As there is a need of each and every company to use the management theory to sustain in this world, so almost all the companies are trying to implement one or mixture of all theories in their organization. There are mainly four theories of management namely classical theory, behavioral theory, quantitative theory and contemporary theory. I have done research on classical theory, behavioral theory and quantitative theories. These all theories are described below in their respective parts below. Let me firstly describe my selected media company BBC World services.
BBC is a world renowned media service. It has more than 14 TV channels namely BBC World News BBC America, BBC Prime, BBC Canada, BBC Kids (Canada) , BBC Food, BBC Arabic, BBC Entertainment , Animal Planet , People Arts, UKTV Australia , BBC Knowledge, BBC Lifestyle.
Now let's have a quick view on the services of BBC world service. In network television BBC one, BBC two, BBC Three, BBC Four, CBBC Channel, CBeebies, BBC HD and BBC ALBA are there.
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In radio Network BBC Radio 1, BBC Radio 2, BBC Radio 3, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio 5 live, BBC Radio 5 Live Sports extra, BBC 1Xtra, BBC 6 Music, BBC Radio 7 and BBC Asian Network.
The chairman of BBC is Sir Michael Lyons. The BBC News website is the internet arm of the biggest broadcasting news-gatherer in the world. It launched in November 1997 and has since published approaching one and a half million full multi-media news pages, all but a handful of which are still available from the site's search engine (top right of almost every page).
Each page is published by the teams of online journalists based in the main newsroom in BBC TV Centre at White City, west London, at BBC World Service at Bush House in central London, in national and regional newsrooms across England, in Glasgow, Belfast and Cardiff and in an increasing number of the BBC's many international bureaux worldwide.
This chart shows the divisions of the BBC which report directly to the Director-General. For each division there is a list of the most senior staff, with short job descriptions and details of salaries, expenses and central bookings.
BBC structure and senior staff
BBC Trust's on six commitments
The BBC's relationship with license fee payers rests on six clear commitments:
Standards: to maintain the very highest editorial standards that reflects the broad views of BBC audiences.
Serving all audiences: The BBC management is interested in offering value to everyone in the UK. No matter whomever they are and wherever they live.
Content: to be a leader not a follower, offering content of the highest quality and of a kind that no-one else is doing
Supporting public service broadcasting: to the extent possible within the obligations to license fee payers, to support the provision of public service content by others and sustain contribution to the UK creative sector
Value: only to spend as much money as the BBC needs to deliver the public mission set out in the Charter
Independence: never to allow external interests to exercise undue influence on the BBC's editorial or operational independence
The BBC has big ambitions to serve the public better, bringing them new technologies and content without losing any of the very high standards of journalism and programs making that are its foundations.
There are three well-established theories of classical management:
Taylor's Theory of Scientific Management,
Fayol's Administrative Theory and
Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy.
Although these theories came one by one but each previous one co-exists in each other.
Taylor's theory of scientific management:
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) is also known as "The Father of Scientific Management". Scientific Management theory arose from the need to increase productivity in the U.S.A. especially, where skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers. This theory which focuses on a scientific analysis of all the tasks to be done by workers to then design jobs towards the elimination of wastes time and motion and in order to motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans and also separated managerial work from operative work. frederick-taylor.jpg
Limitations of the Theory of Scientific Management:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Although it maximized efficiency and productivity but its main limitation was ignoring human aspects of employment. This is manifested in the following:
Some workers and unions opposed this theory because they feared that working harder or faster would exhaust whatever work was available, causing layoffs,Â Objection to the "speed up" conditions that placed undue pressures on the labors as well as machines.
Taylor devised four principles for scientific management theory, which were:
1. the development of a true science of management,Â
2. the scientific selection and training of workers,Â
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
4. Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager
I.e. divide the work and responsibility so that management is responsible for planning work methods using scientific principles and workers are responsible for executing the work accordingly.
Implementation of scientific management theory in BBC
For BBC to implement this theory in its organization it is very easy because in media it is required that you should be able to move hand in hand with the world. Scientific management theory tells us to think scientifically and logically. By providing the works to the deserving people we can give the most output from the least, and find out the deserving qualities scientific theory is required. Like to check the person can work properly or not provide him some of the puzzles to solve and this is a scientific way to check the mental ability of the person. To get the best result we need to provide the employees their basic needs also. According to this theory if we provide proper remuneration to the employees then they will be able to do their work in a better manner.
If the management of BBC implements this theory in their industry they can be able to give better news result as well as other Television and internet services as this theory is mainly for those who are involved in new innovations. For mass communication if you do not use new things as per the scenario then you will not be able to overcome your contestants.
Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy:
The bureaucratic form is the basic organizing form for public sector organizations and for most private sector organizations as well. There are basic principles of the form and some advantages offered by the form.
The bureaucratic form has six major principles:
A formal hierarchical structure
Each level controls the level below and is controlled by the level above. A formal hierarchy is the basis of central planning and centralized decision making.
Management by rules
Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be executed consistently by all lower levels.
Organization by functional specialty
Work is to be done by specialists, and people are organized into units based on the type of work they do or skills they have.
An "up-focused" or "in-focused" mission
If the mission is described as "up-focused," then the organization's purpose is to serve the stockholders, the board, or whatever agency empowered it. If the mission is to serve the organization itself, and those within it, e.g., to produce high profits, to gain market share, or to produce a cash stream, then the mission is described as "in- focused."
The idea is to treat all employees equally and customers equally, and not be influenced by individual differences.
Employment based on technical qualifications
The employment is provided to those who technically qualified and who deserves the position.
Effect of bureaucracy on the employees:
Inside the organization, employees live with some very negative by-products of the bureaucratic form. They are unable to do the work in their own manner i.e. innovation is not done much more which is the basic thing for this modern world. They think that they are slave to the bureaucratic officers.
Implementation of bureaucratic theory on BBC
Today's human tendency is that nobody wants to do work under pressure or no ones wants become the follower of others everyone wants to make their own footprints.. So this theory will not work properly for those companies which have to deal the whole world. BBC world services are meant for mass communication as well as for mass entertainment. In this type of organization it is very much required that the persons involved in the system should have no fear of their boss because fear makes man small. There are lakhs of employees directly or indirectly involved in this organization. As we all know that today is the world of democracy. People thinks in their own manner no one wants to be the junior of any individuals then how can the people of BBC who are intelligent and who works for the freedom of press as well as humanity can work under the bureaucratic rule. So this rule will not be applied in this organization. Although this rule is a very good rule for increasing productivity this cannot be applied to those institutions were the intellectual class is involved more. If there is a restriction on the employees of media sector that they have to bring or search the news about any matter than its not possible for that person to be generated the news by himself if he can not achieved that news from any source, than due to this theory, they mostly creates fake news about anything after which the organization becomes the worst sufferer.
Fayol Theory of Administrative Management
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Fayol was a qualified engineer and also held a high position industry: managing director of a large French company. A year after the death of Taylor, he published his most famous book entitled: General and Industrial Management.Jules Henri Fayol - 1.jpg
He emphasized the role of administrative management and concluded that all activities that occur in business organizations could be divided into six main groups.
Technical (production, manufacturing);
Commercial (buying, selling, exchange);
Financial (obtaining and using capital);
Security (protection of property and persons);
AccountingÂ (balance sheet, stocktaking, statistics, costing);
Managerial (planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling).
He concluded that the six groups of activities are interdependent and that it is the role of management to ensure all six activitiesÂ workÂ smoothly to achieve the goals of an enterprise
Fayol's 14 principles of management
Division ofÂ labor: work must be subdivided to facilitate specialization;
Authority: authority and responsibility should go hand in hand;
Discipline: discipline is important to develop obedience, diligence, energy and respect;
Unity of command: subordinates must report to one superior;
Unity of direction: all operations with the same objective must have one manager and one plan;
Subordination of individual interest to general interest: the interest of one individual or group should not dominate the interest of the enterprise as a whole;
Remuneration: remuneration and all other methods of payment should be fair;
Centralization: managers always hold final responsibility but should delegate certain authority to subordinates;
Scalar chain: a clear line of authority or chain of command should extend from the highest to the lowest level of an enterprise. This helps to ensure an orderly flow of information and complements the principle of unity of command;
Order: there is a place for everything and everything in its place. Proper scheduling of work and timetables to complete work is important. This can facilitate the channeling of materials to the right place at the right time;
Equity:Â employeesÂ should be treated with kindness and justice;
Stability of tenure of personnel: management should work towards obtaining long-term commitments from staff and avoid unnecessary turnover of staff which is costly and works against overall goal accomplishment;
Initiative: workers should feel like an active part of the organization through conceiving and executing plans in order to develop their capacity to the fullest;
Esprit de corps:Â harmony and union help to build the strength of an enterprise. It is an extension of the principle of unity of command, emphasizing the need for teamwork and the importance of communication.
Implementation of Administrative theory on BBC
Fayol's theory is a very good theory which can be implemented in the media industries. As this theory divides the work to those persons who are specialized in their own field.
Like if any radio jockey is asked to do the technical works then how can he do? But when he gives the programs on the radio no one challenges him/her. Authority and responsibilities are given in hand to hand in this theory and this can be implemented in media industry because the role provided to the individuals is more important. The 14 principles provided in this theory deals all the works of the media industry. If we implement all these principles to the BBC world services then BBC can become the number one radio channel. In the principle Initiative i.e. workers should feel like an active part of the organization through conceiving and executing plans in order to develop their capacity to the fullest, defines almost all the norms of the media industry like BBC. In this way we can say BBC can use this theory in their industry for proper growth and its development.
Behavioral viewpoint on management theory
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do.
Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory (i.e. People are born with inherited traits. Some traits are particularly suited to leadership. People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.), in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding.
The Hawthorne studies, initially undertaken to investigate the relationship between work-place conditions and worker productivity, introduced a wide range of topics to the field of management study. Investigators found no strong relationship between workplace conditions and productivity but reached several conclusions like individual work behavior is driven by a complex set of factors such as
Work groups develop norms which mediate between the needs of the individual and institution
Employees should not be considered appendages of machinery
Awareness of employee sentiments and participation can reduce resistance to change
the workplace is an interlocking social system, not simply a production system
Social structure maintained through symbols of prestige and power.
These findings opened the door to the study of client-centered therapy, small group behavior, and organization theory and research methodology.
Human relation movement
It originated in the 1930s' after the Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts.
"The hallmark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions."
George Elton John Mayo (26 December 1880 - 7 September 1949)
Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies, and his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (1933). The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the importance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. Mayo's employees, Roethlisberger and Dickinson, conducted the practical experiments. This enabled him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. What he found however was that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the work group.
George Elton Mayo stressed the following:
Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structures
Upwards communication, by which communication is two way, from worker to chief executive, as well as vice versa.
Cohesive and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent decision making
Implementation of Human relation movement on BBC
This theory works on the behavior of the individuals rather than the qualifications. If a person is well qualified then it is not sure that he/she will be a good manager or leader. The behavior of the individuals also play an important role in the coherent decision making process of any organizations. According to this theory there should be a two way communication system between the workers and chief executives and vice versa. If it is implemented on BBC World services then the new innovations as well as new ideas will be generated and organization will move in the forward direction. This theory emphasized on the satisfaction of employee's basic needs as satisfaction of individuals is one of the key to increase the productivity. If the individuals are satisfied then the programs given through the radio will be more efficient and worthy like when the news is being developed then it is very much require that the reporters must be happy. This theory also involves respecting and concerning with workers as well as to understand and satisfy the employees needs and wants. The senior management should work together and encourage and motivate workers. The employees should not be felt that their job is boring or tiring. The management have to motivate their employees in such a way that individuals have a deep psychological need to believe that their organization cares about them, is open, concern and willing to listen to them. The manager should identify and solve the problems in company in time. It is also important to keep relationship between management & workers in the right path. This theory can be easily implemented in BBC as this industry is such industry where individuals do the jobs remarkably. If the employees are satisfied then the work will be better than the unsatisfied workers.
Behavioral Science Approach
Behaviorism is "the study in humans and animals of externally observable behavioral responses as functions of environmental stimuli.Â The mental state is either generally ignored or redefined in stimulus/response terms." (Macquarie Dictionary, 3rd Ed)Â Behaviorism in management has been extended to very much include the mental state.Â This can be demonstrated in an examination of the work of the significant players in the development of behavioral science.Â They include Burrhus F. Skinner, Abraham H. Maslow and Douglas McGregor.Â Other contributors in the field include; F. Fiedler, V. Vroom, F. Hertzberg, E. Locke, D. McClelland, R. Hackman, J. Pfeffer, K. Thomas and C. Perrow.
Implementation of Behavioral Science Approach on BBC
This theory lays emphasis on the behavior of the employees as the name itself suggests. It stresses on the need for scientific studies of the human behavior of the organization. In BBC, it is a truly fact that this type of industry requires a lot of will power and innovative mind because without a creative mind and different opinions, you can not achieve anything. BBC management can study the performance and behavior of its members and according to their behavior the works will be sub-divided to the employees. Like the person who is fond of doing creative things can be provided the key to R & D cells. He who is talkative can be made the radio jockey. He who is fond of roaming can be provided the works of reporter etc. i.e. the works will be divided according to the behavior of that person. It is also very much required for any organization to have the basic ideas of the employee's behavior. If this is not done then their will be lack of symmetry in the organization. BBC can also use this theory in its organization to avoid inconsistency in there media sector as behavior plays an important role in any organization.
It is also called operations research or management science. It is evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems. Focuses on improving managerial decision making by applying:
It means this theory mainly uses the quantitative analysis of anything. This is subdivided into three parts as follow:
3. Management Information System
2. Operations Management
1. Management Science
Management science practitioners employ a number of statistical/mathematical techniques to help solve business problems and aid with decision making; made easier by the fact that the amount of available data is exploding, the quality of data is improving, and the computational power required to quickly make use of the data is readily available. Development of innovative statistical/mathematical methods developed within the field of management science or adapted from other disciplines is also enabling businesses to understand and address problems more effectively. For instance, how to predict the demand for new products, whether certain customer segments are more profitable than others, and which sales compensation schemes are effective.
Implementations of management science
This theory mainly works on the statically arranged data and the results of the past. BBC world services can use this theory in its organization easily as there are many programs delivered on the Radio day to day as well as in the television. They have to know which program should be further continued and which should be removed taking in the consideration of people interests, like if the TRP of program like Animal discovery increases then it will be continued further and vice versa. The programmers will be asked to do the certain job in a fixed time. If they are able to do the work in time then they will be awarded otherwise some strict actions can be taken against them.
It is an area of business concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring thatÂ business operationsÂ areÂ efficientÂ in terms of using as little resource as needed, andÂ effectiveÂ in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the process that converts inputs (in the forms of materials, labor and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and services).This Management aims to increase the content of value-added activities in any given process. Fundamentally, these value-adding creative activities should be aligned with market opportunity (seeÂ Marketing) for optimal enterprise performance.
Operations Management programs typically include instruction in principles of general management, manufacturing and production systems, plant management etc.
Create finished goods and services
Allocate and schedule people and equipment
Obtain and store raw materials and resources
Planning Feedback Controlling
Managerial decision making and problem solving
Operations Management: Managing the transformation of resource inputs into product into outputs (Source: Schermerhorn, 1989, P482)
Implementation of operational management theory on BBC
This theory is mainly meant for the production of goods and services. BBC introduces the new programs very commonly so this theory is very useful for it. As we know this theory aims to increase the content of value-added services in the organization, so it is required for BBC also to increase the value added services in its organization. This theory includes instructions in the principles of general management so it is very much required to implement this theory in the BBC as now a day's general management is considered very much. BBC can implement this theory in its organization very easily, as this theory says using a little resource as needed but giving the most output from the least input is the main motto for any organizations. For BBC also the main thing is its TRP in television and increase of audience in the radio. Today almost all managers use this theory in their organization.
Management Information Systems
It has been described as, "MIS 'lives' in the space that intersects technology and business. MIS combines tech with business to get people the information they need to do their jobs better/faster/smarter. Information is the lifeblood of all organizations - now more than ever. MIS professionals work as systems analysts, project managers, systems administrators, etc., communicating directly with staff and management across the organization."
Management Information Systems are important instruments in corporate houses, financial institutions and large organizations to support decision-making process. In this sense they are a class of information institutions along with libraries and KMS (knowledge management system).Â These systems use the raw (usually historical) data from data processing systems to prepare management summaries, to chart information on trends and cycles and to monitor actual performance against plans or budget.
Implementations of Management information system in BBC
This theory is a bridge between the technology and business both. BBC requires the technology and the business for its generalization and for its income. BBC can purchase new technologies and implement it in its organization. For business to be more comprehensive and cohesive it is very much required for any organization to use new technologies and innovations. If BBC do not uses this theory in its organization then it is sure it will not exist in the fast and furious world of competitive race.
The media is a spot of informational area in which it envelops the positive, negative and the tremendous other achievements. The BBC world services is popular in the whole world for it concurrent and cohesive NEWS. The BBC should follow the rules and regulations under the law issued by the UK government. Every organization requires a top level of management so is the BBC also. As we all know that BBC is a world famous media industry in this world. So it requires the management also to be more precise and cohesive decision makers. So we can say Management theories are very much required for each and every organization which requires further development. The three theories discussed by me above plays an important role in BBC according to me. For the media management the theories discussed above are suitable to its working system through which the organization gets success. It is decided by the people who vote or gives feedback on the information given by the organization in every field which is related to media. So the growth and the fall of any organization depends on their managers skills. If the management is well then the functionality of that organization will be also well. In this way we can say that for proper growth of any organization selection process of the managers as well as the employees should be in a proper manner. This also depends upon the HR department of that company.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/help/3281815.stm (last accessed on 24-02-2010)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/annualreport/trust/governance/biogs/index.shtml (last accessed on 26-02-2010)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/annualreport/trust/overview/services.shtml (last accessed on 25-02-2010)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/annualreport/trust/performance/index.shtml (last accessed on 26-02-2010)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/info/running/bbcstructure/index.shtml ( VVI)
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