The Modern Views On Motivation Commerce Essay


In this assignment I have analysed and discussed the modern views on motivation. I have selected Air India Airlines as a company which is currently facing the staff motivation issues at work. Further I have discussed the ideas it has implemented to overcome the demotivation of staff in the organisation. I have concluded my assignment by discussing the relationship between the appropriate recruitment and selection strategies and staff motivation.

This theory allows an individual to select a specific behaviour overviewing others as he perceives a desirable result or outcome. According to his needs and desires, he chooses the most relevant behaviour.

The following factors acts as a base of an individual's motivation force:

Instrumentality probability: It refers to performance - reward relationship. For the employee who believes that better performance will fetch him more rewards, it acts as a hope. For example: Mr A who achieved his target for the last month feels that he will get promoted if he achieves his targets this month in just two weeks.

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Expectancy probability: It refers to effort - performance relationship.

For example: Instead of four days in a week if Mr A works for 6 days in a week, he can achieve his monthly target in just two weeks.

Valance: This factor differs from individual to individual as how he determines the value to the rewards. For example: Mr A wanted salary hike in his early twenties, but not that he is in late thirties he values promotion to a better position over the salary. So here the value of better position is more than the higher salary, which means the preference of a reward can change depending on the employee.

This theory has been recognised and implemented in different industries and departments and proved it flexible enough to give the desired outcomes to the management. It shows that what we perceive that an individual's behaviour at work, his expectations and needs, they are much more complex in reality. His performance depends on several factors like knowledge, experience, skills, motivational forces, personality and expectations. The above formula helps to calculate an individual's behaviour, needs, probability of duration he will stay with the job, job satisfaction and occupational choice.

Reinforcement Theory:

Burrhus Frederic Skinner offers this theory which shows the dependency of employee behaviour on the outcome or result of their actions. The management (manager) can implement this theory in four different methods to manage or control an employee's behaviour.

Positive Reinforcement: When a manager sees that his employee is giving desired outcome and showing positive behaviour, he should appreciate his employee's efforts. For Example: If an employee is punctual to his work, the manager should appreciate his efforts to be on time at work. This would motivate the employee to adhere to this positive behaviour in future. Often positive behaviour can be rewarded as it acts as a real motivator in long term.

Negative Reinforcement: It is a contrast to positive reinforcement. When a manager sees that his employee has stopped showing negative behaviour, he should appreciate his employee's efforts. For Example: If an employee started being punctual at work, the manager should appreciate him for the improvements which in turn helped him to show the positive behaviour at work.

Punishment: For the employees who are showing negative behaviour or undesirable outcomes, their manager should implement negative consequences. For Example: Unpunctual employees should get half - day marked which means they will lose half day's pay. This method helps manager to prevent the negative behaviour in long term.

Extinction: It implies removal of the reinforcement. If a manager stops appreciating his employees good work, that might lead to their assumption of not been able to produce the desired outcomes. And thus extinction may further lead to the loss of desired outcome or positive behaviour. For Example: If an employee sees that his manager doesn't notice he being punctual at work, he might lay back and start coming late to work.

Three Needs Theory:

Mc Clelland offered this theory which explains that an employee's effectiveness at work and motivation are affected by three absolute needs. They are as follows:

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Achievement: Employees with high achievement needs are goal-oriented. Every action they take is circling around their target. These set of employees tend to work in the situation where there is high growth prospectus or success rate. They constantly review their feedback.

Affiliation: Employees with high affiliation needs are team- oriented. They like to work in a situation where they are well treated and accepted by the subordinates. They like to get recognition in term of interpersonal skills and interaction.

Power: Personal and institutional - are the types of power an individual can possess. Personal power is of no use in an organisation but institutional power acts as a defining factor in the smooth functioning and in achieving goals of an organisation. It empowers them to delegate the work and supervise it.

The organisation can imply this theory right when they employ the employees by going through some aptitude tests designed to categories them on the basis of their needs. This will eventually help the management to delegate the task related to their needs, which in turn will help to keep them motivated throughout the task and also to retain them in harsh situations.

All these theories are based on the understanding that the workers would change and react to the pace of the surrounding. But the reaction changes depending whether the individual is in a team or working solely. Due to the difference in both the reaction and the speed, managerial strategies cannot be same for all. As Maslow argued in his theory that human needs, both psychological and physiological when remains unsatisfied acts as motivation. However once the need is fulfilled the urge to meet the need of next level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, develops. Thus this cycle of unsatisfied need - need becomes motivation - fulfilled need - developing the urge of need from next level - becomes unsatisfied need, goes on. For human resource department, in order to use its employees effectively has to understand the need of its employees and design the performance or reward plan accordingly to keep them motivated.

Task 2

Company Name: Air India Airlines

I have selected Air India Airlines as a company for my assignment. The reason I have selected it because this airline is facing major staff motivation issues. The company has faced a ten day strike from 27th April 2011 to 6th May 2011; also there is a high staff turnover issue.

Air India Airlines is India national carrier with 158 planes. The main reasons for staff demotivation are differences in the salaries and the working conditions between the existing and new pilots. The company was hiring new staff at higher salary packages however was not increasing the salaries of the existing staff. On interviewing by a Mid-day Reporter, the staff said that if they quit Air India and join another company at least they will be treated with respect. Pilots also had issues with the way they are treated. To ensure the strike ends and to motivate and retain the staff again, the management implemented following steps:

Salary Hike: Employees worked more than two years with the company, were ensured about the salary hike by 10% of the existing salary. It worked as money acted as a motivator for many employees. The main issue of differences in the salary was resolved fairly without demotivating the new employees.

Rewards and Recognition: Employees were upset about the way they were treated. The management implemented certain procedures in its functioning, wherein the employees feel heard. Those procedures gave them opportunity to have their opinion in the company's decision. The need of affiliation rose, which is pacified by giving respect to the employees and their opinion. Also the company announced to reward the employees on the basis of performance monthly, bi-annually and annually. This will ensure that along with retaining the pilots the management was able to motivate them to work efficiently and effectively.

Perks and facilities: As the aviation sector is a highly demanding sector, the employees have to follow a very stringent schedule. Thus they get very little opportunity to have any social life. Hence the management introduced the facilities like gymnasium, pools and lounges for the employees. They increased the perks like incentives, holidays and bonuses. Also an addition to the existing perks, the performing employees will get free entry to the Air India's First Class Lounge.

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Trainings: Mostly hospitality industry offers intangible products and services, so at times it becomes difficult to understand the motivation factor of the employees. The management designed a special training to the managers to learn different ways of motivating the employees. As a staff of an aviation company, the pilots and the crew members have to work twelve hours or more, this leads to frustration sometimes. But if a manager knows how to calm down and motivate the staff for the next day, then that will lead to maintain the satisfied and motivated staff also that will help organisation as a whole to reduce the staff turnover.

Every organisation invests a lot of money in recruiting and training its staff. So it becomes very important for the organisation to retain the staff. The staff will be retained by the organisation as long as the management keep its staff motivated all the time. It is indeed a difficult task but the above contemporary theories and views on motivation helps the management to design the measures according to the nature of organisation and the labour market.

Task 3

The accurate recruitment and selection strategies and process of motivating the employees are inter-related. If right candidates are recruited, selected and employed, there is less possibility of them feeling demotivated.

There are different strategies for recruitment and selection based on the type of industry, type of job, type of labour market, size of the organisation and so on. Therefore it is very crucial for the human resource department to choose the accurate strategy for recruitment and selection.

Recruitment Strategy:

Recruitment starts with job analysis. Job analysis refers to the nature of the job, time required to perform it and job requirements. Job requirements consist of two defining factors - Job description and person specification. The human resource team has to be very agile while preparing the above two as they form the base of selection process. According to Michael Riley (p.p. 109) there are three basic recruitment strategies:

Ring the bell: The organisation needs to make it visible in the market.

Pump up the balloon: Pay more to increase the diameter of the labour market.

Do it yourself: Lower the hiring standards and offer more training to increase the size of labour market.

Recruitment is about informing the labour market about the requirements for the job vacancy. Internal recruitment is another way a company can implement to fill a vacancy through internal job posting, internal exams and referrals. It saves time and money and also helps the employee to understand the working and the culture as he is already working for the company.

Selection tools:

Depending on the nature of job, selection tools need to be selected accurately. Application forms, interviews, situational role plays, psychometric tests, curriculum vitae are some of the majorly used selection tools.

Application forms: This selection tool is majorly used by all big companies, as it gives standardised information about the applicant related to job requirements, thus saves time when more number of candidates needs to be selected.

Interviews: It is a one on one personal assessment where a candidate is assessed by one or more personnel for his interpersonal skills, confidence and response in difficult circumstances. Interviews are further classified as unstructured, semi-structured and structured.

Situational role plays: When the job vacancy is more field specific, candidates are assessed by giving role plays. This selection tool gives both the employer and the candidate the clear understanding of the job requirement and the candidate's ability to face it.

Psychometric tests: These tests are designed to understand the psychology, ability, motivation and personality of the candidate. Sometimes these tests are followed by aptitude tests depending on the job requirement.

Curriculum Vitae: It briefs the company about the candidate's qualifications, skills, work experiences, interests, aims and aspirations. CV's are used majorly as a selection tool. The information provided in the CV is assessed later.

The relationship between accurate recruitment and selection strategies and the staff motivation:

The recruitment and the selection process of the company have to be strategically designed to ensure that the right candidate gets filtered through the process and gets employed. It helps the organisation to achieve its goals and objectives. An organisation becomes effective only if its employees are motivated and enthusiastic about the work. This is why the recruitment plays an important role as it refers to job analysis which in turn is a significant factor of motivation. Because it clearly explains the job description and the person specification. Job description should give all the details including the roles, responsibilities and working conditions of the position. If the human resource department fails to do so, it will lead to a demotivated employee. For Example: If an employee is employed for the position of data analysis as per job description, but due to inadequate data the management asks the employee to carry out some marketing surveys in the field and collect the data, it is going to demotivate the employee right in the beginning, as the field work was never mentioned in his job description. And once the employee is demotivated, it is very difficult to get the desired outcome from him.

Similarly selection tools are very significant for employing a right candidate. For Example: If an airlines company wants to recruit a pilot, the human resource personnel should use the selection tools as situational role plays, rather than using the tools like aptitude test based on customer services, as during his work he does not have much interaction with the passengers. However at the same time if the company is recruiting a ground staff, the personnel should use interviews, psychometric tests, curriculum vitae rather than using an intellectual test based on technical knowledge on the planes.

Sometimes, in order to get a job, candidates give incomplete or incorrect information, a selection tool is appropriate only if it helps to employ the right employee.

I have concluded from this research that from an organisations point of view, it is quite expensive to recruit, select and train an employee. Therefore it is very important for the company to keep them motivated at all times by ensuring that they are satisfied with their pay, fair treatment, facilities, other perks and incentives.