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Performance of the organizations can be defined with its perspectives. One of the Perspectives is organizational Culture. As culture has many definitions. According to the Keri E. Pearlson & Carol S. Saunders, Culture is "A shared set of Values and Beliefs about what is desirable and undesirable in community of people" (Keri E.Pearlson & Carol S. Saunders, 2009, p.89). Performance of the organization is defined by performing in depth research on each of the perspective.
Culture is implanted with organizational working employees. Culture in the organization is demonstrated with following parameters.
Formal Practices: It contains employee pay levels, job description, hierarchy of organization Structure and Organization polices.
Informal Practices: It contains organization behavioral norms.
Rituals: This includes organizational parties such as regional parties and send of parties.
Humor: Identification of employee sense of humor in the organization.
Jargon: This is a special language for organizational initiates.
Physical arrangements: This includes architecture of the organizations and dress code of the employees.
Organization cultural Values which are bring by the management and these are supported by the employees.
Above all the parameters are interpreted, evaluated, and enacted in different ways because all these parameters are defined and implemented by organization members in whom they have different interests, responsibilities, experiences and values.
This organization is going to implementing a new technology called content management systems. In order to implementing this organization need a supporting information system. When an organization is going to change the information system then its impacts are identified by examining its perspectives. In that, culture is one. It is very important to consider the culture in this scenario because MES P/L will implement the new system in different countries. It means that organization has to consider multinational culture to succeed in their approach. According to the case study, these above parameters are representing the different cultural views of the MES P/L.
According to the employ interviews, it is easy to identify the pay scales and job description. MES P/L has select good leaders in the development of new system.
MES P/L is developing organization as it is going to expanding its services from one platform to other. It shows that company has good norms.
Organization structure is also represents different levels of cultures in the organization. But, MES P/L has strong structure in engineering services because it was succeed in those services. As organization structure is same for all services.
Cultural change decisions are taken by the top management and the employs should follow this. In MES P/L, it has selected 30 people for development of new system. But this decision has brought differences between the employees. It can be identified by studying these interviews because expansion of new system is not accepting by the some people like Business Analyst, Business User Representative-1 & 2. These above organizational changes are not supported by these people in MES P/L.
Cultural research is very important as many of the managers are using strong culture of the other good company or some of the engineering values to produce commitment of management, belief of rising allegiance, productivity and profitability. Usually, first culture is resistant from organizational behaviors and values. There are many issues has to be consider to judge the culture in an organization. According to Martin, researchers have to consider the following main concepts. They are
Fragmentation perspectives (Martin 1992)
These three are the theoretical perspectives which govern the research of Organization Culture.
According to integration perspective, the organization culture is described in three views. They are
Consistency: Top level management in the organization generates coherent set of supported values. These values are in terms of mission statements. Consistency happens in this scenario.
Organization-wide consensus: Above discussed set of values are emphasizing by cultural parameters which are in term produce organization-wide consensus.
Clarity: This is an important concern that organization has to believe, identifying what are the different values and behaviors should be considered. These considerable issues should consider very clearly.
This perspective defines the organizational cultural change is an organization wide transformation of old system to new system. Cultural change decisions are taken by the top management. These cultural changes are reinforced from the selective people in the organization because it socializes the rest of the employees. There is some conflicts and uncertainty between the employees in organization while implementing cultural changes. Most of the top management will produce cultural change based on one of the cultural parameters. This kind of limitation on the cultural change brings some problems like Hallo Effect. This effect related to total job satisfaction, Social desirability, and Impression management concern. These are the main causes to form an inconsistency and disagreement between the employees in an organization. Hence, this integration perspective said that culture is a key variable for the successful organization.
According to case study, decisions are taken by the top management and employees should follow this. MES P/L is designing a new system called content management system which is not accepted by all the employees in the company. It means that the total job satisfaction of those employees will be zero. This kind of actions put the organization in inconsistent stage. Hence, organization can't achieve their objectives. MES P/L can able to chose the strong culture of other good company which resulted a good cultural change.
Differentiation perspective describes the organization as a combination of overlapping, nested subcultures. These subcultures bring conflicts and indifferences between the intergroup in an organization. Differentiation studies defines that consensus is exist in the sub cultural boundaries. Organization Structure is an evidence for the subcultures. For example, organization has a hierarchal structure then the levels of the structure shows the culture at each level. Based on these levels of culture, the top management has to take decisions on organization cultural change. Subculture differences are defined based on following factors. They are
Demographic differences: This includes employ class, race, ethnicity, age and gender.
Working environment of the employ.
An imbalance among the cultural parameters brings differences in the organizational culture. Differentiation perspective can't view the organization culture as a single culture rather it sighted the culture as a collection of subculture. This is helpful to the organization to consider in decision making. Hence, cultural changes are triggered based on these subcultures. Subcultures are not good for the organization which in term it rise some power and political issues.
According to case study, it is not mentioned in the case study about the structure of the MES P/L. As per the differentiation perspective, organization has brought the cultural changes based on the organization structure and environment.
This perspective is mainly discussed on the ambiguity of the culture in the organization. Improper Power is also a reason for the bad culture in the organization. It means that some of the organizational changes are performed from the some superiors which they show their power in implementing change. Hence, fragmentation studies conclude that change would be controlled from effective management or efficient leader in the organization.
According to this perspective in our case study, MES P/L has preferred some peoples in the accomplishment of new system in the organization. But their interview results represent ambiguities among these people. it means that MES P/L has not recruit the correct employs for this expansion.
Leadership and the relationship between the employees are mostly influenced by the organizational culture and social culture. To measure the culture in the organization, it has to considering its attributes. They are uncertainty avoidance, power distance, the individualism -collectivism continuum, family or organization collectivism, gender consensus, insolence, future orientation, performance orientation, and human orientation. These above nine attributes of the culture define the nature of culture in the organization.
In our give study, MES P/L has to consider all the above nine cultural parameters while implanting the cultural changes because it should be acceptable by the employees in the organization to bring strong relationships among them.
Management of technology is very difficult task in developing nations in the organization. In order to achieve the management of technology, organization requires developing the technology culture. Management of technology in the nations is done by Overarching the multinational culture in the organization. Cultural issues are not avoided in development and management of the technology in the organization. If cultural attribute are social normalized then culture is acceptable in the organization. There are five elements has to considered by an enterprise in order to succeed in the management of technology. They are
Organizational values and beliefs
Corporate polices and rituals
Organization cultural network(communication within the organization)
These above five elements configure the strong or weak culture throughout the organization. Organizational structure also influences the culture in management of technology in nations.
In our case study, MES P/L needs a strong leader to avoid and settle the conflicts among the employees and it doesn't have good communication cultural network.