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Job description is written document which is included duties, responsibilities, commitments and output from that particular position and also essential educational, professional, and work experiences of the candidates.
General Job description is derived from job analysis and it will give clear concept of competences (knowledge, skills and attitude) which directed to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. General Job description is also identified thorough job specification, rules and regulation of the organization, tools and required equipment and to build positive relationship with other co-workers.
A proper written detailed job description which guides to employee his/her position where he feel himself to be fitted in the department of the overall organization. Well written detail job description is also helping the employee to understand the limits of his personal responsibilities and departmental identifications. General Job description is a guidance book for a new employee in the organization which helps him/her to be a successful member of the team.
General Job description is playing a vital role to find and hire the shining star, most reliable, competent, multi skilled employee.
General Job description is varying from organization to organization, from department to department and position to position. Most of the small organization needs employee and manager to cover the maximum work function in organization to achieve the organizational goals. Therefore, in the small organization, job description documents containing more responsibilities which compare to a job description of a big organization.
In UK organization, employers and employees need to have a clear concept of expectation for the job and job description is playing an important role to fulfill the requirement of the organization.
Components of General Job Description
General Job description is written statement which improves an organization's ability to manage employee and their behavior to align them in to the company's vision which elaborates the:
Duties of the job
Clear picture and role of that particular position
The most required specification to meet the standard of the position
Profile of the candidate which includes educational and experience background of the candidate
Building positive relationship with co-workers and specified values needed to organization.
Personal philosophy on work ethics
What employer expect from the employee
Measurement of job performance
Daily routine work
Guidance to prevent from dispute and discipline issues
Future training and development programmed
Clear picture of organizational structure, policies, work procedure, internal and external relationship with co-workers.
Team player within the team
Motivation and enthusiasm
Devoted in his attitude
Hardworking and loyal with organization
Honesty and trustworthy
Punctuality and continuous job attendant
Productivity and managing total quality
Responsible and result oriented
Company rules and regulations
Alignment on company vision and mission
Flexible for changes & adoptable in any situation
SAMPLE OF GENERAL JOB DESCRIPTION
Following General Job Description in a hotel based in London, for the position of Night Manager.
My Home Systems Ltd are looking for a friendly and highly organized administrator assistant to help with the day-to-day tasks in the business
Administrative Assistant - Vauxhall, London
Salary: 17500 - 18000
Location: My Home Systems Ltd
Date : 28th Sep, 200/8
Employer Type: Service Provider
Recruiter: My Home Systems Ltd
Job reference: Career / CAT T1253 My Home Systems
Contract: Permanent - Full Time
Company is currently looking for an Administrative Assistant; responsibilities will include responding to inquires and provide information to the customers, staff and guests. Additionally, you will perform common office tasks such as answering telephone calls, greeting and processing visitors and handling postal deliveries.
Essential Job Duties:
Assisting staff by performing standard office tasks as directed
Operating a telephone switchboard, to answer, screen and forward calls
Ordering, receiving and maintaining office supplies
Preparing travel vouchers
Providing information, taking messages and scheduling appointments
Updating appointment calendar
Receiving payment and record receipt for products/services
Receiving, sorting and routing mail and publications
Requirements of social knowledge / skills and abilities
Proficient use of Microsoft, excellent written and oral communication skills
The Ideal Candidate will have:
Supervisory and training skills
Positive and energetic attitude
Good communication skills both written and verbal
Effective time management and multi-tasking skills
"Can do" attitude - ability to assist other members of the team when required
This is a fantastic opportunity to work within one the world's finest company
Salary £17500 - 18000 per annum
20 days paid holiday during each holiday year + Bank holidays
Staff accommodation provided
Use of gym facilities (worth up to £800)
Company pension scheme
Uniform and free laundry service
15% staff discounts
Please email your CV to firstname.lastname@example.org
Specific Job Description
Specific job description is clearly identifying and spelling out over all responsibilities of that particular job. Specific job description is also included details related to rules and regulation of the organization, tools, equipments, technologies, skills, knowledge and attitudes. In addition to this, other main criteria will be different from position to position, organization to organization and at different level of managerial.
Specific job description will direct to the employee to be aligning on the position in order to reach goals and objectives of the particular position and secondly he/she will be driven his/her functions to reach organization's excellence and vision. Therefore, specific job description is playing a vital role in Human Resource Management of the organization. A professional HR manager is always design detailed job description from A to Z in order to avoid future complexities of the organization and the employee as well. In the organization context, the HR policy maker has to design the objective of the specific job description. And all functions of the specific job description in order to give clear picture of the position to selected employee.
Specific job description building a motivation to an employee where he/she can understand the goal of the organization and building a teamwork environment. The HR Manager must assure on the designing specific job description for interfunctioning of all the different positions that need to job done properly and efficiently.
According to a famous author Ferdinand Fournies
"Why Don't Employees do what they're supposed to do and what to do about it,"
He said, "You need to make certain that they clearly understand what the organization expects. This is mutual understanding will develop positive between organization and employee.
Components of the Specific Job Description
As we discussed earlier in the General Job Description, the same criteria is applicable for the specific job description as well the following items must be considered in Specific job description:
Level of authority / title
Level of responsibility
Positioning in the organization structure
Communication pattern (upward as well as downward communication)
Reward system (finance and non-finance reward)
Status of job security
Performance evaluation methodology
Daily task list
Analyzing the work duties and responsibilities
SAMPLE OF SPECIFIC JOB DESCRIPTION
Following specific job description in a hotel based in London, for the position of Night Manager.
Night Manager - Battersea, London
Salary: 18500 - 20000
Location: Holiday Inn
Date : 18th Sep, 200/8
Employer Type: Hotel
Recruiter: Intercontinental Hotel Group
Job reference: Caterer / CAT T4693 IHG
Contract: Permanent - Full Time
As Night Manager, responsible for the smooth operation of the entire night shift, your first priority will be first class customer services. You will see everything is clean, safe and secure - its also about creating a real team atmosphere at night. An organized person with team leadership or management experience, you will deliver great training be ready to solve any problem any time.
The Ideal Candidate will have:
Previous Front of House experience, preferably within hotel environment.
Previous experience of night work
Supervisory and training skills
Organization, delegating and planning skills
Ability to use judgment
Team leadership and team work skills
Experience and awareness of all aspects of hotel security and safety
Ability to work flexible hours and night shifts
Apart from a first class training programme, our benefits include:
Company Discount card
Uniform and Meals on duty
Discounts at many retail outlets and attractions
Live-in accommodation is available for this role
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GENERAL & SPECIFIC JOB DESCRIPTIONS
In General Job description, align the employees on the company's vision, mission, rules and regulation is the major objectives. The major objective of the Specific job description is setting the employee on that specific position to fulfill the tasks of the particular job function efficiently and effectively.
The context of the General job description is common and limited, on the other hand, the context of Specific job description is more descriptive as the targeted employee should be multi skilled in that particular position in order to carryout his/her duties without any hesitation.
Qualitative & Quantities
Most of the time, the General Job description is qualitative and Specific job description is quantitative. For example, a supervisor in a production flow is given a task to produce certain number of items per day; it means that the specific task is measurable. But on the other hand an employee can not be measurable in the General Job description because employee is doing the routine work. He/she is not given the any specific task.
Orientation of results
In General job description, the organization gives guidelines what the company's motto and long term goal to the employee but in Specific job description the organizational goal is divided in to different department and department nominate the specific employee for specific task to bring the bring the combine result of the department.
In General job description, which is a part of mission of the organization while Specific job description playing a vital role to achieve the departmental mission.
There is no concept of reward in General job description because everybody is trying to achieve organizational goal but in Specific job description, there is employee reward system for employee motivation.
There is no signs of employee performance evaluation in General job description but there many ways to evaluate the performance of an employee in Specific job description.
General Job description is always related to corporate management of the organization while Specific job description is part of Human Resources Management and development of the organization.
Nature of Contract
General Job description is a policy statement of the company but the Specific job description is a type of contract between employee and employer.
What impact does the Tesco policy of keeping store open 24 hours per day at some places have on employee relations? Why is the effect of the 24 hours service policy on employee relations different in London than it is in smaller towns?
Generally the 24 hours Tesco policy at some places will create the negative and positive impact on the employee relations. but if we see generally there are more negative impacts than the positive the mainly one of the positive impact of Tesco 24 hours will be the flexibility of hours for the employees and on the other hand Tesco 24 hours store policy will increase the night shifts and this will result for the employees to bound with the store and work rather than give time to their family and children. One of the most important factors is that normally it is common observation that at the night time and at night shifts the employees are less involved in the work and been isolated from the organization, so this will be the negative impact on the Tesco because of 24 hours Tesco policy. More importantly the Tesco 24 hours opening policy increases the flexibility for the employees and as a result of that grouping will increase and then these employees' groups needs a separate level of management and this will be the problem for the management and especially because of this the employee relation policy of Tesco will effect.
Why is the effect of 24 hours service policy on the employee relation different in London than it is in smaller towns?
There are many reasons behind the difference of Tesco policy in London as comparison with smaller towns most important reason is the availability of labor in excess amount. Not only unskilled labor but there is excess availability of skilled labor in London market and if we compare with smaller towns where there is shortage of labor, in London because of high supply of Labor the Tesco policies in London are not made according to the demands of the customers that's why employee relations are more effected in London as compare with smaller towns. The another main reason is that in the London is very busy area so in this case employees are demanded for more work and more active so in this condition employees feels pressure regarding favor and job security .
Similarly if we compare with smaller towns normally there is a shortage of employees , and shortage of skilled employees in this condition there is high demand of employees and there is less supply and in this way employees became more and more valuable . And smaller towns are less busy and employees have less work and low pressure and this situation relation between employees and the organizations became more and more strong and friendly.
HOW TO IMPROVE EMPLOYEE RETENTION AND RELATIONS CLIMATE IN SOTRES:
RECOMMENDATIONS AND JUSTIFICATION
There are many ways to improve employee retention and relations climate in Tesco. According to our point of view there are some good suggestions are as under:
This is the most effective way to create a good relations with the customer and to increase customer retention .This reward system includes the competitive salary package and different sorts of rewards in order to motivate and make .Not only the proper reward system proper performance appraisal according to profit gain ratio ,in simple words Tesco should adopt the policy in such away that reward must be increased according to increase in profit margin , as in the case of Tesco the profit of Tesco is increasing day by day . So, in order to maintain long term customer retention and improve the relationship between the employees and the management
If Tesco wants to improve employee retention and relations climate he should adopt a policy in such a way that employees in organization considered to be partners. And you must give them sense of ownership, literal and figurative value and treat them as partner and as an owner. In this way employee will fall in love with company and employee will feel himself as an owner of the company.
Tesco should adopt a policy of drive leaning means company should give the employees up to date training according to the demand of the organization or may in case of any technological change and after giving them training give them promotion . In such away employees will sense of comfort ability and they will never leave the organization.
Apart from these there are many important steps should adopt by the Tesco in order to retain the employees and create good environment in the organization. These are:
Lend them career counsel
Offer professional growth
Set-aside private time with employees
Honor their families
Involve them in hiring
Feed their minds
Give them a break
Help them feel home at work
Above are the main and fundamental steps and these steps should take by the Tesco in order to retain the employees retention and improve the relation climate in the Tesco.
2. Some countries actually have laws that restrict retail stores for being open on Sunday and regulate the weekday evening hours a store can remain open. The idea behind these laws is to protect employee's time with families so that employees do not neglect their families to work additional hours. Do you agree or disagree with this approach to regulate store hours to protect the quality of employee's family life. What is the basis of your agreement or disagreement?
Stores, Shopping & Human Life
Store, shopping and service hours are an integral part of daily life and of the routine of urban and rural living. Interest groups contribute to create, maintain and dismantle regulations of shopping hours. Consequently, establishment and maintenance of these regulations has involved virtually all public and private bodies (government, unions, small and large businesses) and essentially individual members of the society as well.
Shopping trips constitute a very important part of daily life. According to several studies conducted in this regard, these trips account for almost one-fifth of daily trip making, followed closely by other family related or personal business trips (Lowry, 1988). As Rotenberg (1992) suggests there are three things necessary for the market to function:
wanted goods and services
a medium of exchange; and
the availability of the market
Where availability is interlinked with the stores' opening in convenient locations. In other words, availability is a function of location and time. Consequently, extended store and service hours are the essence of the 24 Hour Society.
Shopping in existing modern busy life
The rising cost of time in today's society is a major issue associated with store hours. Changes in social trends such as more single parents, dual career families, and single person households provides a major incentive for extending store hours in many countries including the UK. However, there are a lot of questions that need to be answered on the effects of these changes.
Regulation of Store Hours
Presently European countries have varying restrictions on stores' hours, resulting in a diversity of shopping times (Salmon and Tacken, 1993). Provision for flexibility makes sense since basic parameters relating to work/shopping coupling, such as percentage of women who work outside of the home, can well differ from municipality to municipality. Early closing hours present a barrier to workers, since store hours have traditionally been scheduled to follow working hours. Demographic changes in society, such as a high participation rate of females in the workplace, decrease the probability that a community will adopt early closing hours.
One of the prime motivations for the government to adopt legislation pertaining to working hours is its surmised effect upon employment. Specifically, reductions in working hours have been supposed to be correlated with an increase in demand for employment and this serves the need of the population and, by extension, the government. Certain European countries have adopted legislation intended to promote work sharing and to reduce the average week.
Differences and variations of working hours through the day have an impact on the demand for the extension of shopping hours beyond the traditional hours. Flexibility in working time is considered another determinant of the willingness of society to or restricts shopping hours. Industrial based economies where the workforce has a high participation in shift work are less to adopt closing restrictions. The opposite is more evident in municipalities where the work force is primarily white collar (Ferris, 1991.
Store hours in varied perspective
Individuals, corporations and governments have their own perspective and opinions of the economic impacts that may result from the adoption of various working arrangements. What they have in common is the desire to maximize their economic advantage. However, an individual is unlikely to make purely economic decisions. Thus, any financial gains or losses a worker may achieve under the adoption of a non-traditional schedule must be viewed in the light of other significant social effects that may result. For now we must consider the different impacts new work arrangements may have on the individual's bottom line.
Importance of Family Life
Social and leisure functioning are important factors in the quality of a person's life and may significantly influence perceptions towards night shift work. Further, joint leisure participation may have implications for couple's marital stability. Depending on the way marital stability is affected, there may be either increased acceptance or increased resistance by couples to working markedly dissimilar shifts. While shorter hours and flex time may allow for greater leisure participation and may thus be favourable option for many individuals. Redmond (1988), and Feys and Meyer (1988) point out, participation in recreational activities and social clubs is limited by scheduling "handicaps" - that is, by working at times during which the greatest opportunities exist for leisure participation. There is support for the notion that those whose social effective time is usurped by their labour may have reason to be dissatisfied and that such working hours are undesirable (Wedderburn, 1993; Boulin, 1993).
At the individual level, the most problematic working arrangement is shift work; specifically the night shifts, although it must be said that:
Some do find it appealing; and
There are conflicting opinions related to it impacts.
Among the most significant problems of working the night shift is the disturbance to an individual's family life as well as the human body's relative inability to adjust to its demands Working at night is, simply put, against human nature and operating in contrast to our circadian rhythms has severe repercussions to our sleeping patterns (Redmond, 1988; Marmer-Solomon, 1993). This has implications for long term mental health of workers, and also for short-term job performance, morale and satisfaction.
Quite naturally, it is individuals that are most concerned about the effects of potential work arrangements on their social functioning. While governments need to be somewhat aware of the relative level of social welfare of their constituents, and employers need to be similarly concerned about their employees' state of mental health and social satisfaction, both of these positions are reactionary in the sense that they respond to sentiments expressed at the individual level. Thus, it is of paramount importance to assess the attitudes of individuals with regard to night shifts and how these are presumed to affect their social functioning, their ability to contend with family or domestic responsibility, their overall level of life satisfaction and their psychological health. Family and domestic concerns generally top the list of concerns of employees as they relate to working hours, although there seems to be somewhat of a gender divide. This is not particularly surprising that most housework and childcare still falls on women. Working hours' reduction, flexibility in scheduling are meant to be seen as potentially beneficial to cope with the demand of the family.
.Regulation of store hours can be seen as an alternative to providing individuals with more flexibility in the allocation of disposable time for their family life. Moreover, the deregulation of shopping hours might result in an increase in price levels and reduction of public welfare due to the financial impact on shopkeepers.