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The term "Motivation" is used almost everyday in our lives. Most people describe motivation as the desire to go beyond self and drive ourselves to achieve certain goals and desires. But not everyone has an idea what it takes to actually practice motivating. In a working environment, motivation is defined by the actions that employees take to develop the company objectives as well as the desire for career development. The purpose of employee is what makes or breaks a company or an organization. Motivation is the method of improving the confidence of employees to encourage them to willingly give the best in completing assigned tasks. Employee motivation is the sign of the level of energy, loyalty and inspiration that a company's workers relate to their jobs. It is the key to accomplishing best results.
A research strategy can be defined as a plan of action that direct people's efforts and conduct research systematically rather than randomly. The research strategy for this research would be, to describe factors affecting employee's motivation. Thus, research assumption sought to recognise rankings of certain findings of employee behaviour. This evidence belongs to the inductive approach. However, it is necessary to do some research strategy in order to answer the main question. In addiction to the use of secondary data to complete the research, it is necessary to identify, evaluate, and to use a range of techniques including sources collected from these topics, what is employee motivation, how is employee motivation applied in business organisation, what are the factors affecting employee motivation, lack of employee motivation, and what are the several ways that organisation may use to constantly motivate their employees.
Literature review can be classified as an item read or written that help to clarify your research findings. It is a summary that allows you to think how to combine the academic theories and ideas. The purpose of reading the literature will depend on the approach you are willing to research on. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals two major theory areas: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two factor theory. Maslow argued that the lower level needs to be satisfied before moving to the next level would motivate employees. The needs of the next higher level in the hierarchy demand satisfaction and become the motivating influence. Therefore, to provide motivation for a change in behaviour, the manager must direct attention to the next higher level of needs that seek satisfaction. Maslow's also said that people work to survive, make new friends, to feel important in the society, and to have job satisfaction. Herzberg (1959) said that there is a separate set of needs that make people satisfied. These are called motivators. Herzberg (1966) wrote that human needs are met in a unique way that includes achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and advancement. Herzberg also states that fulfilling hygiene factors can prevent dissatisfaction, rather than causing positive motivation. In this review, Maslow says that each stage of five hierarchies of needs must be fully completed before moving on to the next stage. However, Herzberg argue that there is only two stages instead of five i.e. hygiene and motivators.
The study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain way. In general terms, motivation can be described as a way of influencing employee's behaviour in such a way that will lead to positive results within the organisation. Many contemporary authors define motivation as the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction, and a predisposition to behave in a responsible manner in order to achieve and fulfil some need or expectation. People's behaviour is determined by what motivates them. The word employee motivation refers to as a level of energy, commitment, and creativity that a company's workers apply for their jobs. In large organisations there is often a sense of isolation. Many staffs believe that if their efforts are going unnoticed a sense of despondency may spread.
According to the motivation theorist Elton Mayo, employees enjoy working for managers who pay an interest in them as individuals. In larger organisations, some managers may feel they do not have sufficient time for frequent informal chats with their staff. Professor Herzberg also believes that recognition for achievement is vital for employee motivation. Managers will need to take this into account or else, staff motivation will fall. A falling level of work effort will increase the firm's costs. Staff may be put less effort at work due to poor motivation. Absenteeism is also a result of poor motivation. Firms will have to employ more staff to cover for the staff they expect to be absent on any given day. According to F.W. Taylor, economic needs motivation. Wages is a major part that affects employee motivation. What the workers wanted from their employers more than anything else was high wages. Taylor believed that people work for only one reason i.e. money. Taylor said, if employees receive the same wage as of their individual contribution of goal, they will work less hence, if working at a higher rate, less employees will be needed which will discourage employees to work more. This approach is the rational economic concept of motivation. Taylor and his rational economic needs concept of motivation have fuelled the continuing debate about financial rewards as a motivator and their influence on productivity. Although pay may still make people tick, but there are other factors that can affect an employee motivation, such as relationship with leaders, value, job titles, and corporate culture. Leaders of many company's can significantly impact the motivation of employees, especially those who are unfair, negative or do not provide a clear explanations or instructions.
Employees should be given the opportunity to have an open communication with the company's leaders in order to understand why they are being asked to do things in a certain way or why changes are being made. Many people feel that being recognised and valued appears more important than money in motivating them to stay in a particular job. Grayson and Hodges (2001) point out, "historically loyalty was bought and employees offered gradual progression up the hierarchy, a decent salary and job security in return for a hard day's work. Increasingly is based on values rather than purely on financial reward". In addition, Saunders (2003) made a similar point "If the 1980s were all about money, and people were only good as their last bonus, in more recent years time has become the new money, and quality of life issues have come to the fare. Benefits that replenish the psychological contract are becoming the most valuable". An employee performance can affect their job title if they believe that the role is not considered valuable or contributes to the company's success. Employees can increase their motivation in doing better at work, if they know their role is important to the organisation. Another factor that affects employee motivation is the culture corporate. If the corporate culture is based on collaboration, encouragement, teamwork, then employees will be more likely to be motivated. For instance, employees should support and encourage each other when there is a challenge or give appraisal when one achieves a goal. Independence is another factor that affects motivation. Most employees will feel more motivated knowing that their views and ideas count. When employees are given the independence to plan and make a decision they will believe that they are trusted. This will make them more positive and useful members of the organisation. Employees also wants to be shown appreciation and be given chance to develop and it is the best way to retain an employee and to make him or her feel appreciated by using the word "thank you".
The importance of motivation is obvious. They need motivation to achieve their purpose. That is to say it is one of the most important and powerful factor for employees to reach their goals. Motivation plays an important role in reaching aims and objectives in a business because it is the strong, powerful force that can signify the difference between failure and success in business. It also helps to develop productivity, quality and service of a company or organization. It improves level of effectiveness of employees which results into increase in productivity, cost of operations reduced and improving overall effectiveness. People's behaviour is determined by what motivates them. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. Kreitner et al. (1999) suggests that although motivation is necessary contributor for job performance, it is not the only one. Along with ability, motivation is also a combination of level of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, emotions, and facilitating and inhibiting conditions not under the individual's control.
Motivation leads to success of organization goals, it puts together friendly relationship and it leads to stability of workforce. The stability of workforce is very important because the employees can stay dedicated to the business only when they have a contribution in the management.
In a business, the more the employees are motivated, the more the stronger the team is. It will also lead to positive attitude at workplace.
Managers need to be capable of identifying what motivates employees. Many managers do not have an idea or know the effects motivation can have in a company or organization, and it is extremely important they learn and understand the strategies that determine the positive motivation in a workplace.
Motivating employees is important in building self - esteem, productivity and company growth. Motivated employees support the company in helping others. As an employer, regular feedback should be given to employees on their performance. Recognizing their work and parts taken to the profitability and success of the company is a technique of motivating employees to improve their work and productivity. Allowances can also be a method of motivating employees. For example, providing holidays and flexible working hours could encourage employees to work harder. Organisations should ensure to provide a working safe environment for their employees with all necessary resources in order to carry out their daily routines/activities. This will enable them to continue with their tasks as they believe that their health or well being is not in any danger. Employees with a high level of motivation usually work harder and can conquer common workplace challenges easily. Companies that empowers time and resources toward improving their employees' well being and workplace experience can look forward to a high return on their assets as employees became more productive, maintain a positive manner, commit to their jobs and responsibilities, which means to keep employees motivated, employers must provide the overall drive applying workshops and seminars to help them.
In conclusion, motivated employees are important to a company success. To be effective, managers need to understand what motivate employees within the roles they perform. For example, regular feedback should be given to employees on their performance. Motivated employees should be given the highest possible wages through working in the most efficient and productive way. However, Herzberg's states that money is not everything that motivate employees. Herzberg saw pay as a hygiene factor, not a motivator.
Title: Factors affecting employee motivation?
Ways of improving employee motivation? Critically discuss this statement using appropriate theories and examples.
What is employee motivation?
How is employee motivation applied in business organisations
What are the factors affecting employee motivation
Lack of employee motivation
What are several ways that organisation may use to constantly motivate their employees.
This refers to a methodology that has been adopted to conduct a research. This involves a selection of both research questions, and research method such as primary research, secondary research etc.
Factors affecting employee motivation
Factors affecting employee motivation
Over 20 years
Refereed peer reviewed journals, professional journals, broadsheet newspapers, reliable websites, and academic textbooks
Peer reviewed journals, professional journals, broadsheet newspapers, reliable websites, and academic textbooks
Allowances and a safe working environment