Recruitment and selection involves making predictions about future behaviour so that decisions can be made about who will be most suitable for a particular job. Recruitment and selection is the process of identifying the need for a job, defining the requirements of the position and the job holder, advertising the position and choosing the most appropriate person for the job. Retention means ensuring that once the best person has been recruited, they stay with the business and is not "poached" by rival companies.
Identifying characteristics of the person(s) required and informed potential applicants.
The person specification is one of the most important documents within the recruitment and selection process and so is an essential requirement for every post. The purpose of the Person Specification is to set out a list of the knowledge, skills, experience and level of qualifications that are required to carry out the role effectively, and should be developed from the job description. Each applicant should be assessed against the person specification to determine the extent to which they meet the criteria.
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The following key points will help you to develop your person specification:
identify the key duties from the job description
translate the duties into the skills and knowledge required to do the job
separate the essential skills from the desirable ones; specify as far as possible in precise job-related terms
identify any specific knowledge requirements for the job or the requirement of some evidence of the ability to learn
indicate qualifications and level of education required for the job
Identify what experience is required to carry out the job. This should be realistic and appropriate to the role
Methods for selection
The Selection Process
Following the recruitment of a pool of applicants, employers need to make a choice between candidates. The most common method used to make this selection decision remains the interview
How often selection methods used
(1= never to 5 = always)
1. Interview Methods: This is most popular methods of selection. You can use various methods of interview to select candidates.
2. Application Forms and CVs :This method is used to review all records of candidates such as Application form, CVs, Certificates.
3. References: Involves assessment of an individual by a third party, usually a former work colleague or boss
4. Work Sample: Work samples involve an individual or group of candidates completing exercises that they would be required to undertake as part of the position.
5. Test methods: Test methods include Ability, Aptitude and Personality test
6. Assessment Centres: Assessment centres provide an opportunity to review and assess the performance and ability of candidates in a variety of ways including individual and group exercises, case studies, role-plays, and presentations.
7. Presentations method: A presentation is a method of recruitment and selection. The applicant is provided with a topic and given a timeframe to deliver a presentation on that topic.
8. Group discussion: Group discussion is a method of recruitment and selection. It includes 3-5 candidates who discuss about a topic or some ones given by employer.
9. Online screening and short listing: It reviews, screen candidate's knowledge, skills by online checking.
10. Bio-data: With an increase of CVs in internet, applications have become more and more similar so that bio-data (biographical data) forms have been developed to identify selection of people that are similar to those high performers already in the organization.
Contribution to the selection process
An effective selection process begins with a good job description which identifies major roles and functions as well as the personal characteristics (skills, knowledge, experience and training/education) required to carry out the roles and functions.
Practicability: The costs incurred etc.
Reliability: Whether the result varies from day-to-day.
Validity: Whether the activity measures what is sought.
Sensitivity: The measure of differentiation between candidates.
A selection program is a formidable task even when we deal only with the measurement issues. It becomes even more complex when we add the legal policies that must be considered. If the organization does not attend to these legal policies in the development and use of selection programs, it will be vulnerable to charges of discrimination. While selection the legal issues should be taken into consideration for the success of the organization.
Legal and Regulatory Considerations and Ethical considerations
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Recruitment and selection procedures must comply the following legislation:
â€¢ The Sex Discrimination Act 1975
â€¢ The Race Relations Act 1976, along with the Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003
â€¢ The Disability Discrimination Act 1995
â€¢ The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
â€¢ The Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003
â€¢ The Data Protection Act 1998
Some of the other main legislations
Public Record Acts
Data Protection Act
Health and Safety legislation
Freedom of Information Act
A largely overlooked ethical issue is also the implicit choices that are made as an integral part of research and implementation. There are at least three candidates for an ethical principle, or a necessary concept in a set of ethical principles that includes a human-human and human-Earth perspective: respect; intrinsic value; integrity (including ecological integrity). Consideration of personal relationships and responsibilities involves the generation of rules or precepts against such things as murder, theft, physical assault, bribery, lying, but also to include parental obligations for children, and children's responsibilities for care of elders. The three concepts cover these responsibilities.
BUILDING WINNING TEAMS
Forming a team requires the the team go through stages of growth; a team does not just happen by putting a group of people together in a room. Team building requires a leader or facilitator that will guide them through the various stages so that they can become a winning team.
Identifying the mix of knowledge, skills and experience necessary for a team to fulfil its functions
Be sure everyone has a common skill base for communication, conflict resolution, problem solving, giving and receiving peer feedback. Before constructing a team we need to know the knowledge, skills and other experience which are needed to fulfil the success of each area which we are focussed and appropriate teams with all the above mentioned three should be taken into account to create a winning team. Make the team aware of the four stages of development. Those stages are: forming, storming, norming and performing.
Analyse dynamics within teams and stimulate and promote a team spirit which helps motivate and provides support to its members.
Forming A Winning Team: This is the stage where a group of individuals get together to become the team. The facilitator of team has the responsibility to teach all the new team membersÂ what the purpose is for them getting together. This is a very important stage where responsibilities of each team member are discussed, the goals for the team are shared and what the boundary of authority is for each member. It is vital that each team member understands that no one is more important than any other person on the team.
Clarify expectations of relationships
Establish Norms For The Team: This is the stage where there is some conflict and disagreement between the members. This is normal behavior in building teams as each member learns about each other and what can be expected from them. Members need to understand they are not there to judge one another or make certain individuals the problem, there job is to come up with a solution to the issues. They need to come up with a decision on how all conflict will be managed with all team members and what behavior is not appropriateand will not be accepted.
Encourage team members to develop roles during team assignments
Focusing Stage: The team should be upbeat and show that they are optimistic about comingÂ up with solutions. At this point the team members should have built a comfort zone between the members to openlyÂ discuss issues Appreciation for every team members involvement should be recognized and an emphasis placedÂ on theirÂ positive outcomes. This is how you build positive team spirit.
Develop employees own ways of working independently and rely on their own capabilities with pre-set boundaries. For this acknowledge unique talents and contributions. Each team member brings value to the team. Point out or showcase various abilities. Take time in a meeting to recognize one or two members. Be sure everyone receives equal recognition.
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Great Man Theories :Great Man theory, which held that leaders were leaders because they possessed some special mix of physical, and character traits that distinguished them from mere mortals.
Trait Theories: The Trait Theories closely resemble the Great Man Theories. The belief behind this theory is that leaders share certain traits and characteristics that people who are not leaders do not possess.
Behaviourist Theories: These theories contend that a leader is made and not born. These concentrate on what leaders actually do rather than on their qualities.
Situational Leadership: There is no particular leadership style that is best for every situation and that leadership can only be determined by how a leader approaches a particular situation
Contingency Theory: This is a refinement of the situational viewpoint and focuses on identifying the situational variables which best predict the most appropriate or effective leadership style to fit the particular circumstances
Relationship Theories: The Relationship Theories focus on the importance of a leader's ability to actually lead followers.
Leadership Styles: Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people
The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973):
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation.
Communication and Promotion
Have a Clear vision. To introduce a new way of doing things you have to have the confidence and belief in the new way. People will definitely pick up on the belief that you have in your own vision.
Meet your team. Regularly - daily, weekly or monthly, depending on your place and type of work - have meetings of all the members of the team. Make sure every member of the team contributes in some way and acknowledge that.
Grow your team. Through varied experience and regular training, you should be developing each team member to be more and more confident and more skilled.
Enthuse and motivate colleagues to achieve objectives
Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees.
Consideration (employee orientation) - leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support
Inspire your team. Consider making available a motivational quote or story every week or month
Promote confidence among colleagues to engage with change
Humility. To lead we need to encourage others to act in a certain way. Try to lead through stressing certain principles. People will be much more willing to follow a leader who embodies humility.
Appreciate your Co Workers. If people get appreciation then it will definitely encourage them to continue doing the right thing. At the same time, our appreciation should be sincere. We should not flatter but look for something good a person has done.
Create a positive atmosphere. If you try to lead through creating a climate of fear, or competition, you will undoubtedly create problems. If you can lead whilst maintaining a positive attitude, it will definitely bear fruits in the long run.
Empowering and developing own ideas and working
Listen to others. A good leader should listen to others, they will definitely appreciate it. Often you may find that your workers have good ideas that you can incorporate. Even if they have unworkable ideas, it is still worth giving the impression you value their opinions, even if they are not used.
Praise constantly. The words "Well done" take seconds to say, but will be long remembered and appreciated.
Empower. A really effective leader sets clear objectives for his team members, but leaves detailed implementation of these objectives to the discretion and judgement of individual members of the team.
Performance and Monitoring Assessment
This section helps you identify an assessment of an employee, process to gauge progress toward predetermined goals and what you want to be able to do as a result of implementing work plan, for example, qualify for a certain job, overcome a performance problem, meet a goal in development plan, etc.
Plan or analyse work activities using appropriate objective-setting techniques and processes.
Consider Performance gaps: Performance gaps are areas of knowledge and skills need to improve performance and are usually indicated during performance reviews with your supervisor.
Conducting Self-Assessments: Self-assessments may help, as well, by helping you assess certain areas of your own leadership abilities.
Collect Input from others: Ask others for ideas to improve your leadership skills. Try getting their input in terms of behaviours you can show. Consider input from performance reviews.
Reference Lists of Areas of Knowledge and Skills Needed in Variety of Roles and Function: Competencies are lists of the general abilities needed to perform a role. E.g. lists for leading yourself, other individuals, groups and organization-wide efforts.
Negotiate assignments with colleagues using suitable delegation techniques to motivate and enable colleagues
It is very important to find high performance employees, motivate high performance employees, and retain high performance employees. For this design a standard form for performance appraisals. Have the employee suggest any updates to the job description and provide written input to the appraisal. The employees will be much energetic and will be more enthusiastic in their work through appraisal.
Review development needs and activities and evaluate the effectiveness of activities.
Review leaders and program managers should attempt to respond to findings and recommendations and develop initial action plans. Evaluation is tools that can help programs achieve management excellence. Evaluation serves two critical purposes - program improvement and accountability.
The basic steps below help identify how to evaluate management success.
Clearly identify desired conservation outcome(s) and objective(s
Identify and develop plans for evaluating management effectiveness
Design and implement a monitoring program aimed at measuring change in plans as a result of the management action.
Analyze the data collected during monitoring efforts, and develop a communication plan to share the information to the appropriate people.
Disseminate results and share with management.
Methods to assess the performance of colleagues
Method of Performance
The methods used to measure and asses the performance of the employees can be classified into four groups:
Category Rating Methods
Results Oriented Methods
Comparative Methods: This group of methods requires that the managers directly compare the performance of their employees against each other
Category Rating Methods: Indicates how an employee rates on a form by making a level of performance. The graphic rating scale, the checklist, and forced choice methods are common category rating methods.
Graphic Rating Scales: Graphic rating scales are used to evaluate many different characteristics including both performances related and personality related characteristics
Checklist: The checklist is a simple rating method in which checks the statements representing the characteristics and performance of the employees.
Weighted Checklist: A weighted checklist can be developed by obtaining a number of statements about employee performance from the critical incident descriptions.
Result-oriented Method: These methods concentrate on the outcomes of the performance of the employee. They include the following ones:
Goal Setting Performance
Management by objectives
Behaviour oriented methods
Identify factors affecting and feedback of the quality of performance
The quality of performance can be affected by certain factors in which the common factors are:
1. The discrepancy between colleagues, expectations and managements perceptions of these expectations
2. The discrepancy between management's perceptions of employees.
3. The discrepancy between service quality specifications and actual service delivery
4. The discrepancy between actual service delivery and what is communicated to employees about it.
5. The discrepancy between employees expected service and perceived service delivered
There should be an effective feedback for every factor affecting the performance. Some of the useful suggestion in giving an effective feedback is
1. Clarity - Be clear about what you want to say.
2. Emphasize the positive - This isn't being collusive in the person's dilemma.
3. Be specific- Avoid general comments and clarify pronouns such as "it," "that," etc.
4. Focus on behaviour rather than the person.
5. Refer to behaviour that can be changed.
6. Be descriptive rather than evaluative.
7. Own the feedback - Use 'I' statements.
8. Generalizations- Notice "all," "never," "always," etc., and asks to get more specificity - often these words are arbitrary limits on behaviour.
9. Be very careful with advice - People rarely struggle with an issue because of the lack of some specific piece of information; often, the best help is helping the person to come to a better understanding of their issue, how it developed, and how they can identify actions to address the issue more effectively.
Incorporate results of assessments into personal development plans and other organisational procedures for dealing with performance issues.
After proper identification and review of the performance assessment and monitoring, gather all the information and develop progress target for personal development, learning and for future success plans.
The progress target for personal development includes
building self confidence
take part in a community event
do something creative
get on better with people
be more organised
To achieve all these prompt colleagues to consider specific action. If appropriate, encourage them consider (or draw their attention to) opportunities that might be of help to them.
Learning targets are to encourage colleagues to think about what they hope to have achieved by the end of their programme. To achieve the targets could cover:
contributing to group work
paying attention to detail
personal organisation and planning
level of participation in practical activities
use of information resources
Future success plan is to encourage colleagues to mention three or four opportunities that they find attractive. To achieve the goals, encourage colleagues to think of specific action such as:
talking to people about possible outputs related to plans
researching plans/ideas to find out more about them
Discussing their ideas with someone who has specialist knowledge.
For the purpose of this report to obtain the information required to analyse the process of recruitment and selection within the organisation, it has been found that the organisation has a sound understanding of what processes need to be used in order to achieve effective recruitment and selection. In addition to this, several issues have been identified within the recruitment and selection process that need to be addressed by the organisation.
In today's competitive market, organizations want more from their employees; they want employees who can participate in teams to help them achieve greater success. Leaders know that teams offer many advantages over the more traditional distribution of labour, and can provide richer, more diverse solutions to problems. Consequently, leaders needs to understand the importance of team skills and teamwork to be successful
We have discussed different components and characteristics of teams and teamwork. Obviously, every team is unique. Hopefully, you now have a basic understanding of the complexity of teamwork so you can recognize the elements for and contribute to successful teams
By assessing the recruitment and selection strategy of the organisation, the needs of the organisation have been established and identified, therefore, satisfying the purpose of the report.