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This individual report is to find out which is the most effective management approach on your personal opinion. In the end, I will choose only one of the effective management approaches to organizational structure and organizational relationship. The four management approaches which select are Classical Approach, Human Relationship Approach, The System Approach and The Contingency Theory. Every management approach will discuss base on the advantage and disadvantages to select as a most suitable management approach. Besides that, the condition to be a good leader will be discussed and identify in this report.
This report is to state which of the approaches that I consider is the most effective in support a goof organizational structure and organisational relationships. (Vasu, Stewart and Garson 1998, p.30) believes that theorists and practitioners of organisation theory today are persistently examining, revising and adapting organisation theory to fit real word needs. There are four main approach create and design to participate into the organisational structure and organizational relationship. In order to help identify main trends in the development organisational behavior and management theory, it is usual to categorise the works of writer into various approaches based on their view of organization, their structure and management. (Mullins, L. 2007, p.41).
The Classical Approach is concern on the planning of work, technical requirements of organization, and principles of management and assumption of rational and logical behavior.
Mullins, L. (2007, p.42) states that classical approach not only emphasis on a hierarchy of management and formal organisation relationship where the attention is on the distribution of work, and also the definition of duties and responsibilities, as fit as maintaining specialization and co-ordination in order to organization a most efficient structure to increase the productivity.
Mullins, L. (2007, p.42) believes the classical approach indentify general objectives of the organisation where would lead to increase the understanding on how the organization works and how it's working methods can be improved.
Human Relationship Approach
The human relations approach to organization theory stemmed from empirical research which found workers and their interpersonal relations affect what happen in organizations. (Vasu, Stewart and Garson, 1998, p.36).
Through the experiment of Hawthrone, the turning point in the development of human relations movement. There are four main phases to the Hawthrone experiment:
The illumination experiment
The relay assembly test room
The interviewing programme
The bank wiring observation room
This Human Relation Approach highly concerns on the importance of works group and leaderships, communications, output restrictions, motivation and job design. (Mullins, L., 2007, p.53)
The human relation approach recognized the importance of the informal organization. This will influence the motivation of employees who will view the organizations for which their works through the value and attitudes of their colleagues. (Mullins, L., 2007, p.54)
Figure 2: A System
Sources: Vasu, Stewart and Garson (1998, p.45)
The systems approach to organizational studies traces its ancestry to the decision-making approach with a strong highlighting on process and a rich description of organizational reality. System can be measured in two ways: (1) closed, (2) open. Besides that, open system can substitute information, energy, and material with their environment. Open system can be viewed from the perspective of a transformation model. (Vasu, Stewart and Garson, 1998, p.45).
Vasu, Stewart and Garson, (1998) states that they are in a situation of dynamic relationship with their environment, receiving various inputs, which the organization transform in some way, and then export output. All system requires feedback mechanism that alerts the system as to how effectively it is functioning. This system called a feedback loop.
According to the Mullins, L. (2007), attention is paying attention on the whole work organization and the interrelationships of structure and behavior, and also the range of variables within the organizations. The system approach encourages managers to view the organizations both as a whole and as a part of a larger environment. (Mullins, L., 2007, p.55)
Mullins, L. (2007, p.57) states that the contingency theory is concern on the important of the structure which is effectively affect the performance of the organizational The contingency theory, which also can call an extension of the system approach, highlight possible means of differentiating among alternative form of organization structure and system of management, that why there has no right way to solve. (Mullins, L., 2007, p.57)
Besides that, Mullins, L. (2007, p. 604) state that the process can defined as as "IF-THEN"
contingency relationship which is widely dependent on a range of situation variable to form of structure and management. Situational factors such as technology and environment factors would figure a different organization structure and system of management. The figure below shows the "IF-THEN" contingency relationship.
Figure 3: The "IF - THEN" Contingency Relationship
Sources: Mullins, L. (2007, p. 604)
Effective management approach
After studies and research the four main approaches, I will select the Contingency Approach as my most effective management approach to deliver the product on time, within budget and acceptable quality. This approach appropriately fit with the environment and human factors despite any changes of external environment. So, the proper organization and system or management would be form depend on the various type of task is undertaken and the nature of the work group. I no select others approach because others approach has no the same result is Contingency Approach.
The Classical Approach has not be select because this approach no concern on the human behavior and limited control over their work environment and consequently lead to low efficiency and also low productivity.
The System Approach have not be select because this approach the environment will influence the performance of workers such as passenger hoist would not work if overload of people or material. And these not acclimatize to the changes of environment condition.
Humans relations approach not been selected is because this approach is emphasis on social factors and human behavior within an organization, so lack of scientific view ignoring the role of the organization within society that will causes low productivity and weak performance. Besides that, informal organizations will influence the performance of workers.
Condition to be a Good Leader
Roger Darlington (2010) state that to be a good leader, leader should care their team member such as health, interest and hopes also stay close with the team member when the encounter the problems and give them the opportunity to raise suggestions.
Doyle, M. and Smith, M. (2001) state that what has start to enlarge was a contingency approach. The central idea was that effective leadership was dependent on a mix of factors. Three things are important here:
The leader shall maintain a good relationship with the partner or team member so that they are more support by the team member
Leader shall able clearly express the direction and goals without ambiguous to enhance a better understanding to the team member or partner on what to be carry out in order to accomplish a task and deliver a product on time, within budget and acceptable quality.
The position of power also will enhance the influence the leader to getting the job done. (Doyle, M. and Smith, M., 2001)
This is the figure to show that the Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership.
Figure 4: Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership
Sources: Hersey and Blanchard (Vasu, Stewart and Garson, 1998, p.110)
After studied and research four approaches, the conclusion is every management approach has disadvantage and advantages. It depends on which approach to be use on the various type of situations. But the only similar goals for this four management approaches is to enhance the productivity of works and complete on due date and achieve the acceptable quality of works.
Doyle, M. and Smith, M. (2001). Classical Leadership. [online]. Last accessed 28 June
2010 at: http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm
Mullins, L. (2007). Management and Organisation Behaviour. 8th ed., Prentice Hill
Roger Darlington (2010). HOW TO BE A GOOD LEADER. [Online]. Last assessed 28 June 2010 at: http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Leader.html
Vasu, Stewart and Garson (1998). Organisation Behaviour and Public Management. 3rd
ed., [online]. Marcel Dekker Incorporated, New York. Book from Google Books last
accessed 27 June 2010 at: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=bu2JkldQjXcC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=classi