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Recruitment and selection refers to the chain and sequence of activities pertaining to recruitment and selection of employable candidates and job seekers for an organization. (ehow.com). The main aim of recruiting and selection is to get qualified employees who are suitable into the culture of the organization.
According to Erich and Leonard 2009 in his recent study it was found that an appropriate Job analysis is the base of all other human resources functions. If we don't properly understand the nature, attributes of the job, we cannot hire the proper candidates for that specific job.
While recruiting candidates an organization should keep in mind about the worthiness and quality of that specific position of the job holder.
They should be trained after recruitment; organization should provide guidelines, arrange some development programs for the better criteria. It should begin with a proper job analysis. (Erich and Leonard 2009)
A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. (About.com: Human Resources)
There is no point for hiring people unless we know what we are hiring them for.The main aim of recruiting job analysis is to adapt job description and job specification which helps to hire good quality of work force into the organization. The management of a business need to conclude what sort of work need to be done. Job analysis is a key part of this need.
Job analysis contemplates on what job seekers are apprehended to do. It accommodates the basis for a job description, which access decisions on recruitment, training, streamlined & efficient and rewards systems. (Google search)
COMPRISES OF JOB ANALYSIS
According to the www.tutor2u.net;
Job analysis would commonly contain:
What is the job and how should it recounts to the business?
Commitment and Engagement in the organization.
Outcomes and Achievements that the Job holder capable for.
Measurement of Job holder's Performance.
Like Equipment, Location or Entrepreneur.
While recruiting; organisation should mention the above criteria for the Job holders so that the candidates should consider the aim, purpose, liabilities, responsibilities, duties thoroughly and deeply.
Example: In AIRLINES the air hostess job is to look after and provide good quality of services towards the passengers. The criteria of this organisation are not high enough.
Those candidates are given first priority whose communication is good, who are soft spoken, look smart and descend, have good behaviour and etc, because it is all about customer care services. If the air hostess looks good and if she/he speaks gently, the passenger will automatically be attracted and that is how the good reputation of the company or organisation can be made and more possible good outcomes could be achieved. As it is said that:
"First impression is the last impression".
While recruiting; an air line also looks that the candidates should not be short tempered.
These are the basic demands for hiring candidates in an air line. If the candidates are able to meet these standards; they will be appointed.
We can take another good example about army recruitment and selection.
The Gurkha recruiting process is one of the toughest of any Army in the world. Their soldiers are selected from amongst many thousands of hopeful applicants.Â Gurkha soldiers tour around the remote villages of Nepal conducting the initial screening tests. Every applicant must meet the certain standards of education, fitness and health. If successful, they will be called to attend the next step.
Retired Gurkha Officers hold a number of selection days across the country. Every recruit has to give his best and has to take the maths exam in order to qualify for the next level.
The criteria are quite high enough, and no weaknesses are accepted. All who make it through this stage are good enough to be soldiers in the British Army, but very few are able to make it.
Central selection is that process where those applicants are selected who has passed previous stages. This is the last and final hurdle for the candidates. In Bokhara, Western Nepal the candidates have to report recruiting depot and spend 2 weeks being put through their paces.
Doko race is the most hardest and gruelling assessment. Candidates has to complete a 2 mile race up a near vertical hill carrying 35kg of rocks in a basket, the weight borne by the traditional Nepalese carrying strap across the forehead, due to which their stamina and potential can be checked out and it should be completed within 20 mints.
All the candidates should have passed the Nepalese School Leaving Certificate, equivalent to between GCSE and A-Level standard in the UK.Â If successful, the will be taken to Catterick in North Yorkshire to undergo training in the Gurkha Wing of the Infantry Training Centre. In his 8 months training, the new soldier will not only learn military skills, but will also pass English language exams.Â
After passing all these training, he can feel proud what he has achieved, but he will have to work harder and harder to live for his reputation that his forefathers have built. (Gurkha soldiers recruitment)
ESTABLISHING GOOD AND EFFECTIVE HIRING PRACTICES:
An employer's recruitment and selection practices look to ensure and most capable for job holders.
Job analysis information helps job holders to achieve this aim and goal by ensuring selection criteria, such as the knowledge, skills, and capabilities needed to perform a job successfully. Job title, duties, responsibilities and tasks are very essential contents. Targets and performance standards that the job holder is required to accomplish for the benefits of an organization.
An organizational managers and human resource (HR) can use these information to choose or to develop adapt selection devices for instance interview, questions and tests. This approach to selection legally required.
A job holder facing unfairness charges must determine to the courts that its selection process is job-related. As one judge noted during a discrimination hearing, without a job analysis on which to base selection practices, an employer "is aiming in the dark and can only hope to achieve job-relatedness by blind luck."(Google search)
Job description mainly accommodates duties, aim, motives, purpose, initiatives, responsibilities, liabilities, scope, vision and working postures of a job along with the job's title, and the name or occupation of the candidates to whom the employee reports. Job description usually forms the basis of job specification.(www.BusinessDictionary.com)
According to Kleynhans Ronnel: Human Resource Management. He describes job description as it can be used to create some advertisements to recruit new employees and should give them some extra information about the job. The recruiter has to know the qualifications, skills or knowledge that the candidates need to perform that specific job.
Without giving any information, an organisation would have to recruit and select, employees without any clear guidelines, and this could have given very bad results for the employees and the organisation.
A job description could be used as a job indicator for candidates for a job. It could also be used as a guideline for an employee for the responsibility and duty within the organisation. (www.thetimes100.co.uk)
The main aim and purpose of a job description is to have tracing an object of duties, sinsererities, and responsibilities to make the adumbrating action as direct and focused as possible.
Job description may have the following contents:
Responsibilities/roles can be improved by providing facilities to the members of the organisation.
Empowering career moves within the organisation.
Function of the assurance of the amount to pay.
Specification of the job owner should be boosted comprehensively.(job description Wikipedia)
While recruiting jobs into the market above standards could be the main elements for the job description.
The concept of the job specification is derived from the job analysis. It is acknowledgement of employee features, characteristics and qualification required efficient performance of defined duties and tasks consisting of a specific job or function. (www.BusinessDictionary.com)
The candidates must have specific skills, capabilities, duties, responsibilities in order to fulfill the desired tasks of a position given by an organisation. A person specification can be outlined by the educational or institutional concerns, specialized training experience as well as more personal qualifications that an applicant must obtain. (BusinessDictionary.com)
Heron Robert, job and work analysis: Guidelines or identifying jobs for persons withâ€¦
According to him, the productive placement in employment of job finders with disabilities associates making the best possible match between qualifications, interest, assurance, expectations and the requirements of enterprises, attested in the job descriptions and job specifications for particular vacancies.
The job placements process needs detailed job description for each vacancy and a depicted job specification defining the general and particular concerns for every vacancy.
Both the job description and job specification are depended on job analysis. Without good quality job analysis the description of job favourable circumstances will be ambiguous than absolute, general rather than specific, broad rather than detailed.
Job specification specifies the qualities needed in a job incumbent for the efficient performance of the job. It is also known as man or employee specifications, is prepared on the basis of job specification. (Google search, job specification)
According to MUNRO FRASER, he gave some 5 useful points regarding recruitment and selection which are as under:
The Frazer 5 Points
Impact on others
or the kind of response a person's appearance, speech and manner calls out from others.
Qualifications and experience
the skill and knowledge required for different jobs.
how quickly and accurately a person's mind works.
The kind of work that appeals to a person and the amount of effort they are prepared to put into it.
Emotional (psychological/interpersonal) adjustment
capacity to work and cope with the demands of living and working with other people.
Human Resources are getting changed rapidly in this era by Employment legislation. This domain will help you understand what authorized tools exist today; how your business will be affected and on what areas you need to be careful for. These sorts of objects are jotted down in a non confused, understandable way. (www.oneclickhr.com)
Employment legislation influences on recruitment and selection:
Employment Equality and Regulations are being followed and providing equal opportunities to the BOC UK employers. No candidates or employee will get less favour treatment on the grounds of sexual orientation, discrimination in the areas of sex, political belief, disability, marital status, race, ethnic origin, nationality, religion or social classes. (www.Boconline.co.uk)
During this era body of legislation or law has developed ruling employer/employee Connections and the rights of employees and the employers in the workplace. (www.thetimes100.co.uk)
The employment rights Act:
Employment Relations Acts of 1999 and 2003 gives the vast range of authorized rights for the employees which mentions, Pay statement and national minimum wage should be declared, the terms and conditions must be set out in writing in order to protect unfair and biased dismissal at work.
According to the sex discrimination Act, 1975:
Employees must be protected against discrimination on the grounds of gender, for instance:
While job advertisements into the market as well as recruiting and selecting employees for jobs,
In assisting employees, offering training and career opportunities.
There are some exceptional cases in which this Act doesn't apply related to Genuine Occupational Qualifications (GOQs). For example: if a female actress is hired to play female part in the film.
The Equal Pay Act of 1970:
According to this Act, men and women should receive equal payment for the same work to be done.
The Race Relations Act, 1976:
Race discrimination is illegal in the same way as the sex discrimination Act. For instance:
Advertising for an "English waiter" to work in an English restaurant.
The Disability Discrimination Act, 1995:
When a disabled person is treated less favourably by the discriminator it comes under the discrimination Act.
The National Minimum Wage Act, 1998:
Legally employee must be paid at the minimum wage and this is increased each year in line with the rise in the cost of living. All Employees can work maximum 48 hours per week, and four weekly holidays.
Recruitment and Selection Process:
The evolution of captivating, attracting, screening, selecting accomplished and qualified people for a job at an organisation, company or a firm is called Recruitment.
Some important criteria must be considered while offering job vacancy into the market, which is mentioned below:
Need to fill position confirmed
Consider job Description, job Specification and Selection criteria
Prepare for Advertising whether it is internally, locally or both
Determine the position of the job holder
Prepare information packages
Packages shall be approved by Human Resources
Responsibilities and duties of Selection committee
Developed interview questions
Rank of applicants
Advice to applicants
Above are the main and important factors in recruiting and selection process.
Jobs can be advertised through many different ways. Now days it is advertised mostly via news papers, internet, t through TV channels etc. People are getting informed and educated through all this modern techniques.
For instance: if I am working in the Banking sector as a Branch Manager and I have to leave, I would advertise via newspapers, internet, and street banners etc. These could be the cheap modes of advertisement.
The person who is looking for this job should be capable, got managing and communication skills, confident, experienced, punctual, goal oriented and is able to satisfy his customer utmost.
He will be recruited in Head office by Regional Manager and Branch Manager.
Duration of the interview may be more than 1 hour. While recruiting he will be observed and take into consideration whether this job is suitable for him or not, because he will have to make some good decisions so that the maximum profit could be generated and is able to give laconic presentation in front of Regional Director, Branch Manager, and Country Manager.
If I ask to offer jobs into the market I would recommend this format for hiring employees.
Industry: Banking Sector
Designation: Branch Manager
Degree Title: MBA
Career Level: 5 years Experienced, as
A Branch Manager
Apply by: Sep 20th, 2010
Posted: Aug 21st, 2010
The applicants for the above posted job should be able to achieve assigned invested targets as well as keep trying to increase investment level. Make some effective policies due to which we are able to make good relation with the customer and try to promote business and generate money.
The Selection Criteria:
The Branch Manager will be selected on the basis of following criteria:
Good effective organisational skills, attention to detail accuracy.
Knowledge of the Banking sector, and the good policy maker.
Be able to communicate with the staff politely and gently.
Good oral and written skills.
Capacity to work in a team in international environment.
Knowledge of English as a working language.
It would be an asset if the candidate has professional and reach to above criteria in order to promote business.
They should be devoted, sincere and loyal towards their duties and responsibilities. Good attitude and behaviour plays a very vital role in any organization. If the job holder is focused, expert and motivated good results and outcomes can easily be achieved. Due to this, performance will be better and more chances to win the confidence of the customer. Owing to this the customer attracts towards you and that is what any organization looking for this in order to build goodwill and make the good reputation into the market and more efficient possible outcomes could be achieved.