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The following discussions will cover the means on which information is retrieved, construed and consequently interpreted in the modern organisation. For this study, three types of enquiry are taken into consideration. Specifically, the modes of enquiry like analytic-deductive, systems thinking and inductive-consensual are to be discussed. The discussions are to be based on the existing organisational literature.
The rational model of inquiry is used in the process of analytic-deductive model. In the simplest sense, this model rests on the assumption that every problem involving the human condition is addressed such that it fits in a formula. This assumption also implies that there is a specific formula that applies in every specific situation. (Linstone and Mitroff, 1995, 43) In a sense, this mode recognises that there is a single truth that could apply provided in every type of problem. Based on that definition alone, it appears that this mode evidently follows a particular pattern in the process of enquiry. Hence, one could surmise that this mode is rather mechanical and even unyielding. At some degree, the lack of flexibility or even the chance to change directions in the last minute is out of the question. This is the weakness of this mode. It presupposes that the every enquiry goes through a particular process and that it also presupposes that every process fits that particular situation.
Another area on which this mode shows some shortcomings is the fact that it does not consider all aspect of the information. It disregards those which do not fit the problem. Logical consistency of the data acquired with the needed information is one of the indispensible elements required in the process. (Linstone and Mitroff, 1995, 45) To put it in plain words, the process has the tendency to treat problems as puzzles to be resolved. This means that every problem is solved as there are only missing pieces required to fill in every situation. Every situation is ready to be dismantled and remade to rectify any of the perceived problems that organisations come across. In looking at the discussions above, it appears that this mode of enquiry uses a simple process which could be beneficial in some respect and adverse in others.
The Systems thinking allow the decision-maker to live concerned in all regulation and circumstance to come up with the most appropriate events, solution or terminations.Â In accumulation, this mode of enquiry allow the organization of the decision-maker to select what he or she think would be the mainly effective and suitable enquiry scheme to make use of for a certain issue. In adding, the decision-maker is not controlled to constriction to a convinced idea; rather, he or she can supply infinite things and issues on the certain data.Â In line among the use of internet, the limitless system thinking is helpful since the internet itself offer dissimilar modifications and beginning which must be given sufficient consideration to have a successful result.
One of the consequences of with this move toward is that the decision-maker may utilize issues which may be immaterial to the subject given. In this method, troubles in having additional contradictory topics may give complexity for the choice maker to competently make a decision on the trouble or subject. In addition, with too a lot of alternative urbanized with this system, the decision-maker resolve not be able to gravely examine each which may have an effect on the result to be made.
The inductive-consensual system is defined by the process of deducing a general conclusion from the collection o data acquired or accessed by the organisation. (Linstone and Mitroff, 1995, 35) Like the first mode of enquiry discussed in this paper, the inductive-consensual model is one of the simplest types of enquiry models of enquiry. This is because there is an inherent assumption that the answers to issues are based on these acquired data. The Delphi model indicated in organisational literature is possibly one of the best examples of this mode of enquiry. In these types of models, the processes involve knowing the specific problem and consequently arrive at a perspective that will bestow to the organisation a single final solution.Â
IS strategic planning Using Systems thinking
Systems Thinking is therefore a way of positioning yourself relative to an organisational or systems issue. People who use systems thinking keep one eye on the big picture and one eye on the detail. They recognise how structures in one part of the system can impact on other parts, and they understand the longer term patterns of behaviour that lead to events and crises.
Systems Thinking uses tools such as causal loop diagrams and graphs over time to analyse and describe problems and ways of making improvements. It is supported by System Dynamics modelling that enables the development of a computer simulation model that is able to test alternative policies and future scenarios.
System Dynamics modelling provides an environment in which feedback and delays that underpin system behaviour are brought into play with a focus on a particular issue. It combines, hard quantitative data derived from analysis of the system under investigation with other more qualitative information. It aggregates this into a high level strategic model designed specifically to explore policy options and future scenarios that relate to the issue under investigation. Systems thinking and the use of system dynamic modeling is an essential tool for strategic planners and commissioners working in complex systems. It enables strong analytical competences within an organisation to be harnessed in a way that â€žmakes senseâ€Ÿ to policy makers. It engages these policy makers alongside other stakeholders in a partnership that defines, explores and makes decisions based on their insights. Such decisions are underpinned by good quantitative analysis, but rely equally on stakeholder engagement and an â€žintelligentâ€Ÿ use of this analysis.
Strategic planning can easily get a bad reputation amongst those who have had a poorly handled experience with it, with such pitfalls as:
Getting bogged down in intellectual debates of conflicting terminology and models.
Seeing it as a linear process, requiring perfection at every step before proceeding.
Ending up with SPOTS (Strategic Plan On The Shelf) a wasteful, academic exercise.
"Plans are nothing. Planning is everything."
Systems thinking offer an approach that avoids these pitfalls and makes strategic planning what it should be a crucial, iterative and adaptive process, helping us judge journeys that are prone to success, not failure.
A Systems Thinking model for Strategic Planning Even the most complex systems can be understood using a simple building-block model of Output, Feedback-Loop, Input, Throughputs and Environment. When applied to Strategic Planning in its skeletal form:
Multinational corporations (MNCs) are businesses that have operations in more than one country. The energy business, BP, operates in more than 100 countries. Corporations that control assets in more than one country are also known as transnational corporations (TNCs). Some MNCs control more money than some governments. Exxon Mobil, the parent of Esso, Mobil and Exxon Mobil companies around the world, is the biggest MNC.
The most important changes taking place in the macro environment can be summarized in the so-called PEST analysis:
PEST analysis stands for "Political, Economic, Social, and Technological analysis" and describes a framework of macro environmental factors used in environmental scanning.
P Political and legal factors
E Economic factors
S Socio-cultural factors
T Technological factors.
Can be used as a basis for the analysis of business and environmental
PEST analysis is a useful strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations.
Include government policy and legal topics; describe both official and familiar system under which the firm necessity operates. Some examples include:
Trade limitations and tariff
Economic factors involve the acquire power of possible clients and the firm's cost of assets. The following are E.g. of issue in the total economy:
Social Factors is containing the demographic and civilizing characteristics of the exterior macro setting. These factors influence client requirements. Some community factors contain:
Population increase rate
Emphasis on security
Its can inferior barrier to entry reduces minimum well-organized manufacture level, and pressure outsourcing result. Some technological factors take in:
Research & Development activity
Rate of technological modify
During the past 20 years, a new and fundamentally different form of international commercial activity has developed, greatly increasing worldwide economic and political interdependence. Very few countries remain isolated in the world of business; rather than merely buying resources from and selling goods to foreign nations, multinational companies (MNCs) now make direct investment in fully integrated operations that cover the spectrum of goods and services. Today, MNC networks control a large and growing share of the world's technology, marketing and productive resources.
Rates of economic growth fluctuate over time and across the globe. While growth is undoubtedly cyclical, the indications are that the developed economies are unlikely to see again the rate of growth experienced in the first decades after the Second World War.
The state of national and international economies affects businesses directly in a number of ways; for example, it affects interest rates and hence the cost of borrowing. In times of slow economic growth governments, or their central banks, tend to reduce interest rates to make borrowing cheaper and hence stimulate spending. When economic growth is rapid, concerns for growing inflation, or economic 'overheating', lead to increased interest rates to dampen demand.
Interest rates have a number of effects in addition to directly raising or lowering the cost of borrowing. In particular they have a psychological effect on the confidence of consumers and businesses, affecting purchasing decisions beyond purely rational, or economic, judgment.
Company investment decisions are often delayed in times of relatively high interest rates and that can then have an obvious knock-on effect on suppliers further down the supply chain. Consumers too may delay purchases, especially where they are to be made using loans that are increasingly expensive. The housing market, for example, is particularly vulnerable to interest rate changes.
Perhaps one of the most obvious ways in which the political and economic environment affects demand is through the fiscal, or taxation, policy of the regime that is in power. Where taxation rates are high they result in low disposable incomes, which can depress demand. Low taxation tends to be a spur to growth. But there are two main types of taxes and their effects may be different. Direct taxation taxes income and hence affects the overall disposable income available for purchases.
Indirect taxation, on the other hand, taxes purchases and may, through its selective application, shift demand from one area to another.
Employment and unemployment rates also follow economic and business cycles. In times of economic slowdown firms may find their order books less full and hence are forced to pursue efficiency gains through 'downsizing'.
Information System Strategy provides students with an understanding of the contemporary technological and organizational issues involved in the management of information technology resources at a strategic level. The role of information systems in providing competitive advantage and the frequent need for business re-engineering that accompanies adoption of new technology are discussed. Strategic IT planning and the evaluation process to ensure proper alignment of technology to business goals are also explained. Global IT issues are also considered.
The segment looks at how IT may be used to give firms a competitive advantage. Students learn how to link IT applications with business strategies within an organisation and to identify strategic business opportunities that IT can help create. Different models of competition, such as the extended rivalry model, generic strategies model and value chain model, are examined.
Information technology can be used to allow business procedure reengineering, a powerful organization technique characterized by critical scrutiny of business procedure followed by their revamp. The different types of business procedure reengineering projects are discussed. Students study how to apply the procedure and calculate the impact of information technology on business process reengineering in organizations.
Strategic planning within an organization must involve information technology planning, to align the overall business plan of the firm. Students discover ways in which IT enables a firm to fulfill its strategic objectives and some of the dare faced by organisations while behavior IT planning. Commonlyused approaches - the critical success issues approach, unforeseen event approach and business systems planning approach - are evaluation, along with best perform in IT planning.
The segment describes ways in which you can assess the costs and benefits of IT deployment, at the economy level and at the level of the firm. Economic evaluation techniques are explained, as are complementary evaluation methods to examine IT performance. Service level agreement monitoring and the user satisfaction measurement are among the methods covered.
Students are introduced to some of the challenges relating to the management and deployment of IT on a global scale. A global information systems strategy can help organisations improve business coordination of worldwide activities and exploit supply chain efficiencies. It is, however, important to ensure effective planning and communications, as development and implementation of global IT systems are typically centered in different locations.
Potential 'hard' and 'soft' problems for MNC
The customary move toward to IS strategic planning is basically during a top-down process, which begins with the main level business intention or mission statement, from which the high-level on the whole strategic plan is consequent. This gets decayed at the next level down into functional plans. All of this determination includes an explanation of the organization requirements of that functional area. In turn, these requirements will further extended to identify the software which is to be developed.
In this top-down process is in bellow
Critical Success Factors
And then System Development
Training received by employees and employee's perception of training and promotion opportunities, Communication and trust between management and staff (soft)
Direct references to values of and practices to encourage:
Employees as valued "human" assets and a source of competitive advantage
Employee involvement, participation and communication to derive commitment
Training and Development to meet the needs of the individual and the organization
Strategic Planning for MNC
Performance Criteria Can Be Used to Watch Corporation Action
Corporations should penetrate international markets within the framework of an overall marketing plan. Essential questions to be answered in this regard are:
Has management developed an international marketing program with accompanying market research tasks?
Does management understand that foreign market research is an ongoing activity?
Have procedures been developed to monitor, evaluate and correct international marketing performance?
Has the firm offer means for timely caution of pertinent modify in foreign markets?
Does the global market study seek the most exact information relating to the firm's products?
Is mature judgment being applied to the facts developed by the international market research efforts?
What organizational arrangements are best for international business?
Companies can use one of the following alternatives for organizing their international activities. International marketing can be handled:
As part-time activity of domestic marketing staff
By an international manager who is part of the domestic marketing staff
By an international department that is independent of domestic marketing
By an international division
An alternative to internal organization is to rely on the services of an Export Management Company (EMC) or an Export Trading Company (ETC). These companies can provide a variety of services and assistance including:
Research foreign markets
Traveling abroad to determine the best process of issue a company's goods through distributors or trade agents
Showing a company's products and global trade shows
Handling habit details in receiving the goods shipped to the overseas customer ( e.g., export statement, society documentation, insurance, and instructions for particular wrapping and marketing)
Providing money terms, in that way declare payment to the producer
Preparing advertising and sales literature in collaboration with producer and adapting it to overseas necessities for use in individual contacts with strange buyers
Corresponding in the required foreign languages
Advising on out of the country patent and brand protection necessities
Products targeted at a specific segment of a market, such as disposable diapers, disposable dishes or other time-saving goods. Although these products are highly beneficial for working mothers, they have a negative impact on the environment.
Products that could be harmful if abused, such as alcoholic beverages or firearms. Buyers often do not have a good knowledge of the potential dangers of these goods. Sellers, on the other hand, are aware, or should be aware of the risks and consequences of the misuse of these products. For example, marketing powdered milk in countries where water is not safe to drink can endanger the lives of consumers.
Inherently harmful products, such as cigarettes or opium.
Ethical behavior in organizations
Ethics deals with morality rules regarding behavior conduct. and
In organizational set up, ethics can be defined as the rules or standards governing the conduct of individuals and organizations.
There are three different ethical philosophies that individuals follow under different situations in an organizational set-up. â€¢ These are- utilitarianism, individual rights, and justice.
Organizations attempt to ensure that their employees behave ethically by using control systems
The individual rights philosophy deals with safeguarding the rights of individuals, such as the right to be informed, right to free speech, right to free consent, the right to privacy, and the right to due process.
Utilitarianism recommends that a course of action that achieves the greatest good for the greatest number of people is ethical
Justice requires that the rules of the organization be enforced fairly and impartially. Individuals should be accountable only for factors which are under their control.
Utilitarianism is the most commonly followed ethical philosophy
Ethical decision ideology
Ethical decision ideologies can be classified based on two dimensions: one is
Idealism - the belief that behaving ethically ensures positive results; and the other is
Relativism - the belief that moral values depend on circumstances.
Based on these two dimensions, there are four classifications of ethical decision ideologies
Ethical decision ideologies Matrix
An Absolutist believes in strictly following the universally accepted ethical principles.
An Exceptionist refers to universally accepted ethical principles for broad guidance rather than for strict adherence.
A Situationist takes a decision on a case to case basis by studying and comprehending the situation at hand.
A Subjectivist prepare to abide by their respective individual ethical principles rather than adhering to universally accepted ethical principles
Influencing factors of Ethics
Culture and structure
Performance measurement systems
Position related factors
Individuals with higher ego strengths will not depend on others for decisions making , whereas people with low ego strength will look to others for help in arriving at decisions
The culture of an organization includes its values, belief systems, and norms. It is influenced by the behavior of the mangers or the top management of the organizations
Performance measurement systems
The top management of sears auto centers developed incentive systems to improve revenue performance, and set targets for their employees that were practically unachievable. The employees therefore resorted to unethical actions by indulging in unnecessary and incomplete repairs of vehicles and overcharging for services.
Finally, consumers initiated legal proceedings against the organization
Reward system in many organizations tend to encourage unethical behavior like kickbacks. Also, some organizations tend to discourage and penalize whistleblowers; such punishment systems tend to further encourage unethical behavior.
Reward systems should be integrated with the performance measurements systems.
Position related factors
These are peer pressure, the expectations of the top management regarding achievement of objectives, the presence or absence of a code of conduct, superior-subordinate relationships, extent of resource availability, etc.,
For example, employees of departments like marketing and purchase tend to face more ethical dilemmas
If a specific ethical behavior is rewarded, employees will tend to continue behaving in that way. On the other hand, if any employee gets punished for a specific behavior, he and the others in the organization will not resort to that kind of behavior
Influencing factors of Ethics
External environmental factors
political economical factors
Political and economical factors
It include factors like government polices, tax structures, and the tariffs and duties levied on imports.
Many organizations resort to bribing government officials to get contracts or licenses for businesses or to get into such transactions to stay in competitions.
The case of Siemens AG officials routing organizational funds to an Italian energy company as bribes is an example of unethical behavior
Giving the right information to customers regarding products and services is one of the major ethical considerations that organizations must keep in mind.
Being ethical serves as a competitive advantage for organizations, as it helps them build up a good reputation and image for themselves.
Johnson and Johnson- faced a serious crisis, when a few capsules of its popular medicine, Tylenol were found to be laced with cyanide.
Integrated framework for ethical behavior
When the ethical/unethical behavior of an individual is rewarded or punished , these decisions become a part of the employee' s decision history and this further influences the decisions and behavior of the employees.
MCA and Ethical issues
Ethical issues in sales
Ethical issues in operations
Ethical issues in Human Resources
Budgetary slack is a deliberate understatement of revenues and /or overstatement of expenses in the budget.
Budgetary slack is caused by managerial intention rather than by an unforeseen error in the estimation process. The slack created by mangers may also be used for the organization's benefit during bad times
Corrupt managers tend to mange earnings for personal benefits . They try to show higher earnings in order to show that budgeted targets have been achieved.
In united states , the Sarbanes Oxley act was enacted to act as an external control system to restrict such practices.
Ethical issues in sales
The samples and gift adjustments in the pharmaceutical industry, where it is the practice to give samples of new products to doctors as a part of the sales promotion.
These samples are given to the doctors so that they can try out the drug and also to help them in brand recall.
Ethical issues in operations
Consuming more resources, providing for greater lead times, or accepting relatively poor quality. Focuses only on gaining maximum profit at minimum costs without taking social responsibilities into consideration.
Neglecting the safety of employees. Having unhealthy and dangerous working conditions and passing off confidential information
Ethical issues in Human Resources
Lack of Job security
Increased risk of unemployment
Excessive scrutiny and control
Absence of proper appraisal methods
Recruiting on contract basis
Force them to work longer hours
Regulating Ethical conduct
Control activity Mechanism to regulate ethical conduct
Indicating and communicating objectives Code of ethics Ethics committee Ethics training for employee's corporate governance focused on ethics
Feedback through performance measurement systems Ethics committee System of whistle blowing
Reward systems integrated with objectives accomplishment Reward systems focused on ethics
Codes of Professional Conduct
The utility principle and the golden rule are intended to be applicable to all ethical reasoning, in all contexts. Â
For practical reasons professionals have found it convenient to supplement these with ethical rules, which address the specific needs of a specific profession. Â
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
"Commitment to" the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct "is expected of every member of the Association for Computing Machinery".
British Computer Societ (BCS)
The BCS Code of Conduct "sets out the professional standards required by the Society as a condition of membership".
"In your professional role you "I must not misrepresent my skills shall have regard for the public or knowledge." ~ ASM Code of Ethics. Health, safety and environment."
(BCS Code of Conduct.)
"Avoid harm to others." (ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct.)
"You shall not claim any level of competence that you do not possess. You shall only offer to do work or provide a service that is within your professional competence."
(BCS Code of Conduct.)
Ethical behavior and unethical behavior of the Professional Conduct an recognize a solution to an ethical problem when he see it. It does notÂ offer much management on how to finding a solution when he is confronted with a new ethical problem. Â
Heuristic methods have been proposed as a way of bridging this gap.
Form an ethics committee of at least five persons.
Frame a specific question that creates the desired ethical dilemma.
Construct a scenario of about 150 words that will evoke the dilemma.
Construct at least three persuasive arguments on each side of the question.
Raise objections to these arguments.
Make replies to these objections.
Make counter-replies to these replies.
Take a stand on the issue and reach a verdict.
Collect data systematically about the parties
Analysis the data systematically for the alternatives.
Try to negotiate a social contract agreement in an imaginary meeting where all the parties are represented.
Judge each of the alternatives according to ethical theories.
Individual Efforts to Protect Privacy
Find out what is stored about you in existing databases
Be careful when you share information about yourself
Be proactive to protect your privacy
When purchasing anything from a Web site, make sure that you safeguard your credit card numbers, passwords, and personal information
Corporate Privacy Policies
Should address a customer's knowledge, control, notice, and consent over storage and use of information ~ fairness of information use
May cover who has access to private data and when it may be used
A good database design practice is to assign a single unique identifier to each customer Fairness in Information Use
You have access to the sales and customer information in a flower shop. You discover that the boyfriend of a woman you know is sending roses to three different other woman on a regular basis. The woman you know is on the flower list, but she believes that she's the only woman in his romantic life. You really think you should tell the woman. Your dilemma is that you have a professional responsibility to keep the company's information
Repetitive stress injury (RSI)
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Emissions from improperly maintained and used equipment
Increase in traffic accidents due to drivers using cell phones, laptops, or other devices while driving
Avoiding Health and Environment Problems
Work stressors: hazardous activities associated with unfavorable conditions of a poorly designed work environment
Ergonomics: science of designing machines, products, and systems to maximize safety, comfort, and efficiency of people who use them
Employers, individuals, and hardware manufacturing companies can take steps to reduce RSI and develop a better work environment
Avoiding Health and Environment Problems (continued)
Research has shown that developing certain ergonomically correct habits can reduce the risk of RSI when using a computer