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Non-profit organizations have become an important figure in the equation of the daily life of the peoples over the entire world and in achieving justice, stability and communication between the community and the different communities. This importance is for individuals and groups form the word third partner and it used as a common term which expresses the role of non-profit and its role.
Non-profit organizations have become as a partner for the public sector and the private sector in all the details of daily life and play a major role in the public sector, the private sector and the society.
The main role of non-profit organizations with the public sector is as follows: observing the government's performance, supporting the public sector in poor countries and emerging, serving as a mediator between the society and the public sector in many tracks, monitoring community problems in ways that are logic and scientific, quick contribution to solving emergent problems in the society.
The role of non-profit organizations with the private sector could be concluded as follows: observing the rights of workers in this sector, serving as a mediator between the donor, funder and society, preventing the private sector in society against bad sides, organizing entertainment and developmental activities for organizations and coordinating between the public sector and the private sector.
On other hand, the roles can be done with the societal sector which could represent the society before the public sector and the private sector, balance in the relations between the public and private sectors and the society, participation of society in development processes and societal development, encouraging uniformity and consistency among the various segments of society, encouraging the community to work together through the organization of volunteer work, supporting poor societies in affaires relief, standing in front of the predominance of the private sector, youth employment through volunteer work, raising community's awareness of societal issues and local and international problems and contributing and supporting learning and research projects.
Non-profit organizations have become an active partner in the development across countries and contributing mainly in strengthening international relations and cultural exchange amongst peoples,Â and confirming the value of volunteer work interactively between peoples and nations.
Non-profit organizations have become a basic figure in the political equation locally, regionally and internationally. For this purpose, most parties worldwide support one or more of non-profit organization, in Germany as an example, The greater parties like the Christian Democrats , Christian Social, Christian Socialist Party and the Green Party support non-profit, and the German government in turn supports such organizations as representation in parliament because of the importance of these organizations.
Non-profit organizations play a role from the small village and the surroundings around it, and end up as a key player in international politics.
There are different definitions and classifications of non-profit organizations such as, Union of farmers, Syndicates, Charitable organizations , Human rights associations, women and children, Animal welfare organizations, Organizations which provide services on the basis of age or gender, religion or geographical scope and organizations affiliated to political parties, Political parties are also a non-profit.
There is an unlimited variety of forms, models, structures, sizes and targets of each of non-profit organizations. And despite the growing importance of non-profit organizations, it is still rare and suffers from shortage of research studies in this framework.
Non-profit organizations activities may be described as, relief activities, support of scientific research and higher education and post-graduate education, management of volunteer work, cultural exchange, supporting emerging non-profit organizations, supporting democracy and governmental organizations, supporting the culture of transparency and anti-corruption and supporting small and micro projects.
With the development of the activities of these organizations and increasing its importance, there have been many challenges and problems and constraints, for example political problems, legal problems, dictatorships, volunteer management, employment of human resources, strategic planning and funding problems.
The most important challenges facing the management of non-profit organizations are represented in the characterization of non-profit organizations. Strategic planning is one of the most important challenges facing non-profit organizations, also non-profit organizations facing difficult constraints and challenges on biological and multiculturalism aspects. There are also difficult challenges in the management of volunteers and staff and how they attract a professional team in under the lack of financial resources and low salaries. The political problems are almost destroying the non-profit organizations; therefore, the political stability is the main reason for the success or failure of non-profit organizations. It is important that those organizations develop a plan for marketing and customer relationships to increase donors and continue their relationship.
This research field or topic still needs more research and study until we learn the successful experiences of these organizations in different countries.
Strategic performance measurement and management in non-profit organizations is an essential for growth and development. Financial measurements only are not enough to enhance and assess mission achievements since it concentrates on ï¬nancial measures only, including donations, expenditures, and operating expense ratios; therefore, additional performance and management approach has been described in this topic.
In addition, creating long time value can not be determined through financial measurements only; also, financial success is not seen as important as the efficiency and effectiveness of meeting the needs of their communities.
Accordingly, a new performance management model has been introduced by Kaplan and Norton (1992, 1996), this model is called Balanced Scorecard and it is designed for the private sector and organizations. This system assists the financial measurements throughout three other measures: learning and growth, customers and the internal process. The idea of the balanced scorecard has been emerged as a result of the inability of the financial accounting model to monitor changes in the economic value of the company's intangible assets including customer acquisition and retention, skill, motivation, employees competencies, information technology and innovative products and services. The balanced scorecard has helped the companies that use it to achieve incredible performance enhancement through applying new strategies swiftly and efficiently.
There are two perspectives that performance can be measured through, the internal process perspective and scorecard customer perspective.
The internal process perspective assesses the operating performance (quality, cost, cycle times), through which operating expenses can be reduced, and value to customers can be delivered. Moreover, the internal process perspective evaluates the innovation process comprising creating new products and services.
Also, learning and growth of organization are measured through retention, capabilities, employee motivation and the capabilities of the information system.
The scorecard's customer perspective assesses value proposition, which refers to the capability of the organization to create value for its targeted customers.
In addition, the organization's performance with the targeted customer and market segment are measured by the scorecard's perspective as well, this usually occurs through outcome measures like customer profitability, customer retention and new customer acquisition.
Role for Strategy in a Non-proï¬t Balanced Scorecard:
Strategy is absolutely important in a nonprofit balanced scorecard, but the most important is to understand and define strategy correctly, moreover, it is noticed that too many of the nonprofits have seen strategy as a list of programs and initiatives while it should mainly focus on achieving the expected results and outcomes.
When strategy is being set, participants always collect a wish list rather than desired goals and outcomes.
Michael Poter ((Poter, 1996) states that strategy is about what not to do in addition to what to do.
The chief professional officer of the United Way of Southeastern New England (UWSENE) defined the strategic options faced by his organization in three main choices: donor-focused, agency-focused, and/or community-focused.
None of these strategies is totally inefficient, each one contains expected positive results; however, each one has some risk at the same time, Many United Ways switch strategies just to satisfy specific community needs for valid reasons, but then are stunned when their agencies and donors disagree.
According to the belief that if the donor gets satisfied, he or she will stay donating, this has made (UWSENE) decided to be a donor-focused organization.
Quantifying and measuring a strategy help reducing any possible vagueness or misunderstanding of the objectives and methods.
Elevating the Role of Customers:
Financial success is not a primary objective for the organization; therefore, the financial perspective should be placed after the customer perspective in the balanced scorecard.
The mission objective in a nonprofit organization should comprise the organization's long term objectives, including poverty reduction, illiteracy, malnutrition, homelessness, disease, pollution, or discrimination.
Accordingly, the objectives should be arranged and directed toward achieving these objectives specifically.
The accountability matter differs between the private sector and the nonprofits, while the accountability in the private sector is between it and the shareholders and its owners, consequently, financial measures are put at the top of the scorecard, on the other side, in nonprofits, the accountability is between it and the society; therefore, the mission objectives are placed at the highest priority of the balanced scorecard before the financial measures.
Moreover, the customer in the nonprofits is different from the customer in the private sector, since in the private sector the customer is the one who pays for the service and receives the service at the same time, so we can not separate them form each other; while there are two customers in nonprofits, the donor who provides the financial resources (the party that pays for the service) and constituencies (the one party that receives the service), the customer is the one who pays or the one receives? Actually, both of them are customers and they have been treated equally in the balanced scorecard (donor perspective and customer perspective).
The following are some of nonprofit organizations and how they developed their Balanced Scorecard:
New Proï¬t Inc
New Profit Inc (NPI) is venture capital philanthropic fund Kaplan and Elias, (1999) based in Boston.
NPI introduced a new model to fill the gap in the efficiency and activity of the capital market.
Vanessa Kirsch, NPI founder has articulated three principles to direct the fund's investment strategy (Kaplan and Elias, 1999, p. 3): (1) Choose scalable organizations: The fund would search for social entrepreneurs who had proven track records and were trying to develop their organizations, (2) Use of performance-based design: benchmarks that are based on measurable performance criteria have been set by the supported organizations and NPI, according to these criteria and benchmarks, both of them will be accountable, and Fund dispersal decisions will depend mainly on achieving organizations goals, (3) Employ active life cycle investing and monitoring: multi-year investments are of the highest priority to the fund, moreover, technical and management assistance are provided by NPI so the organization grows effectively. NPI is usually anticipated to occupy board seats on its portfolio organizations.
The Balanced Scorecard was used by NPI to assess the performance of its portfolio organizations; according to Kelly Fitzsimmons (Kaplan and Elias, 1999, pp. 8-9), the scorecard presents a general reference point for its stakeholders: "The scorecard supports all our stakeholders for creating social creativity and social returns. Accordingly, the boards, investors, fund managers, foundations, and social entrepreneurs can gather all their resources to be utilized in the exact ways to strategic purposes."
NPI also requested from its portfolio organizations to build up their own Balanced Scorecards to express how they add to NPI's mission for growth, scalability and social impact.
The scorecard was used by Kirsch (Kaplan and Elias, 1999) as the main communication way to the board of directors and funders.
It was noticed by one of the board members that the Balanced Scorecard helps the board to be updated rapidly about all ongoing issues all over the organization, starting from the balance sheet issues to other matters involving people and their knowledge; moreover, discussions will focus on both how much money was raised and how the money will be spent.
Lastly, the Balanced Scorecard was helpful for NPI to offer a very attractive product-leadership value proposition to prospective investors, an exceptional performance management system for accountability to donors, a system that would assist fund managers finding the best opportunities for investing, and a structure for active portfolio management to enhance their performance against stated objectives.
Culture Diversity Effects:
Cultural Competence: A Multidimensional Concept
Cultural competence measures the intractability of the ï¬rm with the changes in the society and culture around the NGO; one of the changes is the change in customer values and behavior, and the capability to use this knowledge to achieve meaningful business practices (Joutsenvirta and Uusitalo, 2010).
Cultural competence is considered an important competitive resource, in other words, more solid and unique resources means stronger position the firm will have in the market if compared with its competitors (e.g., Barney, 1996, 2001; Wernerfelt, 1995.
Cultural competence is supposed to affect business performance, including ï¬nancial and non ï¬nancial sides (Uusitalo, 2008).
An empirical analysis, about the cultural competences used in the industry, was conducted to investigate the shared cultural values in a debate between Greenpeace and the global forest industry (StoraEnso) (Joutsenvirta, 2006).
The study concentrated on different ways by which the two parties agreed and disagreed on the contested issues, they intended to be efficient and convincing in their communication.
A cultural competence was found by StoraEnso-Greenpeace which was the capability to be aware of changing consumer preferences and values.
One more cultural competence that we understood from the StoraEnso-Greenpeace debate was the organization's ability to be aware of and utilize the general thoughts concerning expertise and knowledge. We see it as the exploitation of the culturally determined positions of expertise.
To summarize, gaining an expert position in the debate is a significant cultural competence for each party of the debate, for the industry in addition to the civil society organizations.
Cultural market orientation means the ability of an organization to realize consumer preferences and value changes.
According to cultural competencies ideas, ethically competent companies must take initiative in recognizing value hang and exerting efforts to lessen harmful and debatable effects.
One of these competencies is the ability of the organization to provide an atmosphere of community and trust in the relationships with the main stakeholder-customers, staff, and commercial partners, in addition to the public.
There are modern types of cultural competences that are required in business globally. They include the capacity to set up a dialogue with consumers and stakeholders, also to understand their cultural background, in addition, cultural competence includes the know-how, language skills, moral competencies and communication competencies (Joutsenvirta and Uusitalo, 2010).
Cultural market orientation was the first significant competence through which we can measure the sensitivity of the business firms to the changes of the consumer perceptions and preferences.
The next competence was the capability to make use of the expertise of each one and also to understand other parties' expertise during the debate.
The last competence found was the capacity to establish and maintain trust and trustworthiness among the community.
It was found in this study that mastering and retaining these three competencies together is not easy at all for firms and NGOs.
According to our results, the three cultural competencies are very important for business, nonprofits, public policy and civil society organizations that want to advance a general cause.
In the meantime, the overall industry is not seen to have the enough competences to deal with worldwide audiences and swift-working media.
Beyond Diversity and Multiculturalism
Facing structural racism is one of the most complicated jobs that any leader may need to solve; the reasons are, in fact, complicated; many white staff considers racism as individual wrongdoing and meanness; this has made it difficult to discuss with them the racism issue.
Structural racism indicates practices, procedures, policies, and the social culture of institutions which is the most important (Mary, 2007).
Structural racism needs more support from the institutions and more cultural nurturing.
Delivering undoing racism training is very important for all staff in order to address the structural racism; the following are recommendations to handle this issue:
The trainers should be prepared with a power analysis, moreover, meaning that they should move further than racism just as discrimination is based on the skin's color. They also have to educate that it is understandable that racism imply that those who encounter prejudice according to not only skin's color, but also have power, and control access to power is based on skin's color.
The trainers must concentrate on general, organizational and institutional symptoms of racism other than stressing on racism seen in interpersonal relationships. The trainers should focus heavily on the phenomenon of white culture and its existence in organizations.
Trainers are also required to be capable of teaching the relation between poverty and racism. Trainers must be aware of global understanding of racism.
Gail Golden (2005) suggests that when choosing trainers, it is better for the teams to be diverse, multiracial and multicultural since one person cannot handle all the issues.
The leadership of the organizations has to permanently reflect its dedication to the process to every employee by maintaining an honest discourse tone through openly acknowledging tensions.
The most important role of the leader in an organization which is anti-racist institution is to establish an atmosphere of inclusiveness so an environment of participation prevails.
Managers have to be aware that multiple entry level staff is required to support cultural sensitive social work practices.
Managers have to admit the fact that almost all organizations, schools of social work, and the majority of society indicate the values of this "normative" group, and accordingly learn to reveal and recognize white-centric bias. This awareness indicates the need for extra training in addition to the desire to hold people responsible for making the changes occur, just as one may do for other organizational goals.
Mary, (2007) the ideal team work exists when the majority of staff are trained on how to handle conflicts, respecting each other's point of views and differences and to be ready to work simultaneously not side by side.
The role of the supervisor is to develop and retain staff of multiple colors; moreover, it is commonly known that people quit their work because of supervisors.
Reflections on cross cultural partnership in Multicultural organizational development efforts
It was found that most organizations have various work forces, however, most do not act as or try to become seriously multicultural or inclusive (Jackson and Hardiman, 1994; Miller & Katz, 2002).
An important component of all Multicultural Organizational Development (MCOD) is staff development that recognizes oppression and discrimination, organizational development and change, theories and practice of adult learning, and their own attitudes and behavior toward themselves and others dissimilar from themselves (Cross, 2000).
The favored consultant team in (MCOD) practice shows various social identity memberships, mostly race and gender, regularly sexual orientation, in addition to others. Consulting in cross-cultural teams can create trustworthiness and establish credibility by stressing on the social identities of multiple organizational members and providing genuine voice to their experience. It also can exhibit the anticipated outcomes of (MCOD) interventions by modeling a valuable cross-race, cross-gender mutual working partnership. The partnership role requires a personal willingness to work on one's personal issues and committing oneself to continued personal growth in social justice and diversity (Ramos and Chesler, 2010).
Suggested recommendations for better results toward multicultural organizational development, Be open-minded and genuine with each other, inform mistakes, and stay focused and positive under all circumstances (Brazzel 2007; Shepard 1985).
Appreciate, trust and accept the differences in expertise and experience of each partner. Social identities/backgrounds have personal and professional differences, inform and inquire about the meaning and how it affects the partnerships and organizational members.
Encourage organizational members to think deeply about their and others advantages and oppression.
Get prepared to illustrate that consultants with corporate experience have practical knowledge and ability, and to break the rule that credentialed scholars are the only members who have theoretical or conceptual knowledge.
We urge Organizational Development (OD) practitioners to practice in cross cultural, shared partnerships indicating workplace and world diversity.
Human Resources Challenges:
Human Resource Development (HRD) is important for surviving in a competitive operational environment and enhancing staff's capacities which will improve the competitive values inside the organization. It also helps in Comparing individual to individual, team to team or project to project and so on.The development agencies pay great attention to HRD; once the subject of management is discussed, however, a contradiction generally occurs upon discussing this subject, since it is said that NGO is not the same and their development context is different and these differences must be taken into consideration, at the same time, the sub-topics and sessions in the training course are almost the same as the majority of management courses (Padaki, 2007).
Accordingly, these differences must be examined and to be dealt with innovatively; however, the development sector should take the initiative in addressing this issue.
The human-resource perspective
Success is always determined by only a small number of critical variables. These are always 20 per cent of things that need 80 per cent of attention.
This rule is indeed applied on all and any organized efforts when achieving a specific goal, any enterprise, business, productive endeavor, no matter if it is proï¬t-oriented or non-proï¬t, a company or a voluntary body.
For example, distribution system takes 80% of the soaps and detergents business's efforts; also the management of working capital is main issue in many services; moreover, customer relation is the main concern in software engineering, and so forth. Most experienced managers of development programs would actually agree that the human resource is the main variable in NGO work.
The following are some common expressions that are used in this essay with a brief explanation for each one:
Human Resource Development (HRD): is the procedures and rules through which organization's tasks can be achieved by its workforce, HRD is sometimes called "Personnel Management" , the systems science helps us understand organizations and their effectiveness.
Human Resource Management (HRM): refers to the entirety of the human resource task and is used instead of personnel management since HRM is about proactive practices, while personnel management is about preoccupation with regulatory practices. However, there are many HRM units which are outdated; at the same time; there are departments in personnel management that are progressive enough.
HRD is probably seen as a sub-set of HRM, handling its developmental objectives and improving the effectiveness in the employees and the organization altogether.
There are two tasks that should be accomplished to improve an effective ï¬t between person and organization: to fit the person to the organization, and to ï¬t the organization to the person. When the organization as a whole continuously reexamines its jobs, positions, structures, and systems from periodic reviews of its operational experiences, the real human resource development will be possible. This situation takes HRD more close to Organizational Development.
Organizational Development: means enhancing the capability of one organization or a group, to achieve this goal, both people variables (comprising tasks, competencies and attitudes) and organizational variables (including structures, systems) have to attend during the task, moreover, we have to focus on the organization as a whole to guarantee real development to the organization.
Training; training is the process of improving individual competencies in certain fields of application. The trainees may or may not belong to the same organization. However, organizational performance is being strengthened through training but the improvement will be in the individual trainees.
Capacity Building; refers to combining ideas from Organizational Development, Human Resource Development and Training to be used in development programs and in program settings.
Institutional Development; is the process of strengthening trans-organizational processes like the social institution that handles together several groups and organizations or organizing organizations; however, Institutional Development is generally seen the same as Organizational Development.
The worth of jobs; How much are the appropriate salaries and benefits should the NGO pay to its staff? A very difficult question that an NGO must answer, and how it can determine the appropriate salaries and benefits is seen as another challenge too.
Job analysis is used to evaluate jobs and salaries; it consists of three main tasks: job description, job specification and job evaluation.
The job description explains the duties and responsibilities of this job and what to be performed in this job, while job specification is about the qualities and attributes that should be existed in the potential candidate, finally, job evaluation decides the amount of money that equals these roles and attributes.
There are three difficulties an organization face when it tries to spend on itself, the first difficulty is when an organization should reward its staff and how this will be justified since this money is collected from donors and has to be delivered to beneficiaries. the second difficulty was to decide the amount of overheads to be spent on the organization's staff in proportion with the program's budget, in other words, the ration of amount spent on the organization's staff and the amount that reaches beneficiaries for whom the organization exists, is there a benchmark to be adopted?.
The third difficulty is the unspoken conflict between the value of professionalism and the value of voluntarism, is there any opportunity for growth, advancement, reward or career prospects.
The decisions taken concerning these matters usually derive from the worth of the people to the organization and based on performance.
Role stress; All jobs have role stress and this stress varies according to the job nature, roles and responsibilities, one of the HR functions is to find out the stress lies in each job and tries to find solutions to reduce this stress, the following are the major stress that most young employees face in such jobs.
Alienation; Young employees have families and friend that they are not used to stay away from them for so long, at the same time, their families and friends are unaware of the nature of these jobs. Accordingly, the price is very hard since it is intellectual and emotional.
Emotional load; Healing and helping jobs are some of the most stressful professions that cause its employees to emotionally suffer; the young employee faces tragic poverty stories, exploitation, cruelty and deliberate inequality which cause depression and sadness.
Responsibility load; Young people do not have life experience or training to help them having excellent managerial, relational and analytical skills, these skills are of important competencies that must be found in people working in this field, which represents another stress.
Work-life balance; Putting organization's goal and project's goal as the highest priority is a rule of thumb in the NGO working field, they usually work longer hours, days, weeks and months than anybody else, they can work in weekends, in holidays, work comes first at all times which make it more stressful.
Leadership and Management; the management functions are differentiated by conventional management into four levels: Strategy, Policy, Management control and operational control.
Each group of people in any organization is specialized in achieving one of these functions, the shared leadership-gap in all organizations is failure of the founder to include others in managing the first three functions and maintain them totally for himself or herself.
The HR functions must be handled by the managers that shape the leadership team, each manager has to be a leader, a counselor, a trainer and a manager of people.
The link between Operations Strategy and Human Resources **Management
In order to plan and implement operations strategy effectively, Human Resources have to be used effectively and efficiently since it is a great asset for the organization; strategic human resources management (HRM) helps improve the organization's competitive advantages, assists the organization becoming more proactive and responsive, and helps organizations acquire multi skilled staff that can perform various skills.
HRM is not the only factor for achieving operations strategy, Information Technology (IT) also plays a significant role besides HRM, and they are actually integrated.
We will see how HRM should be proactive and responsive when NGOs work in unstable environment like Iraq so they can achieve Operations Strategy.
The success of any nonprofits depends mainly on people management since they are mainly labor intensive than being manufacturing entities.
Business strategies can be enhanced by using multiple people management activities (Koys 2000).
Operations Management: is the administering of a structured conversion process to transform certain inputs to expected outputs, inputs usually include information, labor, equipment, raw materials and other capital resources, (Bayraktar et al 2007).
Enhancing operations and services for beneficiaries and raising funds for NGOs are the main objectives behind creating strategies.
(Kathuria et al 2007) states that competitive advantages can be achieved depending on the ability to collect and make a good use of resources that meet organizations' competitive needs.
Employees are organizations' largest assets; HR activities should be established to help implementing organizational objectives since HRM plays an important role in all management functions; planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Dessler and Lloyd Walker 2007).
Six areas HR functions must have enough expertise to perform well; forecasting and staffing, Staff development, performance management, rewards and recognition, employee relations and communications (Christi 2007).
The executive team, through HR assistance, can analyze the organizational readiness, efficiency and adaptability to change, since the HR should dedicate all HR objectives, programs and objectives to achieve the organization strategy (Christi 2007).
NGOs should focus on the importance of the HRM in achieving strategic goals for many reasons: HR monitors whether staff members are treated fairly, motivated and is responsible for improving fieldworkers' performance (Ahmad 2000).
NGO Operations in unstable developing countries:
Operating in unstable developing countries is uneasy mission, maintaining the stream of income, technical and human resources, has made it difficult to stay responsive to the humanitarian needs; moreover, retaining critical staff is one more challenge.
The turnover of the main employees is a critical threat that faces NGO's existence in unstable countries (Ramlall 2004).
(Clugston 2000) states that, in order to retain important staff, NGO can apply the Quinn and Shepard12-item scale to evaluate job satisfaction: promotion, supervision, satisfaction with pay, work and coworkers.
An experience in Bangladesh shows that maintaining skilled people was difficult due to the poor treatment, and this affected the operation itself (Ahmed 200), the challenge was how to maintain skilled labor and to efficiently utilize the money received by the donors to reach the beneficiaries.
After exploding the UN and ICRC, most of international NGOs left Baghdad and were obliged to manage their work from Iraq's surrounding neighbors; the main challenges in Iraq were reported by NGO Coordination Committee in Iraq (NCCI) in 2006 as follows: Assessment, Communication, evaluation, donors' perceptions, finance, administration and logistics.
The hardships of the everyday-life and insecurity in Iraq represented the main reason behind all these challenges and made it difficult to maintain and develop HR.
The damages to the infrastructure in Iraq were one more challenge since it affected main services such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Prasad 2003).
The NCCI in 2006 suggested some solutions to effectively implement operations strategy remotely:(1) ICT means: emails, video chatting, chat and Satellite mobiles, this leads to better and faster communication between staff and the HR manager (Shrivastava and Shaw 2003), (2) Delegation of Authorities to the existing staff in Iraq, (3) Providing qualified leader inside Iraq to be the focal point between the outside and inside managers, (4) Availing "NCCI's human resources database" and "local network", (5) Better communications between inside and outside managers.
Human Resource Management in the Nonprofit Sector: eye on brands and brand management
The brands of global nonprofits have been viewed as the new super brands of the world" (Wootliff & Deri, 2001).
They are known with the highest levels of trust, and the valuation of their brands are seen like the majority of international corporation brands (Laidler-Kylander, Quelch, & Simonin, 2007).
According to Edelman Trust Barometer in 2009, stating that nonprofits gained more trust than business, government, and media in all surveyed regions, however, Edelman 2009 mentions too that for Asia Pacific: " nonprofits worldwide are the only institutions that gained more than 50% of the informed publics' trust.
On the other hand, Judd (2004) and others have claimed that nonprofits must have powerful brands same as corporations,
Branding and brand management needs less work than for corporations (c.f., Laidler-Kylander & Simonin, 2009; Laidlerkylander et al., 2007).
Defining Brands and Branding
Brand in the for profit sector is defined by Kotler as a name, expression, symbol or design or a mix of these things, which is designed to make goods or services of a seller or a group of sellers noticed and differentiated from those of competitors (Kotler 1984). Aaker refers to brand as one of the most significant intangible asset of any business (Aaker, 1991) and
brand equity is "a group of brand assets and liabilities connected to a brand, its symbol and name, that add or deduct from the value given by a product or service to the customers of the firm " (Aaker 1996). These assets and liabilities can be gathered into five basic categories or variables: brand loyalty, perceived quality, name awareness, brand associations, and other assets (such as trademarks and patents), and can be considered as the drivers and levers that improve brand equity.
According to recent studies done by Edelman PR, The nonprofits are seen to be more trustworthy to the general public around the world, hold higher brand trust, and potentially greater brand equity when compared with all other categories of organizations (Edelman PR, 2009). The article of nonprofit management praises the great ability of managing the nonprofit brand and the significance of brand equity for nonprofit organizations (Bosc 2002, Brunham 2002, and Webster 2002). The future leaders of nonprofits must have multiple skills to achieve the organizational goals, one of these skills are seen as the most critical is the ability to "setup your organization's brand" (Brunham, 2002). Lastly, professionals like Smillie, believe that the building and development of strong global brands is serious for the future endurance of a lot of today's major international NGOs (Smillie 1995).
Cuesta defines a nonprofit brand as: "the emotional perception that is shared among participants and supporters who are connected with the programs and services (that) a nonprofit provides and mentions that the "nonprofit brand is a value chain that supports an organization's mission to the goals that the board, staff and volunteers establish for participants and supporters.(Cuesta, 2003).
Sargeant defines brands as a promise to the public that an organization acquires certain qualities or will act in certain ways" (Sargeant, 2009).
Brands usually help many international nonprofit organizations for funding, ensuring the security of their staff in the field, allowing internal cohesion, and qualifying the organization for possible future partnerships (Quelch and Laidler-Kylander, 2005).
Differences between Nonprofit and For Profit Brands
Brand management is ignored because marketing itself is viewed as a narrow range of activities; nonprofits are basically focusing on fundraising" (Bishop 2005).
Preliminary field interviews conducted with Amnesty International (based on the Edelman PR findings) found that despite the organization acquires a high equity brand; executives admit that they do not practice any branding (Quelch and Laidler-Kylander, 2005).
Although nonprofits may not use the term "brand equity", their managers exert energy and expend resources building it, so they can have powerful and well recognized brands.
Five main areas of differences between for-profit organizations and nonprofits are suggested by Oster 1995: human resources, organizational culture, competitive than collaborative approaches, importance of mission and complexity of customers.
Nonprofits are mission driven organizations. They need to have a common shared objective same as for profit organizations.
Non-governmental organizations, politics and environment
Non-governmental organizations (NGO) are considered as 'life savers' of the environment. NGOs like Greenpeace, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and Environmental Defense Fund, Friends of the Earth, Conservation International. They want to be viewed as 'non-governmental' and 'not-for-profit' so they separate themselves from states and business entities. NGOs would cleanse and care for, purify and combat-often times ring us a bell of the value of the 'wild' in our increasingly modern world (Bryant, 2009).
NGOs have "vision" that they hope that we share it with them, they unfortunately face powerful currents that work against them, they acknowledge, charm, disturb and inspire. What NGOs achieve for politics is like what the TV nature programs provide for culture.
The research shows how bad news can be at the same time good news for NGOs. The more complicated the environmental crisis, the more thriving they become as a social player (Bryant and Jarosz 2004). NGOs have developed in number, size and influence over time (but with growth tailing off: Dowie, 1995).
NGOs are heard in the hallway of political power and the large corporations' boardrooms.
Greenpeace; Friends of the Earth) are some of the household names in different countries and main stakeholders in international negotiations against issues like climate change and ozone depletion (Newell 1999).
NGOs are seen as basically concerned with saving "wild" aspects of the biophysical environment including forests and oceans, also, some of the NGOs try to communicate development issues, specifically in the South.
Organizations are not the same; they are measured according to structure, size, philosophy, strategy, aims, and scale of operation, nationality and issues. Clarke (1998, pp. 2-3,) defines organizations as 'private, non-profit, professional organizations with a unique legal nature, care about public welfare goals'.
NGOs were accused to be self-serving organizations occupied with incorrect and dangerous ideologies, according to Beckerman 1995, and Lewis 1992, radical environmentalism is condemned for its anti-capitalism while discussing the misleading facts of their solutions.
NGOs were purportedly excluding smaller and less powerful NGOs in the South of funding and personnel because they capitalized on international relations and economies of scale to establish worldwide project portfolios (Chat-terjee and Finger 1994).
Overall, NGOs were accused to be 'too close for comfort' to elites (Hulme and Edwards 1997).
Scholars reported the complicated methods through which NGOs release messages to the public to structure an issue in a certain way.
The Political Opportunity Structure for NGO Advocacy in Global Climate Politics:
This essay discusses the structure of the political opportunity for the advocacy of NGOs for global climate politics, for this purpose, the essay indicates that older researches about the relationship between civil society and international institutions have not indicated enough the opportunities and constrains the NGO finds from the consultation and participation mechanisms (Kruse, 2012).
However, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) "allows far reaching contribution rights in the policy process" and is therefore considered an example of an institution that is seen as predominantly open toward civil society (Steffek and Nanz, 2008).
NGOs play a significant role in global climate politics: one role is they indicated that one of the most critical issues on their agenda is the climate change.
The NGO advocacy has concentrated on two questions: the first one investigated why civil society participation was allowed by the government, and what are the benefits from these institutional agreements.
The activities of NGOs advocacy are the systematic efforts exerted by groups to achieve certain policy goals, the goals of these policies is to translate whether in existing policy retention or policy change (Prakash and Gugerty, 2010)
This essay supposes that current literature has important questions regarding the political-environment's influence on NGO advocacy, also it discusses that political environment consists of public space of unrestricted and open deliberation, and the allowed space of international negotiation.
According to (Burgerman, 2001); NGOs have been seen as an important player in global politics, they have been more transnational, have enlarged in numbers and have expanded the scope of their participation to cover multiple international political areas.
NGOs try to putting too much efforts increasing awareness (Price, 1998), proceeding in the establishing of modern global models, and affecting behavior of state through naming and shaming.
This article describes civil society actors as a "third force" (Florini and Simmons, 2000) with "restructuring world politics" potential.
The relationship between transnational players and international institutions has been described by Sidney Tarrow (2005) with the "coral reef" metaphor. Sidney argues that regimes, treaties and international institutions are considered transnational-activists' coral reefs, NGOs allow international institutions to prosper since they put simultaneously put local-international successful coalitions; they lobby, protest and meet others like themselves.
The advocacy strategies are affected by different variable sets indicating agency and structure (Betsill, 2008). Structural variables stress on the significance of context and mention that NGOs are helped or constrained by the political atmosphere they work in.
The structure of the political opportunity is defined as the constant dimensions of the political environment which present incentives for collective action by affecting people's expectations success or failure" (Tarrow, 1998, pp. 76-77).
To illustrate the structure of the political opportunity in global climate politics; this essay differentiates between two spaces or arenas where NGOs may engage in advocacy; the public space and the empowered space.
The empowered space is seen as the institutional place designed for deliberation and collective decision making. On the other hand, the institutions that shape the empowered space do not have to be empowered or constituted in a formal way.
A study of deliberative systems was made indicating the mentioned difference by analytically separating different entities that constitute such systems (Dryzek and Stevenson, 2011).
The structure of the political opportunity in global climate politics:
According to (Abbott, 2011), The empowered space in the global climate politics is directed by the climate negotiations set which is institutionalized by the UNFCCC, the political reactions to global climate change have been fragmented or polycentric"
The UNFCCC constitutes the backbone of a wider "regime complex". Same as various multiparty environmental agreements, the UNFCCC is adopting a framework approach other than further substantive approach. Consequently, the convention does not specify greatly definite targets and in depth implementation mechanisms. Relatively, the UNFCCC recommends overall goals and principles, obligations based on scientific research results and exchange of information too; "skeletal legal and institutional framework" for further negotiations , So, the most important here is that the approach of the framework establishes an institutionalized process of permanent decision making by which the Conferences of Parties play and powerful law-making role (Kruse, 2012).
A Comparative Look at NGO Influence in International Environmental Negotiations:
Desertification and Climate Change
This article discusses the increasing influence of the NGOs in shaping the international environmental politics; two international cases have been investigated in this article: the negotiations of the Desertification Convention and convention of the Kyoto protocol to the climate convention. Evidences of nonprofits have been gathered in a more consistent and systematic manner which assists researchers examining more deeply the argument that international environmental negotiations are affected by nonprofits.
The article introduces the framework used in checking and illustrating its utility, the framework was applied to the negotiation of desertification and climate change, by comparing results, a discussion is made regarding explanatory factors that play a role in the variation of NGOs international environmental negotiations.
2. A Framework for Analyzing NGO Influence
The current literature analysis on NGOs mentioned the need to collect and analyze evidences on the influence of NGOs in a more systematic manner.
Three proposed literature weakness on NGOs have been addressed by; identifying which political arena the analysis relate to, clearly defining "influence" and indicating which types of evidence may assist explain influence and discovering the casual mechanisms between NGO activity and influence. This framework depends on the usage of various data types, sources and methodologies.
Using the Framework
The analytical framework has been utilized by applying it to two cases; First, this shows how the framework may be exploited in empirical research and, second, illustrates how the framework generates a foundation for more required comparative research on the function of NGOs in international environmental negotiations. According to this analysis, NGO are simply assessed through its effect on the political process.
Three types of evidences were being collected to indicate NGO influence; resources, activity and access to negotiations. Such evidences are about the NGO participation in the negotiation of the international environment to handle two global issues; desertification and climate change.
NGO influence is evaluated in this analysis on the political process, not to decide if NGO's effect results in greater environmental outcomes of geater environmental problem solving.
A set of indicators has been initially developed for applying the framework to evaluate the influence in each cases. NGOs are considered to be influential in a negotiation if they would have been observed doing the following: (1) attendance during the negotiations; (2) giving written information enhancing a particular position (like newsletters, information leaflets, research reports or papers, ) to appropriate government ministries or to the negotiation meetings; (3) presenting oral information defending a particular position (through speeches, seminars or information meetings during negotiation sessions); and (4) communicating certain advice to government delegations during direct interaction.
The discussed cases are the Desertification Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, Hereunder is a brief background about their negotiation.
The Desertification Convention; The Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on Desertification (INCD) was established to launch a convention and this body met 12 times between 1993 and 1997. the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) was completed In June 1994 at INCD-5,
Parties agreed on undertaking solid national commitments for realistic action so they can achieve the goals from establishing this convention; especially at the local level, by generating National Action Programs (NAPs) to fight Desertification. The Convention gives suggestions for managing dry land issue in the affected countries to the governments and to donors by giving a framework for cooperation, it is informally known as the "bottom-up approach" between local land users, NGOs, governments, international organizations, funding agencies, and northern donor countries. The assistance in this convention goes mainly for the developing countries which are affected.
The Kyoto Protocol
In Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was held. The protocol reacted to comments and concerns that were part of the commitment included in the UNFCCC in 1992.
The commitments have urged industrialized countries to keep their greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions at 1990 levels, but they were deficient to meet its long-term objective of keeping atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at the same levels. In March 1995, the first Conference of the Parties (COP-1) was held and delegates adopted the "Berlin Mandate," which urged parties to negotiate a protocol by 1997 comprising quantified emissions reduction and limitation goals.
Applying the Framework
The analytical framework is applied to evaluate NGO influence in the UNCCD and Kyoto Protocol negotiations. We analyze the evidence on NGO participation and goal achievement; compare the evidence to the indicators mentioned above, trace the causal mechanisms of NGO influence, and at the end summarize the conclusions.
Evidence on NGO Participation
A sum of 187 environmental and social NGOs enthusiastically participated in the process of UNCCD (from INCD-1 to COP-1 (1993-97), the majority of the NGOs. A core group of almost 40 nonprofits were actively joining the meetings, another 30 joined from five to 12 meeting. 40 organizations or more sent representatives to a minimum of two of the AGBM sessions with an average of 100 representatives of NGO environmentalists.
Evidence on NGO Goal Attainment
Three points summarize the social and environmental positions of NGO during the desertification convention: (1) promote the idea of a participatory bottom-up principle in its implementation; (2) clarify the social and economic results of land degradation on residents in affected areas; and (3) "new and further resources" need to be given to the projects concerning dry land management in developing countries that face desertification. Regarding the negotiations of Kyoto Protocols, ENGOs had four basic objectives that Protocol should do as follows (1) industrialized countries are required to minimize their GHG emissions 20% under 1990 levels by 2005; (2) take in powerful evaluation and conformity mechanisms; (3) ban industrialized Parties to fulfill their commitments through trading of emissions and (4) prohibit Parties to obtain credit for emissions absorbed by sinks (ECO Team 1997c).
Effects on Negotiation Outcome:
The participated NGOs in the process of UNCCD has succeeded in influencing the last text than were ENGOs that shared in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. NGOs were able to assure the various references incorporation By motivating and convincing delegates to add and keep a lot of formulations,
The language on the significance of local participation and the implementation of NGO involvement in the convention was obvious.
In both cases, NGOs influenced the negotiating process in ways that cannot readily be observed in the treaty texts.
The initial evaluation after comparing the indicators to the evidences is that NGOs practiced huge influence along the UNCCD process; however, ENGOs exerted less influence in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. NGOs achieved most of the indicators in the UNCCD case. They communicated written and verbal information to some government ministries and to the negotiation sessions and gave certain advice and dealt with government delegations, also NGOs assisted in framing the negotiating agenda by stressing on the importance of a bottom-up approach to defeat dry land degradation.
ENGOs stated the climate change problem as an environmental dilemma which needs immediate action.
Environmental NGOs achieved some success in framing the negotiation agenda by motivating discussion on emissions trading and sinks, unfortunately they couldn't have delegates to talk about compliance and analyze mechanisms. In the end, environmental NGOs failed to confirm that their position was mentioned in the last Protocol text.
NGO Influence Variation in International Environmental
Negotiations: Explanatory Factors
According to the two mentioned cases above, five factors have been identified that may boost or hinder the capability of the
NGO to practice influence in international environmental negotiations: (1) history, (2) the nature, (3) shaping of the issue under negotiation; (4) the political opportunity structure; and (5) the NGO profile.
Non-profit organizations began to use marketing techniques in profit organizations to face competition for funding and the need to increase financial resources.
The researchers have differed concerning the nature of marketing in these organizations and other aspects such as labels, terminology, terms, customers and market product. Non-profit organizations differ in the use of the application of this terminology, and the management of non-profit organizations is still dealing with the same vision in the management of Marketing Operations, researchers classified "customers" as an essential term, marketing operations as part of non-profit organizations within the framework of non-profit organizations (sponsors - patients - donors - volunteers - employees - members of the government); on other side, some researchers classified customers in non-profit organizations as the beneficiaries of the services and activities of these organizations (Dolnicar and Lazarevski, 2009).
Non-profit organizations developed vision to marketing operations and developed its performance of marketing concepts in these decades and headed to market strategies, and practical tools such as building a mental image of the customers or beneficiaries, determining the competitive advantage of the organization and identifying target customer segments.
Although there is difference in the way of handling between profit organizations and non-profit organizations, but it is still the same effective tools to be used for marketing in both organizations.
However, through a variety of research sequence in 1970s by Kotler (1982) indicating the support importance to application of the same concepts and marketing tools to non-profit organization. In 1979 a research study was published by (Kotler) in order to assess the status of acceptance of marketing concepts in non-profit organizations through acceptability of marketing staff members in those organizations for those concepts and tools.
Kotler (1982) study explained that, those organizations had actually utilized concepts of financial management and accounting professionally, as for the marketing study explained that organizations in this decade had not dealt with the same professionalism in the application and use of marketing concepts. But in the following decades, professional marketing operations began to enter slowly in the concepts of management of non-profit organizations because it has become the survival of these organizations' activities to continue.
(Gonzalez et al., 2002) explained that the adoption of the professional marketing in accordance with the management concepts, and making customer orientation concept, so that the process begins and ends with the customer needs and wants for the continuation of these organizations.
Akchin (2001) tried to determine the status of marketing in non-profit organizations and being linked to public relations, the study explained application of one or more of the functions of marketing without the adoption of a comprehensive marketing strategy. It attributed this to the need of organizations and the type of organization and its activities. The study explained that marketing functions in these organizations included fundraising, public relations, marketing projects, marketing successes, and searching for how to understand and realize the marketing staff in these organizations for professional marketing concepts.
According to Akchin (2001) study, it indicates that 53% of respondents chose to collect donations as a top priority for marketing operations within their organizations,Â and only 10% pointed to the importance of the application of marketing theories professionally.
Andreasen and Kotler (2003) have developed different marketing strategies for non-profit organizations as indicated to shift to customers and focus on the understanding and study of the needs of customers in order to the best meet their wants and needs.
Dolnicar & Lazarevski (2009) have conducted a study to review the development of marketing operations in non-profit organizations in order to reassess how the application of marketing principles and methodologies and techniques in non-profit organizations as well as to compare the application of marketing principles to assess the differences between a group of country (UK - United States - Australia) and assessment of marketing management structures, and systems of non-profit organizations in those countries. The study explained how to improve the professional marketing operations through improving marketing and awareness customer needs and dividing the market into smaller segments to target campaigns more focused and targeted as well as working in the marketing of a more comprehensive and wider promotion and creating new channels of communication. The study indicated that this development depends on two main points: (1) the interest in work within the framework of the attention and focus on the customer, (2) staff training in marketing in training organizations professionally.
Kotler was the first to mention the importance of professional marketing in non-profit organization through the succession of research. But Kotler 's first research did not address searching for the actual problems and challenges to marketing operations as part of non-profit organizations.
Also, Akchin tried to study inÂ depth analysis for all elements of the marketing process for non-profit organizations, and analyzed the marketing staff as one of the most important elements of the marketing process in these organizations, and shifting from the theoretical framework to a practical framework.
Andreasen and Kotler had studied advanced marketing in those organizations; they analyzed the elements of the marketing process and reached the same result reached by Akchin, namely, the importance of staff training and awareness in marketing in non-profit organizations
The above researchers had not provided a study on the core challenges or comparative studies between marketing in non-profit organizations and profit organizations, and had not provided studies addressing the marketing mix or addressing in depth marketing strategies, researchers have not addressed specialized training programs on marketing staff in non-profit organizations, they have not addressed the customer as the basis for marketing operations; also they have not provided sufficient researchers study on market research for customers and classification and identification of types. Despite the fact that there is a press