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With increasing globalization, firms are entering a dynamic world of international business that is marked by liberalization of economic policies in a large number of emerging economies like India. To face the challenge of increasing competition that has resulted from liberalization, Indian organizations have initiated adoption of innovative human resource management practices both critically and constructively to foster creativity and innovation among employees.
Recruitment process refers to the process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. For some components of the recruitment process, mid and large-size organizations often retain professional recruiters or outsource some of the process to recruitment agencies.
The recruitment industry has five main types of agencies:
Recruitment websites and job search engines.
Headhunters for executive and professional recruitment.
Niche agencies which specialize in a particular area of staffing,and
The stages in recruitment include sourcing candidates by advertising or other methods, and screening and selecting potential candidates using tests or interviews.
Job analysis: The proper start to a recruitment effort is to perform a job analysis, to document the actual or intended requirement of the job to be performed. This information is captured in a job description and provide the recruitment effort with the boundaries and objectives of the search.
Sourcing: Sourcing involves 1) advertising, a common part of the recruitment process, often encompassing multiple media, such as the Internet, general newspapers, job and newspapers, professional publications, window advertisements, job centers, and campus graduate recruitment programs; and 2) recruiting research, which is the proactive identification of relevant talent who may not respond to job postings and other recruitment advertising methods done in the first stage.
Screening and selection: Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for skills, e.g. communication, typing and computer skills. Qualifications may be shown through resumes, job applications, interviews, educational or professional experience, the testimony of references, or in-house testing, such as for software, knowledge, typing skills , numeracy, and literacy, through psychological tests or employment testing. Many recruiters and agencies are using an applicant tracking system to perform many of the filtering tasks, along with software tools for psychometric testing.
Onboarding: It is a term which describes the process of helping new employees become productive
members of an organization. A well planned introduction helps new employees become fully operational quickly and is often integrated with a new company and environment. On-boarding is included in the recruitment process for retention purposes.
Major Trend Affecting HRM
The following trends have an effect on human resource management function and department. The importance of HRM increases due to some of them and the practices of HRM are affected to some extent due to some of them.
1. Increased globalization of the economy.
2. Technological changes and environmental changes.
3. The need to be flexible in response to business changes.
4. Increase in litigation related to HRM.
5. Changing characteristics of the workforce.
Towards HRM? A Case Study from Banking
The case of the Co-operative Bank sheds light on the issues of human resource management discussed in the management literature. It was suggested that a shift from an administrative tO a market driven organisation would lead to a greater priority for the management of human resources. The Bank case provides examples of greater attention to this subject at top level management, including the appointment of a specialist human resources manager and shows a broader range of issues being considered with an emphasis on management-employee relations rather than management-trade unions relations and a more pro-active and strategic role for the Personnel department with operational issues being devolved to line management. These are in line with the alleged change from personnel management to human resource management.
Stereotypes of personnel management and human resource management
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Time and Planning Perspective
Short-term reactive adhoc marginal
Long-term proactive strategic integrated
Employee Relations Perspective
Pluralist collective low trust
Unitarist individual high trust
Bureaucratic/mechanistic centralized formal defined roles
Organic devolved flexible role
Largely integrated into line management
Maximum utilization (human asset accounting)
Of course, the definition of what HRM involves is itself a matter of debate. As Guest rightly points out it is a term "now widely used but very loosely defined" (1987, p.503). In the Bank we have seen much more than a re-titling of roles which Guest suggests characterises much of the alleged HRM adoption. We saw earlier that the policies officially embraced showed many of the characteristics of HRM but were cautious in our assessment, since the gap between policy and practice is often a large one. However, we have seen that a great deal of the new policy was in fact implemented over a relatively short period. If we refer back to the Guest typology (Table 1) we see that the Bank has moved someway towards HRM but this is by no means clear cut. While policies introduced appear to be in line with HRM ideals, this does not necessarily translate into desired outcomes. Thus one consequence of the Bank's HRM policies was probably worsened employee relations, even if bottom-line performance improved. However, one needs to bear in mind that the ultimate aim of HRM is better business performance rather than improved relations with the workforce. This may be something Personnel and HR managers, whether in the UK or the Pacific need to come to terms with.
Of course it is too early to evaluate the success of introducing HRM. Skinner (1986) talks of needing a 7-10 year horizon for changes in the human resources area. However, we can make an assessment of the problems in the short term which had to be faced. What was striking about this case is the enormous amount of change which had taken place: some union agreements were re-written; managerial prerogative was re-established, there was some success in cutting labour costs without causing disruption; a new pay strategy was implemented; the new communications strategy was also bedded in and devolvement to line management was also undertaken. One of the themes of the previous section was the extent to which stated intent (espoused policy) was reflected in practice (operational policy), for as Brewster et al (1981, p6) found,
"The espoused policies ... may be no more than pious aims or statements, breached with impunity and unrewarded where followed."
Hence it was necessary for policies to be consistently reinforced; if the Bank targeted managers on financial objectives and performance appraisal reflected this and with little emphasis on the achievement of human resource objectives, managers would realise that the official policy (HR is important) was in practice given far lower priority. The Bank did attempt to tackle such difficulties with revised appraisal systems incorporating a broader range of objectives.
One of the values of case study research is that it is able to illustrate how key actors are crucial to change processes. The crucial role of the CE has been acknowledged. Furthermore, the appointment of someone from outside the personnel department as the HR manager was also vital in that such a person began with credibility, being seen as an expert and in many ways performed the role of an internal consultant. For several reasons it was unlikely that an insider could have performed the role. Firstly, the Personnel Department lacked strategic power partly because the role of general managers in the Bank had inhibited specialist functions; linked to this was the fact that "labour" had not been seen as a problem so it had never attained a high priority; thirdly, the department, albeit partly as a result of the above two factors and partly because of perceived inadequacies in what it did do, was a Cinderella department of little status. Hence it would be unlikely even with C.E. backing that the department without a champion would have the clout to make the necessary changes. So key changes in personnel were clearly important in facilitating change.
The attitude of line managers was problematic. The paradox of HRM is that it raises the status of personnel but gives away responsibility and hence much depends on the attitude of line managers:
"Although the personnel department may be responsible for the design of valuable personnel "programmes" or systems (e.g. job evaluation, management appraisal, wage and salary structure), their implementation must not only take place within other management systems, but largely involve the managers of those systems. Hence, the success or failure of a personnel programme, even within its own terms, is often removed from the direct control of the personnel specialists themselves."
While we saw both greater attention being accorded to the management of staff and a review of employment policies, one of the concerns was the extent to which this retained priority overtime, for long term commitment is essential to the development of human resources. As Rothwell points out,
"People cannot be acquired, shed or developed as quickly or as easily as other assets." (1984, p..31)
Hence senior management must be responsible for driving change forward rather than merely recognising the need for change. Official recognition and practical neglect is an all too common experience with regard to management attitudes to human resources. We saw, for instance, that senior management tended to regard developments in this area as a "job for personnel." and failed to relate it to their own actions. In the long term the key question would be the extent to which the management of human resources retained its priority. To a large extent human resources was seen as a problem to be "fixed". It is open to question whether it would continue to receive the same attention and resources over a longer period of time.
Perhaps the key to managing change over the period was the balancing of conflicting priorities of cost control and staff development. Morris writes that:
"there has consistently been a dichotomy in management policies stemming from the efforts to control labour costs on the one hand and the desire to sustain commitment and motivation on the other" (1986, p.12).
Such a dichotomy faced the Co-operative Bank, While the Bank emphasised a more positive approach-to managing employees, with employees as a-resource, and attempted to increase co-operation, commitment and identification with the Bank, the policy of reducing staff numbers and assertion of the "right to manage" gives the impression of being a more traditional approach to managing labour as a cost.
Some would argue that external shock is crucial in triggering off a reconsideration of existing strategy but this itself presents a paradox in that firms in competitive difficulty may not have time, resources or goodwill to effect a change in relationship between management and employees, yet companies with profits and the resources may not appreciate the need to move to HRM. The attempt to cut labour costs at the Bank certainly seemed to threaten the opportunity to create high trust industrial relations with fear of redundancy and relocation, working against the Bank's attempt to create greater employee commitment and identification. Trust itself is seen to be a pre-condition for successful change although trust is generally accepted as being a very fragile concept (Purcell, 1981). In our case, the competitive environment put pressure on costs and hence clashed with the longer term HRM emphasis. One school of thought would regard crisis as a catalyst for a refashioned relationship, but it seems highly likely that in such conditions there will be unilateral management action and although unions and employees may co-operate in the interests of survival, and change for instance in working practices may well be achieved, it seems questionable whether attitudes will also change. In other words when smoother waters are reached the relationship may return to its previous character.
The Recruitment Industry Today
Over the past five years the recruitment industry has undergone a vast change. With the advent of latest technology innovations, websites, resume databases, Job listing services and applicant tracking systems have become the buzzwords in recruitment. As of late online job portals contribute towards a major share of the recruitment process. But these high technology services while helping to reduce candidate identification and screening time have widened the gap between an employer and a job seeker.
Current employer practice
Campus recruitment and job fairs are the major areas of concentration for employers to absorb fresh talent. But nationally focused recruiters overall were seemed interested in using technology to make the process of recruiting much easier and viable. They also think that online recruiting is more important for taking the recruitment process into the tier II and tier III cities.
Current Student expectations
What Job seekers need is personal attention and this is not provided by current online job portals. This trend is highly evident among fresh college graduates who are increasingly concerned that current electronic recruiting strategies are impersonal and do not satisfy their needs for human interaction in the initial stages of recruiting via job portals. It is with this purpose in mind that whereismyboss.com has been launched to help bridge this void.
Bridging the gap
Wimb is the revolutionary product of PGC Infotech which is a part of Tirupur based 250 crore Prem Group of Companies. WIMB stands out distinctly from other job portals with its intuitive interface, a wide array of latest e-technology services such as Artificial intelligence (AI) based search and Online web cam interview with Live Connect. These services exclusive only on whereismyboss.com, are provided to aid job seekers in their quest for a better recruitment platform.
Whatever the mind expects, it finds. The ability to expect the unexpected is the most essential ingredient in acquiring power beyond absoluteness. When the human mind is empowered with the ability to expect the unexpected, success becomes an everyday affair. Institutions should aim to empower the youth of an emerging young India with the power to ask questions, to derive answers and to expect the unexpected.
Shaping young Indians to create breakthroughs for an ever-changing globalised economy, in the fields of engineering and technology, should become a continuous passion with institutions. In combining the best of the academic and professional worlds, the institution strives to develop people who are ready for life, and who retain a desire for constant learning.
Institutions should monitor and review the scope of their portfolio of academic content, to ensure that it is relevant and attractive to students, employers and other stakeholders in reflection of changing industry needs and opportunities. Institutions should develop an approach for corporate customers that is bespoke, commercially-focused and meets expectations at every level of real-time, industry requirements. We conduct mock interview sessions so that students can practice from Whereismyboss.com live connect points in their institution and during their communication lab. This effectively makes the student more confident in his abilities in facing future interviews.
Institutions should ensure the value and quality of their courses through effective implementation of world class quality assurance and enhancement processes. The institutions should continue to invest in teaching, accommodation, social facilities and resources to create a physical environment that is modern, stimulating and encourages comprehensive development and learning.
One of the challenges faced by an institution in guaranteeing jobs for graduates is the wide gap between the institution and the corporate sector. With whereismyboss.com's new LIVECONNECT points this wide gap is effectively shrunk, enabling the institutions to effectively place more students soon after graduation. Over a period of time our Live connect points will evolve into an information hub for employers and will also become a nationwide career network across a virtual infrastructure.
This is not all! WIMB is in the process of partnering with institutions for whereismyboss.com's Live Connect Points (WLCP), to enable the institutions to provide quality recruitment platform for its students. Partner your Institution with WIMB and your institution is all set on its way to become fully e-placement ready and this also ensures that your students are not left out from the big race.
The Work Environment and Employee Productivity
Creating a work environment in which employees are productive is essential to increased profits for your organization, corporation or small business. Principles of management that dictate how, exactly, to maximize employee productivity center around two major areas of focus: personal motivation and the infrastructure of the work environment.
One of the key factors in leveraging human resources to produce the most is found through motivational incentives. While the most obvious incentive for increasing employee productivity is often thought to be based on salary and promotions, this is not always the case. In fact, recent thought on the true nature of optimal human resource management has concluded that in a large number of cases, salary has less to do with motivation than do other important factors.
What are these factors that influence employee productivity?
To begin with, it is important to recognize the truly human element in workplace relations. Step back and think for a moment-what makes people work harder? Is pay the strongest motivating force in the workplace?
Many experts have noted that workers while on the job do not produce more simply because they are being paid more. After all, it is not expected that employees will constantly calculate the monetary value of every action they perform. Workers, for instance, do not keep a record of how much they earn every time they send out an email, approve a document or complete some other task. It's just not human nature.
How to motivate employees
What motivates good employees is the ability to see projects through to their completion. While the actual process of monitoring this flow may be the specific task of one employee-a project manager-it is important for this employee to, in turn, recognize that every employee involved in the workflow should be able to see the finished product once it is complete, and gain an understanding of his or her importance in the project as a whole.
In addition, a motivating work environment must be one in which employees are treated fairly. No matter what level of input a particular worker has in relation to the business processes as a whole, it is essential for a manager to give each employee a sense of playing a dynamic, integral role in something much larger. Indeed, engendering loyalty is a key element of motivating workers and thereby increasing the overall productivity of operations.
The power of praise
One important tool for motivating employees is praise. Effective project managers must learn how to cultivate this powerful method of worker motivation. While oftentimes largely ignored by managers in the workplace, this can be an extremely useful method of giving an individual worker a sense of worth in relation to the actual work being done. Praise has, in countless examples, been shown to dramatically increase productivity.
In addition to praise, another important factor includes setting goals that correspond to the actual work being done. Realistic objectives are able to ensure that timeliness and work quality combine, and that the employee can still feel ready for the next project once the original one has been completed.
Disciplinary guidelines in the workplace
Creating disciplinary guidelines is also instrumental to fostering a work environment that is productive. After all, motivation doesn't always have to be positive. If workers are not faced with consequences for poor performance, then productivity margins can easily shrink at a devastating rate. While everybody's worse fear is that they will lose their job, one of a manager's worst fears is that he or she will lose valuable talent. Instead of letting employees go who might potentially turn around and perform well under the right conditions, a manager must be creative when it comes to finding other ways to penalize workers who bring down productivity.
Generally, however, the value of consequences is not found in implementing them, but in establishing them so that the behaviors that would ultimately require their implementation simply don't arise. It should also be mentioned that a manager will want to focus his or her workers primarily on positive reinforcement. Creating a system of tangible rewards is fundamental to
The office environment
In addition to a healthy level of communication and personal motivation in the workplace, the actual physical layout of an office is extremely important when it comes to maximizing productivity. While many managers and business owners choose to suffice with a certain minimum level of office accessories, they may be ignoring what can amount to a major obstacle on the path to increasing employee productivity.
Make sure that quality employees are given a workspace that they can call their own. Whether it's an office, cubicle or even a desk in open space, there should be a high level of importance place on helping workers foster a sense of "place" in your company. Along with this place, office managers should ensure that equipment is ergonometric and sound.
Indeed, it has been found that a productive work environment requires management that is able to positively motivate its employees in an infrastructure that is amenable to employees' needs
HR AND ITS IMPORTANCE
As the human capital takes center stage in today's economy, the HR function is becoming a strategic
powerhouse in organizations. The article highlights the areas in which HR managers and executives
will need to excel and a/so focuses on the ethical issues in HR. The author perceives diversity as
enriching an organization's human capital and lays stress on the several ways in which international
HRM differs from domestic HRM. Read on...
"Nothing endures but change."
Recent times certainly have proven this maxim to be true. Starting with the Internet boom through the
recent economic downturn and on to today's anticipation of recovery, companies have been forced to
continuously adjust their corporate strategies to keep up with the relentless pace of change in the economic
The human resource function has been at the center of this period of upheaval. During the economic good
times, companies looked to HR to attract, retain and motivate the critical-skill workers necessary for rapid
business growth. As the economy cooled, organizations depended on HR to find ways to reduce costs
while getting the most from existing, limited, resources. Now, as the focus shifts to recovery, HR executives
must ensure their workforces have the skills required to restore organizational competitiveness and to
contribute to long-term business objectives.
As the human capital takes center stage in today's economy the HR function is becoming a strategic
powerhouse in organizations. The HR's strategic race begins with designing HR architecture i.e. the HR
functions, HR systems and strategic employee behaviors that relentlessly emphasize and reinforce the'
implementation of the organizations strategy.
Summing, up the importance of Human Resource:
"You can take my factories and-burn up my buildings, but give me my people and I'll build it
right back again"
- Henry Ford
HR COMPETENCIES- The Strategic "Powerhouse"
What will it take to succeed as an HR professional hi the next decade? Recent research reveals that HR
managers and executives will heed to excel in a number of areas, including HR delivery, strategic contribution,
business knowledge, HR technology and personal credibility. The new avatar of HR is the knowledge
professional that isinnovative, business savvy quick on the uptake, has an instinctive ability to network and possessing unbridled
ambition. They are propelled by an urge to experiment & scan new avenues that can spur their creativity.
This knowledge professional will gravitate to an organization that is flexible has strong values, a robust
performance ethic and provides challenging work on latest technology.