The Origins Of Yoga Commerce Essay

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Doing your work with utmost dedication and excelling in it amounts to yoga just as yoga brings mental peace and brings you closer to God, excelling in your work gives you the same.

When I was young I was trying to learn to swim. It was hard for me but when I put in all my efforts whole heartedly and finally learned it the feeling was great I wanted to thank God which brought me closer to him and gave me mental peace.

Similarly last year when I was preparing for CAT I put in all my efforts and I got the results and got through a good b school I felt as if I all my prayers had been answered.

According to you, what are the key competencies for a management student? What, according to you, would be the bare qualities that one should have in order to be a good manager(750 words)

A competency is more than just knowledge and skills. It involves the ability to meet complex demands, by cashing in on skills and attitudes in a particular context. For example, the ability to communicate effectively is a competency that may draw on an individual's knowledge of language, practical IT skills and attitudes towards those with whom he or she is communicating. A manager must master changing technologies to make sense of large amounts of available information. They also face collective challenges as societies - such as balancing economic growth with environmental sustainability, and prosperity with social equity. In these contexts, the competencies that a manager needs to meet his goals have become more complex, requiring more than the mastery of certain narrowly defined skills.

Some of the various competencies needed are:

they must be able to use their knowledge of language , technology etc. interactively for their purposes.

2) They must be able to interact in heterogeneous groups. managers need to

be able to engage with others, and since they will encounter people with

different backgrounds.

3) reflectiveness- For example, having applied themselves to mastering a

particular mental technique, reflectiveness allows individuals to then think

about this technique, assimilate it,relate it to other aspects of their experiences,

and to change or adapt it

4) ability to relate well to others- allows individuals to initiate, maintain and

manage personal relationships with, for example, personal acquaintances,

colleagues and customers.

5) ability to cooperate- many tasks can not be completed by an individual alone

but needs help from others for that a manager needs to have skills for

cooperation like willing to listen to others.

ability to manage and resolve conflicts- Conflict occurs in all aspects of life, whether in the home, workplace or the larger community and society. Approaching conflicts involves consideration of the interests and needs of others and solutions in which both sides gain.

3) Draw your personality sketch/profile based on the 'Big Five' leadership theory, quoting valid examples. (750 words)

Hogan and his colleagues feel that leaders often have traits of extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and positive emotion or self-control. In each of the "Big Five" areas I rated myself.

The scores in various parameters are

Extroverted : 54/100

Agreeable: 55/100

Conscientious :70/100

Emotional control : 78/100

Intellect 53/100

The Big Five factors and their constituent traits can be summarized as follows:

Intellect - (inventive / curious vs. cautious / conservative). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.

Conscientiousness - (efficient / organized vs. easy-going / careless). A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior.

extroverted - (outgoing / energetic vs. shy / reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.

Agreeableness - (friendly / compassionate vs. competitive / outspoken). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.

Emotional control - (sensitive / nervous vs. secure / confident). A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability.

On average, people who register high in Openness are intellectually curious, open to emotion, interested in art, and willing to try new things. Since my score in openness or intellect is not very high I am not too much of an artistic person.

Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement. The trait shows a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. It influences the way in which we control, regulate, and direct our impulses.

A high conscientiousness score such as 70 indicates a relatively strong sense of responsibility and orderliness.

Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world. My score in this parameter is moderate which means I enjoy company of people but need solitude time for myself as well.

Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. The trait reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony. Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. Here also my score is moderate which is a good thing to have as I do not believe people easily, I take my time to assess and then believe what I am seeing.

Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional instability. Those who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and vulnerable to stress. Since I score high in emotional control that is opposite of neuroticism I am not easily upset and am less emotionally reactive. I tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings.

Overall I am a positive person who plans her work meticulously before executing and gives a lot of attention to detail. I have control on my emotions and do not constantly get negative feelings. I need to work on my intellect or openness domain where I have to start accepting new imaginative ideas rather than following the convention.

What are your expectations from your course at MDI? What do you expect to gain in these 2 years of your Life at MDI? (750 words)

The MBA is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. I would like this degree to give me an ability to develop my career to its fullest potential, at an accelerated pace. Aside from a powerful life experience of two years, the MBA degree should supply me with right connections or networks to help me in the future, brand and the attitude to lead, and opportunities to contribute to solving some of the world's problems.

First , networking

Top Tier MBA programs help their students with networking. Many top tier graduates develop a list of professionals, some highly successful, and contact all of them to gain their perspective on potential career paths.

A degree from MDI will offer access to a network of MBA students, alumni, faculty, and business and community leaders. This network can be very useful when beginning a job search, developing a career path, building business relationships in your current career, or pursuing expertise outside your current field. For example, entrepreneurs need access to capital, business partners, vendors, and clients.

Brand and attitude

An MBA degree from MDI is a recognised brand which signifies management and leadership training. It also has many brand associations which will further open doors for me. I feel MDI has the ability to provide me with technical skills and opportunities for personal growth which will give me an attitude to excel and lead. A powerful brand will give me the flexibility to make changes throughout my career.

Skills to solve problems

These include the "hard skills" of economics, finance, marketing, operations, management, and accounting, as well as the "soft skills " of leadership, teamwork, ethics, and communication that are so critical for effective management. At MDI I will learn inside as well as outside the class from my peers.

Apart from all this I am looking forward to eventful and memorable two years of my life where I would leverage upon every learning opportunity.

Summer internship would be the most important real time corporate interaction you would face as part of your course. In this context describe what Summer Internship is all about, and which area of management would you want to work in? (500words)

Apart from the college degree and the wonderful in class experience what we need is real life experience which is the key to succeeding in today's job market. Experience will always provide a competitive advantage in building a career and contacts. Every employer is looking for evidence that we can apply the theoretical knowledge we gained, in real life problems.

Internship will help me gain knowledge about general work functions and make me learn more about industries and fields that I want to work in. I can make contacts who can help me answer questions about potential careers and even help in finding that important first full-time job.

An internship will provides me with vital career-related skills such as organizational, written and interpersonal communication skills. A strong academic background is always great, but it is not enough to indicate whether or not a candidate would be good in a specific work environment. Employers expect a strong candidate to possess confidence, good communication and problem-solving skills, and the ability to work well with others.

I would want to work in the marketing department as I feel it is a very challenging job to understand what the consumer is looking for and come up with a product that he or she is looking for and provide it to him/her at a suitable price.

For being able to have a good training experience I would work on the skills needed for such an internship like :

communication skills

artistic skills

positive attitude

foreign language skills

research and data analysis

time and project management




"A good manager is a Jack of all Domains and King of One". In this context, answer the below questions:

· What constitutes domain expertise - (10-15 bullet points)

· List the domains available in the market for you to pick from (list to be as exhaustive as possible)

· There are exceptions to the above. Cite at least 3 examples and justify the same

Domain expertise is:




consistent track record of successful solutions

detailed understanding on specific domains

better define the problems.

know the specific rules

know the limits of the subject area knowledge

learn really quickly

anticipate what the user wants

Domains available to chose from:

1.Risk Management

2. Credit Analysis

3. Equity Research

4. Equity Trading

5. Commodities Trading and Research

6. Fixed Income

7. Wealth Management

8. Portfolio Management

9. Mergers and Acquisition

10. Investment Banking.

11. Business analyst

12. Quality/testing manager

13. Brand manager

14. HR manager

15. Academia

Examples of deviations:

Harish Salve- he is a chartered accountant by qualification but is counted as one of the best lawyers of India. He has also served as Solicitor General of India from November 1, 1999 to November 3, 2002. This shows that though he has expertise in some other field(accouts) but has excelled in some other field.

Shekhar kapur- renowned producer and director again a chartered accountant by qualification. He did his graduation in economics from st. stephens and worked for sometime as an accountant and management consultant. But today the world knows him as a director/producer.

Mr. Manmohan Singh- he is an economist and has even served as the finance minister for India but now he is managing the whole country.

Consulting (Functional, IT, HR), I-Banking, Brand Management, SCM, the profiles which a top B-school graduate sees himself in the next 5 years. Make your pick and describe in detail the KSA aspects necessary to reach such a position.

· Do you see a need for "domain expertise" to be the successful person you want to be? (500words)

Any manager needs to have a certain level of knowledge and skills. These need to be supported by an appropriate attitude. The abilities of individuals are not uniform across the organizational edifice. Competency requirements vary based on the requirements of the functions and the organizational level of the functionary.

The functions of Brand Management are more focused on the brand as a communication instrument. The brand is also a value proposition and therefore is expected to be improving with every passing moment. Primarily, the function of Brand Management focuses on this dimension.

The various KSA aspects needed are:


Strategic thinking

Multi-functional team experience

Tolerance of ambiguity; flexibility


Quantitative/research skills

Coordination/project management skills

Presentation skills

Ability to recognize key factors in extensive data


Knowledge of basic marketing principles


People skills: Medium

Sales skills: Medium

Communication skills: High

Analytical skills: High

Ability to synthesize: High

Creative ability: Medium

Initiative: High

A brand manager will require to give presentations to others in the company and for marketing research to clients. The ability to be persuasive will prove to be highly beneficial in building a coalition supporting your position and ideas.

Also product management requires high levels of problem solving skills and analytical abilities.

To become a product manager you must obtain years of marketing and selling experience. Most product managers have spent some time in the salesforce. A product manager is not a job that typically goes to someone in their twenties.

Thus we see that certain amount of domain expertise is neede for being a brand manager, which will come through experience and analytical and communication skills can definitely be worked upon.

Describe in detail the IPL's Business Model and your views of how good/bad a manager Lalit Modi has been. Also include the ethical aspects of management in the discussion. (750 words)

DLF IPL was launched on 18th april 2008. though it is driven by commercial opportunity its success is based on engaging the traditional viewers in a new form of the game. Sports content nowadays is very lucrative and hence IPL has attracted many medium term financial commitments from various broadcasters, sponsors and team owners.

IPL is composed of eight teams each one a franchise representing a city in india. Collectively 8 franchises were sold for US $700m and were purchased by actors business entrepreneurs etc. Most of the world's best cricket talent is involved.

It is a first serious attempt to globalise cricket in this format.

The 3 hour 20-20 format is highly appealing to roadcasters as compared to traditional one dayers and test matches.

The television rights have been sold all over the world includind US China and the Middle East. Television rights were sold for US $908 m.

It provides tremendous opportunity to reach diverse international markets.

There is a substantial annual licencing fee that has to be paid by the owners to the BCCI.

The IPL model allows each franchise to share media and sponsor revenues but keep gate receipts and in-venue advertising.

Franchises can be listed on the stock exchange and trade shares as public companies.

They can also earn revenue from merchandising etc.

It also involved auction of players where each tam bid for the best players.

Indian Premier League has been a big success even though few thougt it would be as big a success at the start. Lalit Modi has become the best business leader of India this year(CNBC Award). Along with that the man has been credited with transforming Indian Sports. He has been a good leader and has successfully managed 3 seasons of the IPL. Even last year when the govt. denied providing security to the players he organised the tournament in South Africa.

Besides this the man has won various awards and recognitions like

''He was listed among India's 20 most powerful people by India Today magazine. He was included because the BCCI's revenues have increased seven-fold since he joined the board in 2005.In the 2008 August issue of the leading sports magazine Sports Pro he is ranked number 17 in the Power List of global figures connected with sports. He is further hailed as the Best Rain Maker (money maker) for any sports body in the history of sports Globally. In the short time that he has been a sports administrator he has raised over four billion U.S. dollars for his organisation. All this he has done in an Honorary capacity. He has been described as the most powerful man in Cricket by Mike atherton in his article in the Telegraph. Time Magazines July 2008, lists him no 16 in their listing of Best Sports Executives in the World for 2008. In the October 2008 issue of international Business magazine Business Week - Lalit Modi was voted no 19 in the list of 25 most powerful Global Sports figures. Lalit Modi also won the NDTV award for the Most Innovative Business Leader of India.''

But as nobody is perfect Modi too came with his share of negatives, after this year's season of IPL there have been allegations on him for betting and irregularity. He has been temporarily suspended but as nothing has been proved wrong against him as yet nothing much can be said.


Mr. Kunal had just graduated from Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon, and joined his family's small business, which employs 25 semi-skilled workers. After observing Kunal during the first week on the job his father called him in and said, "Kunal, I have had a chance to observe your working with the men and women for the past two days and although I hate to say something but I must. You are just too nice to people. I know they taught you human relations stuff at MDI but it just does not work here. I remember when the Hawthorne Studies were first reported and everybody in the academic field got all excited about them, but believe me, there is more to managing people than just being nice to them".

· Do you think Kunal's father understood and interpreted the Hawthorne Studies correctly? (500 words)

The mere act of showing people you are concerned about them usually spurs them to a better job performance. This is the true Hawthorne effect. According to which people love attention, a sense of belonging and thus being nice to people would increase productivity but there is more to Hawthorne effect than just being nice. This came under the experimenter effect that is the management being nice to the worker involving them in the daily affairs another is the social effect. It means that the workers feel that they are important to the organisation and it is making efforts to make them better for e.g. Suppose we select a management trainee and provide specialized training in management skills not currently possessed. Without saying a word, we've given the trainee the feeling that she is so valuable to the organization that we'll spend time and money to develop her skills. This way the skill set of the employee has also increased which will prove beneficial to the organisation now and in the future and the trainee also in lieu of feeling important would want to work for the better of the organisation.

Moreover the Hawthorne experiments showed that as the change in variables was moving towards being 'over caring' the output decreased like increasing the number of breaks when the workers complained that it breaks their rhythm of work reducing the working hours per day beyond an optimum level which also decreased the output infact the output was best when all the changes were removed and workers were moved to their original working conditions. So basically Hawthorne effect is the reward you reap when you pay attention to people - periodically bringing in changes involving the workers in the decision making process and making them feel a part of something much bigger than them makes the workers feel free. They work without pressure and build a sense of responsibility and as even the studies suggested that the workers under study did not feel fatigued or over worked. They were happy that 'somebody upstairs cared'. But being too nice with the workers actually decreases their efficiency may be because the workers may not be able to adapt to so many changes or they may feel careless that whatever their output may be the management is good to them so they lose the sense of responsibility and stop putting in that extra effort .

So following the above reasoning, I think Kunal's father understood the Hawthorne effect that being too nice to people will not work there is more to managing people than just being nice.

· How would you react to your father's comments if you were Kunal?(500words)

If I were kunal I would take my father's comments positively for two reasons

My father has been handling the business for a much longer time than me and he has the required experience and knows more than me about how organisations run. There's always something to gain from experience which theory can not teach.

Every criticism should be taken positively because you will then try to improve and it will be for your own good whether or not there was truth or not in that criticism.

I would ask my father to explain in detail what he feels is lacking in me and would make a note of all the problems because understanding the problem is the foremost step towards correcting it.

I would request him to accompany me to the office and take a round and meet the workers personally and take a feedback on which I can discuss with my father later towards improving it.

I would ask him to explain his methodology of working that is how he has been handling the organisation till now that the worker feedback forms from past years if available and then incorporate the good things depending on my fathers and the workers' feedbacks.

I would introspect my methodology and make a detailed and comparative study of the organisation including the output , worker efficiency, working conditions , employee grievances everything and see as to where I was lacking and seek opinion from my father on rectifying those parameters.

After introspecting and taking the rectifying measures that I can to the best of my knowledge I would again ask my father to have a look and give his valuable feedback on the organisation after another 6 months or so of implementing the new methodology.

You are the Chief Product Manager of Info systems Inc. Mr. Ram Bihari, the General Secretary of Akhil Bhartiya Party has approached you with a different kind of project. He wants you to design an IT based Information System for his party which would help ABP in the forthcoming elections. In not more than 1000 words, identify the requirements and goals for such a system and give an IT based solution. Please remember that you are not a programmer, but an IT consultant. Hence you are not required to write codes.

The software designed can be such that it benefits the party in the forthcoming elections as well as be used for by the party for next elections and the day to day working.

To design the software we first need to look at the problems faced by the political parties or in other words their requirements from the software.

For the forthcoming elections foremost important thing for the party is selecting a candidate for each seat for that parameters that can be included are :

Details of the candidate and the expected districts or provinces from where he can offer his candidature.

Rating the candidate against the expected candidate from the opposition party.

Second is the party's campaign so various parameters needed to be included about that are :

Campaign message- what ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. The points summarize the main ideas of the campaign and are repeated frequently in order to create a lasting impression with the voters.

The software can thus include options to input a campaign message and various sub points or talking points and options to change it as and when required.

Campaign finance - this section can include details about the various donors that have helped the party in the past and are likely to finance this time as well. There can be details about the amount each donor has given.

Political consultants - advise campaigns on virtually all of their activities, from research to field strategy. The software can have details regarding who is the political consultant and the suggestions he has given.

Daily schedule - series of tasks to be completed in a day which can be changed per day.

Paperwork - noting down all the expenses the phone calls, sending mails and other things that are not appropriate to do during voter interaction time. Provisions can be made in the software about all this.

Moving from the campaign we look at the post campaign proceedings like judging the expected seats per district. The software can have provisions for such a thing for e.g. Against each district all the seats are provided and they can be marked ranging from almost sure to bleak chances on the basis of the campaign results and expectations and past experiences.

This can be used to analyse the number of seats a party can expect.

Maruti Udyog Ltd ,a joint venture between Suzuki Motors of Japan (eleventh largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the fourth largest manufacturer in Japan) and the Indian government, is the leader in India's automobile market. Maruti has the widest product range among Indian car manufacturers, with ten basic models and more than 50 variants. In 2003, Maruti produced 359,960 vehicles, operating at a capacity utilisation of 103%, against the industry average of 57.8%. Even though Maruti is well ahead of its other rivals, its market share has been declining. As competition intensifies, Maruti has realised the importance of getting closer to its customers. Suggest a few (6-8) measures that Maruti can implement for the same. (750words)

To get closer to the customer and improve the market share maruti first needs to understand the problems it is facing and then take measures for each problem:

For eg some of the problems faced are:

Increased competition in the small car segment- the small car segment has been growing at the rate of 57% and that is attracting foreign players also. Maruti needs to understand that and interact with the customers like conducting a survey as to what are their requrements from a small car and try to come up with such a model and since it has the advantage of customer trust it will gain over the foreign players it just needs to capitalise on this front.

Delay in the launches of new model- as stated above if the promised or desired model is not launched at the right time it will take share away from Maruti and also the it will lose its customer as it happened when Maruti lost on market share due to launch of Nano.

Then the company should take measures like :

Establishing a knowledge base:

Information about the company that the customer needs to know and vice versa.

Interacting with the customer on a personal basis for e.g. through social networking sites or having an interactive chat session on its official site for newly launched models that will provide the users answers to various FAQs .

It should take more steps towards bringing up a model for different sections of the society keeping in mind their needs as it has promised to launch a new model of Zen for the physically challenged.

Provide for good after sale services and come up with innovative ways like maintaining a website which provides solutions to common problems and also can have the user enter the problem and experts can answer within a few days.

Offer the customer freedom of channel that is let him use any means of communication he wishes to communicate the information.

What will be the best selection process for a B school? Discuss the pros and cons of all selection process that you have attended (minimum 3). Benchmark MDI's selection process and suggest suitable changes in the selection process of MDI with the aim of making MDI a school for THOUGHT LEADERS and CHANGE MASTERS. (1000words}

The best selection procedure will be that judges a potential student on each and every aspect his knowledge base, his future goals, clarity about the goal in mind, ability to cope with pressure, communication skills, logical skills, and general awareness.

Apart from this the candidate should possess the necessary qualities to be a manager.

I attended the selection procedure for 3 b schools namely IMT Ghaziabad, SPJIMR Mumbai, MDI Gurgaon.

The first step in any b school entrance is the written test which tests the student's knowledge base and basic understanding of concepts. Since all the 3 b schools used CAT score as the basis for knowledge assessment no comparison can be made as such. But about CAT we can say that it judges a student on the three most vital dimensions that is quantitative ability, verbal ability and data interpretation.

Most of the b schools then call the students for the next step based on the written test scores where some schools are also giving importance to the HSC and SSC score and also the graduation score with appropriate weightage being given to each parameter.

SPJIMR, one of the b schools that I appeared for also gives calls on the basis of the overall student profile which gives a chance to students who have done something extraordinary in their field other than academics.

This helps to make the batch very diverse and you get to learn a lot from your peers.

The second step in most b schools is a group discussion and personal interview with slight variations.

IMT - At IMT the second step was situation analysis followed by a personal interview. The situation analysis thing was good as it tested the students on two aspects one, the ability to understand the problem and come up with immediate solutions or the decision making skills. Two, the writing skills of the student and as most of the formal communications are written it is a very important aspect.

In the personal interview which followed the candidate interacted with the panel on an individual level where the panel could judge him as a person get to know about his expectations from the institute and his future goals.

SPJIMR- At SPJIMR we had to go through two rounds of group interviews, the first one being an elimination round, where the panel interacted with the candidates on a group basis this helped the panel to compare the candidates and decide about their suitability to their institute. The second group interview was based on a psychometric test that had to be given by the candidates. It judges one more aspect that is public speaking. Some candidates are free about expressing their views on a one to one basis but hesitate in front of a group. As a manager has to work with the people more than just guiding them it is an important aspect to be judged.

MDI- At MDI the candidates had to go through two rounds that is the group discussion and personal interview. The advantages of the personal interview being the same as discussed above. The group discussion is one of the very good selection processes as it judges the candidate on many aspects at one go like communication skills, knowledge, body language, behaviour with your peers, leadership qualities, team work and so on.

As MDI is a school for thought leaders and change masters I think one selection criteria that can be added to the process along with the existing ones is case study or situation analysis. This would bring out both the thought leaders and the change masters from the lot. The change masters would come up with new and 'out of the box' solutions. The thought leaders would make use of the available knowledge and come up with a good solution.


































































































The paradox is really the pathos of intellectual life and just as only great souls are exposed to passions it is only the great thinker who is exposed to what we call paradoxes.

Comment. How true is this in the context of the Indian political environment? Give suitable examples (750 words)

A paradox is a statement or group of statements that leads to a contradiction or a situation which defies intuition. The term is also used for an apparent contradiction that actually expresses a non-dual truth. It is true that paradoxes are the pathos of intellectual life as can be seen from examples like Einstein, A poor student at 14, by 26 Einstein had reshaped time and space. The paradox lies in the fact that he rebuked the education system that has been in first place built to achieve what he achieved by rejecting it.

All great thinkers experience paradox majorly because of Self -Deception.

Contradictions exist within a human mind, not outside it.

Contradictions are there in everyone's life. Intellectuals are just more aware and receptive of them, that they are less self-deceived than others. And passionate souls arise when the limits of self deception in them reach the pinnacle thus insulating them from the existential angst (the futility of their life).

Every man has to make some meaning out of his existence and create goals and spend time achieving them. Thinkers set such goals by discovering inconsistencies and then finding a solution to them. They are compelled by an urge to keep discovering inconsistencies or paradoxes so as to keep giving a meaning to their life, they are more subjective and do not subscribe simply a truth or falsity to a premise, hence they reach paradoxes much easily. In the process they sometimes make inventions and at the pinnacle of their efforts discover self-deception, a paradox which is both true and false at the same time in the same sense.

Indian political system is full of paradoxes as can be seen

Mohammad Hamid Ansari has described India as a political and economic paradox, a rich-poor nation with a weak strong state."

The Nizam of Hyderabad was a very loyal British rule supporter, even though he had the largest and richest princely state in India.

Jinnah wanted a secular Pakistan but had to make a new country on the basis of religion.

Nehru was an upper caste Indian who wanted freedom for India, but didn't realize that socialism would only transfer power from British to Indian bureaucrats.

Patel played a huge role in the political integration of India, but Kashmir was put off bounds for him by Nehru, which is a main reason why Kashmir is still not integrated with India.

The Congress until the 70s wanted Hindi to be the only official language of India, but the Tamils and other south Indians rejected it and demanded English also, which is why English and Hindi both remained official languages, and now English is strength of Indians.

Communists are the representatives of the poorest of the poor and still the Maoists, the impatient poorest of the poor, attack in West Bengal.

The capitalists say that they are helping in developing the areas and re-establishing people where they are carrying out their mining activities and as a result have displaced millions of people.

Jaswant Singh, a knowledgeable leader of BJP, is expelled for sharing his intellectual research and opinion on Jinnah in public domain

Such paradoxes in Indian politics have been continuing.

A self does not amount to much, but no self is an island; each exists in a fabric of relations that is now more complex and mobile than ever before.

Comment. How has the growth of the telecommunication industry made it more complex for businesses to grow? Justify your answer. (750words)

The statement above means that no individual amounts to much and no individual can exist alone but is intertwined in a society where he interacts with people from different backgrounds. He has to coexist with them understand them give them space and take his space as well. 6 billion people living together with access to newest of technology gadgets and weapons capable of destroying mankind in a jiffy, coexistence becomes tough.

Same is the case with business, the customer has become intelligent he knows what is best for him and with the growth of telecom industry information spreads in a fraction of second. Each firm thus has a multiobjective to attain. First to make positive use of this industry to advertise and market its products well and second to prevent negative publicity.

This poses problems as it increases the cost to the company in lieu of advertising and publicity charges. This expenditure becomes a necessity as no one would want to miss out on the advantages you get once the product is advertised well, so the companies are looking for newer innovative methods other than the conventional newspaper and television for publicity.

Even the conventional methods need to be revamped and have a fresh look. It has to convince and appeal to the customer at the same time. The customer has a dearth of available options which he can chose from and in most cases would not think twice before ditching the currently used brand for a newer appealing one, as can be seen in the Maruti case where the sales of Maruti 800 dipped when Tata came up with Nano.

There is cut throat competition even in the telecom industry itself. Every company is fighting to offer best rates and bargains. Shops are coming up with zero margin offers.

All this has made it tough for the businesses to survive; since the margins are small even the smallest mistake would lead to losses.

"Chess is an infinitely complex game, which one can play in infinitely numerous and varied ways"-Vladimir Krammik

Is this statement factually correct? (Either Yes or No) Prove it with substantial logical deductions. Clearly state any assumptions made. (750words)

Not true


The game will not end in a draw

This assumption is taken because if game was played perfectly by both players (hypothetical situation as perfection can be defined as the ability to make a move that ensures a win. The limitation in either a man or a machine is that such a decision of making a perfect move has to be a result of the computation of all future ramifications of that move (i.e. forecasting the whole possible tree of decisions that could be made henceforth).A set of irrational human beings can traverse any path on this tree. Such decision making capability is not possessed by normal human beings.

Now assuming that the game ends in a check mate we see that the number of possibilities is finite

Let us see how

Say the black loses. Now black king can be on any of the 64 blocks and the white member who has checkmated black can be on a finite number of possible positions and also number of such elements is finite. Hence number of ways of checkmate is finite. Now in the previous move black would either have moved the king or any other member and the summation of all such possibilities is also finite. Thus the number of ways of playing seems to be a very huge finite number but not infinite.