice that the matter may be difficult to distinguish a leader according to one style, since many individuals can include in their personality one or two styles.
In order to get an in-depth explanation on the way by which the organizational theory can underpin certain practice of the organization, the matter will be critical to refer to the organisaitonal structure. According to Gill (2003), simple structures can be employed in order to general the improvisational results in the development of the product. Accordingly, the experts can make certain links to the simple structures and as well as the learning of improviser (Cavanaugh, 1997).
Corresponding to the above-mentioned themes, one can aware the importance of developing the management though, such as the classical administration, the scientific management, the human relations approach, the bureaucracy, the contingency approach, and most importantly, the systems approach (Melis, 2005). Looking at the human resource management approach, it is obvious that there are three basic approaches, the adaptive, the exportive, and the integrative. All can indicate to the time needed when the involved organization can adapt its policies, in order to suit the requirements of those specified contexts that the organization can operate in them (Noack & Zetzsche, 2006). Therefore, it is obvious that the effective management practices must fit certain national culture, especially which the organization can be operated. As to the exportive approach, it indicates to the time when the organization can transfer its current policies to all regions in which they may operate (Nwanji & Howell, 2004). The integrative one is depending on certain substantial global integration, particularly with a permit for the local differentiation. Therefore, according to such approach the organization can gain its balance through transforming the best practice possible between its branches (Burnes, 2004).
3- Ways of Using Motivational Theories in Organizations
Indeed, motivation can successfully push persons, in order to perform better. Hence, the successful management should direct its attention towards motivate its employees, whereas many involved factors can influence on their behavior along with assisting them in enhancing the products and works successfully (Okiki, 2007). Rewards, on the other hand, can affect on the organizational behavior along with pushing employees' performance and commitment at their daily works (Rastogi, 2000). In short, motivation can be linked to the performance and commitment of the workplace. In fact, many motivation theories can clarify all the matters to the business involved, such as McCrae and Costa personality dimensions, Maccoby theory, Vroom and Expectancy theories, McGregor's theory x and y, Hygiene theory, and as well as Herzberg's motivation ((Beer & Nohria, 2000).
Most of the successful organizations apply Herzberg's motivators namely achievement, responsibility, growth and recognition, simply in order to motivate and reward the employees (Paton & McCalman, 2000). Herzberg could formulate a two factors theory of motivation to the corresponding work, such as motivation factors and hygiene factors. Hygiene factors are indeed, extrinsic and do not motivate but certain absence of hygiene increases employees dissatisfaction. (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959).
4- Mechanisms for Developing Effective Teamwork in Organizations
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Checking the concept of organizational effectiveness and as clarified by Senge (1990), one can figure out easily those three basic areas which may be used for the targeted effectiveness; the aspects of management and leadership styles, managing the organizational culture, and the relationships interacted between the human resources management's policies and the involved business strategy (Armstrong, 1994). Most critically, considering the fact that the human resource strategy is these set of values and principles that regulate certain expectations of employees' job, one can admit that the contribution of the employees at the workplace can add much value to the organizational effectiveness (Porter, 2002).
In order to get this in-depth awareness regarding competing value framework, one should admit that the personal value is corresponding to such enduring belief which in turn defined as specific modes of end-state or conduct of existence whereas personally or even socially preferable to the converse or opposite mode of end-state or conduct of the existence. Hence, it is obviously that values can serve as those guiding principles in our daily life (Rokeach, 1973). Values, on the other hand as stated by Homer and Kahle (1988) are those abstracted social cognitions that can provide such foundation for both behaviors and attitudes. Values can be employed, as an example to check certain similarities between customers, critically to assess their categories and provide the needed services or products accordingly. Rose and Shoham (2000) conclude that the involved values can indeed, be illuminating in order to articulate the reason behind some customers can purchase their preferable products, whereas values in turn, can be used as such basis for customers segmentation. Rokeach (1973) urges that the value concept's centrality can be recognized within its occupation of central position and its capacity to unify these diverse interests of all the existed sciences regarding the human behavior. On the other hand, ten general value types are determined by Schwartz and Sagiv (1995); security, power, hedonism, achievement, stimulation, conformity, tradition, benevolence, universalism, and self-direction. Later, he could develop such circumflex model, simply by arranging those ten values into two main dimensional circular structures that could be oriented by two specific axes, the self-transcendence versus self-enhancement, and the conservation versus openness to change. Initially, his first dimension could indicate to the degree to which these values could be seen as self-oriented, (achievements, power, and hedonism) versus the other oriented (universalism and benevolence). As to his second dimension, he could explain certain values, which could emphasize the change (self-direction, and stimulation) versus the preservation of the status quo (Security, tradition, and conformity) (Burroughs and Rindfleisch, 2002). As a critical note, one can figure out that the complementary values can stand next to each other, whereas the competing values can stand opposite from each other. Therefore, it is easy to add that the value conflicts may happen when the value systems of the persons include the competing value that in turn, could cause certain psychological tension. Schwartz (1994) urge that a pursuit of each type of the involved value can be noticed with its psychological, social, and practical consequences which can conflict or even be compatible, especially with the pursuit of these other mentioned values types.
Indeed, there is an urgent factor, which is corresponding to such theme, the employment of technology in the workplace. Indeed, when supporting employees within training them to use the highest technical tools that can be resulted in more focus that consequently saves time and efforts (Beer & Nohria, 2000)
Getting involved with cultural issues; can be figured out in the theme of organizations and behavior. Many elements can shape the policies taken by the management, focusing on the leadership and management styles.
Dealing professionally with the involved employees, along with taking care with motivation issue can enhance the performance of the organization as a whole and lead to more effectiveness.
As recommendations and suggestions, one should realize this critical role of organizational behavior in a today's modern business world, whereas management and leadership can focus on formulating the aimed strategies that can increase the role of human resource department, as an example, in strategic decision making. Therefore, the matter is obvious from the business point of view that human resource management strategy of an organization should make the most of return on investment in the organization's human capital and reduce financial risk. The HR professionals should try as well as to accomplish this by bringing into line certain potentials of the involved present workforce and the supply of skilled and qualified individuals, with the organizations current and upcoming business policies as well as the demands to capitalize on return on investment by protecting future survival and achievement.
On the other hand, one can suggest that the management develop the HRM system in a way that the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization can be used to define the concept of human resource management. Human resource department is an important part of the organization that concentrates on the people related issues and provides appropriate support to the staff. HRM should provide necessary assistance to the organizational employees who are directly involved in producing and selling organizational products and services. Recruiting efficient employees, providing them necessary training and motivating them to improve the performance and retaining quality staff members are essential to achieve the organizational aims and objectives. Regardless of the type and size of the organization the four basic functions of HRM which includes recruiting, training and development, motivating and retaining employees should be given enough consideration because they have a large impact on the future business of the organization. Human resource management is a strategic business approach which considers that people capabilities are very crucial in achieving competitive advantage which helps the organizations in increasing its market share. It is very important that people should be happy at work because a satisfied employee can go extra mile to achieve the organizational objectives.
Several researches have been done in order to highlight the importance of human resource management. The emphasis on knowledge should be important, and though the HR literature has many things to say about knowledge, the debate is traditionally rooted in an individual level perspective, chiefly concerning job-related knowledge, whereas the human capital literature has moved beyond the individual to also embrace the idea that knowledge can be shared among groups and institutionalized within organizational processes and routines.