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The recruitment and selection process is a series of hurdles aimed, when selecting the most appropriate candidate for the job. Hiring the right employee always saves business time and money that the company needs for future recruiting efforts and it helps to reduce the high employee turnover and damaging the company reputation. Lower job satisfaction, reduced work motivation, reduced performance effectiveness are the undesirable consequences of poor recruitment planning. Successful employment could be made with proper employment planning and forecasting. It also prevents the additional cost of re-recruiting. Recruitment is one of the human resource department's most important tasks, as the success of any business depends to a large extent on the quality of its employees. Since the management of ACH systems wants to recruit some more employees to the organization with a view of expanding their business, targets to a new market and the needing of new skills because of technological advance.
First of all, the need of job has to be assessed. The corporate management should have an idea, whether the job is still necessary and what kind of value does the job will provide to the organization. Then, the financial strength of the company is very essential to evaluate, because the organization needs to ensure whether there is adequate funding for the recruitment. Analyzing the company's economical strengths would help the company to determine its ability to afford the recruitment cost, before they makes any investment decisions. Thereafter, the number of key requirements such as job titles, role and duties, type of employment (full time, part time, permanent, fixed term contract), period of employment, qualities and experiences required to perform well and to whom the employees are responsible should be identified.
The next step is deciding the source of recruitment. This is about, whether the company is going to fill these positions with its current employees or by recruiting people from outside. Considering the internal employees for the job is usually less expensive and quicker than outside recruitment method, but they may require a proper training and development. One of the most successful recruitment sources is providing additional training to the current staff. In the internal recruitment, the need of orienting employees is less. And the internal candidates are more committed to the organization. Also the internal recruitment may avoid the difficulties in cultural adoption to employees, because individuals inside the organization know how the business operates. It is unlikely to be disrupted by someone, as they are familiar in working with the others in the organization. In external employment, the newly appointed person may not fit with the existing culture within the organization. Also the internal recruitment will act as an internal promotion to the current staff becoming an incentive to work more hard. Because of that, the morale of existing staff may be improved to continue their efforts. Since the company is used to assess performance of its employees regularly, there is an advantage from the company's point of view rather than considering an outsider who may only success "on paper". In the internal recruitment, organization has an idea of employees' qualifications and skills, education, professional experiences, career development interests, languages spoken, desired assignments etc, which may be a more accurate predictor of candidate's success.
If the organization plans to go with the internal recruitment method, they need to develop a system for locating and enabling qualified job candidates to apply for the position. This involves establishing formal procedures for using and communicating system requirements. Posting internal jobs are effective only when done before external job postings are made available. The organization should be made aware of vacancies by placing notices in areas, where employees regularly frequent such as lounges, elevators, and near time clocks. Postings should also be placed in circulating publications (newsletters, memos) and on company bulletin boards. A system of internal job postings will allow for the upward and lateral mobility of employees.
When goes to the external recruitment, it is time consuming, expensive but brings new employees with new ideas and experiences to the organization. This would be a greater advantage to the company. The popularity of the organization on the job market will be increased by external recruitment. The larger pool of candidates will help to find the best people for the jobs. External recruiting method can be grouped into two classes: Those are "informal" and "formal". Formal methods of external recruiting entail searching the labour market more widely for candidates with no previous connection to the organization. Informal recruiting method taps a smaller market than formal methods. These methods may include rehiring former employees and choosing from among those "walk-in" applicants whose unsolicited resumes had been retained on file. The use of referrals also constitutes an informal hiring method. Because they are relatively inexpensive to use and can be implemented quickly. Informal recruiting methods are commonly used for hiring clerical and other base-level recruits who are more likely than other groups to have submitted unsolicited applications. Former students, who participated in internship programmes, may also be easily and cheaply accessed. The organization should make a conscious decision to recruit candidates externally.
Most companies utilize the mechanism of college recruitment in filling their vacancies. These applicants are usually recent high school or university / technical college graduates and many of whom have not yet made clear decisions about future careers or contemplating engaging in advanced academic activity. There are two main ways of college recruitment. One of the above methods is, sending an employer's representatives to college campuses to prescreen applicants and create an applicant pool from that college's graduating class and the second method is, provide the jobs to college students through their internship programme. Internship can be win-win situation for both students and employers. For students, it may mean being able to hone business skills, learn more about potential employers, and discover their likes/dislikes when it comes to choose a career, whereas employers can use the interns to make useful contribution, while evaluating them as possible full time employees. College recruitment offers an opportunity to the organization to select the potential employees with the personal, technical and professional competencies they require in the organization. The personal competencies identified may include a positive work ethic, strong interpersonal skills, leadership capacity and an ability to function well in a work team. The opportunity to discuss a student's current strengths and potential future value to an organization cannot be replicated in any other setting. Two major advantages of this strategy are the cost (which is higher than word-of-mouth recruiting but lower than advertising in the media or using an employment agency), and the convenience (since many candidates can be interviewed in a short time in the same location with space and administrative support provided by the college itself). To make more effective college recruitment, the organization must determine how many and which colleges should be targeted. But the major disadvantage of college recruiting is the lack of experience.
The next step is developing an applicant pool. The more applicants we have, there can be more selective in the hiring. Local news papers are the most common method used by employers, to advertise the job vacancies. The construction of the advertisement is very important. Providing the information regarding the beneficiary package will improve attraction of candidates for the job. This may cause to receive a wider range of application and thus, to select the most talented person for the job. Also this helps to bring new ideas and experience in to the business and prevents higher salary expectation by a candidate than the organization could offer. It is important to choose the most appropriate newspaper or magazine for the kind of job. It is easy to find out from the publication about their readers - their socio-economic group, sex, age, etc. This helps the organization to choose the most suitable publication. For an example local news papers are the best method for any level of employees, whereas business and professional journals for software engineers and for the marketing staff. Advertising in the corporate web site, educational institutions - going directly to the educational institutes, such as universities and interviewing the students, employment agencies - these are organizations which specialize in matching individuals seeking a position with an organization in need of them, trade publications and magazines, employee referrals (word of mouth), TV or radio, publish on the internet (web sites such as www.topjobs.lk, www.jobsnet.lk, www.jobenvoy.com) and free online advertisements are other popular methods used to attract candidates. The importance of advertising media is different from job to job. Although, the organization could be go to the headhunting, i.e. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers.
The assessment and selection process plays a valuable role in recruitment and selection procedure. Interviews based on the qualifications of candidates are the best selection technique. This is a most important feature of the process of recruitment and selection, because it gives a chance to the organization to make sure that the interviewing applicant want the job and also he/she will stay with the company. Organization expects to discover the qualifications & characteristics of the job applicant in order to establish their likely suitability for the job position by conducting interviews. The most common recruitment difficulties which an organization faces always are people with lack of necessary specialist skill, insufficient experience & interpersonal skills, Bad image of sector/occupation and high pay expectation etc. The organization could overcome these difficulties by considering candidates who take account of broader range of qualities, such as personnel skills instead of paper qualifications. Some candidates are much more successful in the interview, than they would be in the job. Conducting a written exams and group exercises could be used to choose the most knowledgeable people and the primary interview of Software Engineers to test their skill, but not for marketing and sales staff. Marketing and Sales employees should be fluent in their communication style, tough, talented, flair for business, knows how to sell and work in a team; hence the telephone interviewing method could be used as the primary interview of marketing and sales candidates.
Finally in the conclusion part, Recruitment is not only carried out to fulfill current needs. The organization also needs to be fully aware of refer to future plans that have implications for organizational resourcing equal opportunities legislation and understand how discrimination can occur both directly and indirectly in the recruitment process. For example, untrained interviewers can make subjective judgments based on non job-related criteria and some forms of advertising may discourage or fail to reach potential applicants from certain groups. A diverse workforce that reflects customer groups within the local community is to be encouraged. Successful recruitment depends upon finding people with the right skills, expertise and qualifications to deliver organizational objectives and the ability to make a positive contribution to the values and aims of the organization. "A strategic business plan can only be realized when the right people are at the right place and at the right times to do the right things" (Dessler, G. 2005; Human Resource Management, page 163).
Using effective recruitment techniques will increase the number of appropriate applicants to fill the vacancies in the organization. For an example deciding to pay a 10% higher salary and better benefits than competitive firms, help us to build a bigger applicant pool faster. But the problem in practical is more is not always better. The organization needs qualified applicants, not just applicants. Considering people with a broad perspective of the world, logical thinking, creative ideas, well communication, independency and initiative will bring a greater success to the organization. At the same time, the contribution of methods has to be flexible enough to evaluate the candidate's attitude to get involved in the company's structure, the ability to accept corporate culture and the interest to support the company process, rather than evaluating a candidate's academic success as the unique factor to be selected. Recruitment may be conducted internally through the promotion and transfer of existing personnel or through referrals, by current staff members, of friends and family members. Where internal recruitment is the chosen method of filling vacancies, job openings can be advertised by job posting, that is, a strategy of placing notices on manual and electronic bulletin boards, in company newsletters and through office memoranda. Referrals are usually word-of-mouth advertisements that are a low-cost-per-hire way of recruiting. But present, there are only five employees currently employed at Millennium Technologies as software engineers, so that people from outside have to be called for the job.
It is possible to an organization, to reduce the risks and high costs of recruitment by maintaining a small cadre of full-time, permanent employees and meeting an unexpected and temporary need for staff through the use of ad hoc and short-term contract workers, who come to the position already trained. When considering the age of employees, Young employees are eager to learn more about other cultures, but older employees are having more experience. This could be balanced by assigning both young and old people. Business/professional journals and local newspapers' could be used as the media of advertisement for software engineers and sales/marketing staff.
Whatever the strategies selected for use, the objective is to recruit the most qualified, committed individuals into the organizations and ensure that the provision of government services to the public is timely and effective, that the goods are of consistent high quality
& that the organizations achieve the objectives for which they have been established. Organizations should monitor their recruitment processes continuously to make sure their validity, and that they are non-discriminatory. Ability to do the specified job, ability to make a contribution to the organization's effectiveness and potential for development are the factors should be based on candidate's selection.