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In this report is to emphasize the developments of main approaches to organisation and management which are classical approach, human relations approach and system approach. However, the importance of management is to discuss motivation, leadership and organisation development on human motivation and their applications through the working industry. Besides, I will carry out various approaches to consider which one is the most effective in encouraging a good organisational structure and organisational relationships in management approaches.
There are many management approaches like classical approach can be divided into two major sub-groups which are scientific management and bureaucracy is to focus more on formal structure, management hierarchy and principles of management. On the other hand, human relations approach is emphasize on neo-human relations in order to well motivation, behaviour of people and participation in organisation. Besides, systems approach is integration of classical and human relation approaches and highlight on organisation within its outside environment. However, attention is how the process of organisation and implement information in order to have effective decision making.
After that, I shall evaluate the organisation and management approaches to implement in construction organisation. Finally, I will summarise and produce the most appropriate approach to form a good leader in order to improve work organisation performance and management.
THE MAJOR TRENDS IN MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
According to Etzioni, A (2010) stated that "â€¦greater effectiveness and efficiency in organisations gave rise to the Classical Theory of Administration, or more appropriately scientific management." In the word of classical approach can be defined as the organisation in terms principle and proper structure. On the other hand, classical approach is focus more on management hierarchy, work preparation or planning, scientific requirements and rational performance. Besides, to recognise the organisation purpose is actually significant to identify how the works of organisation can be improved. However, that is no any argument between staff and organisation which means good management will create good quality worker in the work organisation. At last, the higher pay to the worker satisfaction, the better the productivity can be achieved.
Initially, the management analysis is carried out by professional writers who are Henri Fayol (1841-1925) and Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was concerned with upgrading management structure as a way of good efficiency. However, this management approach is to provide better explanation of roles and responsibilities, work division and retaining specialisation and organisation. Classical approach is consists of three major ways to management which are scientific management, administrative and bureaucratic.
Scientific Management can be referred as Taylor system. This theory created by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1917). The method of scientific to the management of employees strongly could improve productivity. At the same time, there is the best machine used for each work and could also design the best principles technique of performing every single task or to increasing profitability and productivity for the employees. However, regarding scientific principles might supervise the employees to ensure that comply with the ways of prescribed for performing their activity. For instance, employee will select and focus on only one most excellent method to perform a task.
This bureaucracy structure consists of big organisation and comply hierarchy principles. The importance of bureaucracy is a sub-division under the classical management; however the work organisation and management could be separated approach which means organisation structure is under control by the high level of position. Among different level of position, the organisation task is distributed as duties of administrator. The standard rules and regulation systems was achieved by uniformity of making decision and achievement. At the same time, bureaucracy must base on efficiency and stability in order to form of the greatest organisation in the society.
Human Relations Approach
According to Akrani, G (2011) advocated that "The human relations experts tried to integrate psychology and sociology with management...organisation is a social system of interpersonal and intergroup relationships..." Human relation approach can be described as human behaviour approach and informal approach within an organisation. In addition, top organisation must understand the human being emotions and feeling in order to perform their task with productivity. Next, the workers motivation will influenced by the informal organisation and the importance of work groups, leadership, communication, output restrictions, motivation and job design was a new ideas created by Hawthorne experiments. Whereas, employees should carry out the work through attitude and morale of their partner within work organisation and direct to ideas on improving production. Based on human relation approach described that worker only consider their needs rather than reward of monetary.
The management is most important emphasizing of concern which each personal change within the work organisation and achieve of relationship and leadership approach. The writes of neo-human relation are Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor, Likert and Argyris. In essence theory of Maslow, every personality development and motivation are based on a human needs hierarchy.
Figure 1.0 Maslow Hierarchy of needs five stages model
Once the needs are fulfilled then we would carry on to greater level of satisfy needs in the hierarchy. Maslow Hierarchy of needs five stages model shown the figure 1.0 above start from lowest level is physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, needs of self-esteem and finally at the highest level is self-actualisation needs.
Highest need level.
Involves an individual's desire to realize full potential.
Can be satisfied without this level.
Need for personal sense of accomplishment, mastery.
Need for respect, recognition, attention, and appreciation
Need for love, affection, sense of belonging in one's relationship
Dealings with friends, family, and colleagues fall in here.
Safety and Security
Need for security in relationships
Need for security, protection from future threats, and stability.
Basic needs: food and water
Figure 1.1 Herzberg's Two-Factors
In Herzberg can classified as two factors which are hygiene factors and growth factor shown in figure 1.1 above, however hygiene factors affecting the motivation and dissatisfaction at job environment. On the other hand, growth factor is concern on the job content. The neo-human relations approach has created to progressing consideration being given to motivation, leadership style, participation, communication, work satisfaction and also structure of work organisation.
According to Anon, (2009) opined that "...a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole." This systems approach consists of two types of system which are open system and closed system. Based on open system are only emphases on interaction with its environment, whereas closed system is not effected by or not interact with its environment. Besides, the system approach efforts to reconcile two approaches which are classical and human relations approach in that area of work organisation, variables in organisation range and also the arrangement and conduct interrelationships. Open system is systems approach on the fact by business organisation with emphasize on the organisation within its environment and the importance of various conduit of interaction. However, this system also contain of relationship between social and technical variables. In addition, in order to have good effective decision making in the work organisation must to ensure requirements is to achieve the best information and communication skills.
According to Mullins, (2010) stated that "...the importance of structure as a significant influence on organisational performance."The contingency approach can be described as focuses on distinguishing between different structures of organisation and management systems. On the other hand, this system is a good structure form and system of management is relied upon the situational analysis. Among the structure of working organisation is also much dependent on personalities, informal management and cooperation. Moreover, methods to improve is utilise on the formal management, using the Hierarchy of needs model in order to manage and control the entire organisation and management well and provide with enhanced responsibility. In fact, the structure formal management change will affected the change of human behaviour and values or morale of the working organisation.
MOST EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING A GOOD ORGANISATION STRUCTURE
The four different types of approaches there are classical, human-relation, systems and contingency approach. In my point of view, I will select the human eelation approach as my most effective in encouraging a good management structure in order to provide a useful and classification within work organisation and their applications through the working industry. The general human relation approach principles are the employee required recognition and appreciation which are effective in encouraging a better organisation structure. The employees are also not interested in monetary reward. Whereas, a manager must taking good care between the employees because they are needs some rest and not treated like machines. For instance, good working environment is very useful to motivate the employee.
As a manager shall provide the facilities for employee to ensure the employees are convenient and allow them to rest during break hour. This will help to motivate employee and gives more efficiency and productive when employee performing their task. Somehow, top management must really understand about employee feelings and emotions such as flexible working environment is very helpful to increase staff morale especially increase their performance level and productivity if not the employees will become tired from longer period. However working overtime must be avoided by control the employees working hours so that the employees perform in workplace seem much happier and motivation. Besides, improved communication between employees and manager so that the work can be perform easily and effectiveness. For example, to discuss about the employees opinions or problems and make the best solution to solve it so that it can improving the employees morale and spirit on performing task and also company can achieve the high productivity. The target of employees required a high job security and satisfaction. So, human relation approach in organisation employee dislike misunderstanding and conflict all the time. In this situation, top management should be able to solve the problem by using negotiation strategies which are collaborative (win-win) this strategy is represented in the relationship and outcomes are important. This result is most likely when both parties can meets the needs and satisfaction of the particular situation. Hence, employees may increase the overall performance in the task and build up the good communication with each other members. Lastly, employees would like to have participation in decision making because it is the one of the useful factor to improve staff morale. For instance, company shall offer training program so that employees can participate with well understand on decision making and the employees performance can increasing their skill and knowledge in the future, at the same time it can achieve professional career progression and also effective in promoting a good organisational structure.
Human Relation Approach
Explanation and solution
Human relation approach consist of conduct and informal. Moreover, this approach is emphasize on job satisfaction, needs complexity not in monetary allowance, but also involve motivation. In fact, employees are better productivity and efficiency in the work organisation. However, in neo-human relation there are Maslow and Herzberg theory can be apply into this condition.
There are 5 levels of need and are arranged in a hierarchy. Unsatisfied needs motivate behaviour. Applications of the hierarchy of needs to management and the workplace are obvious. According to the implications of the hierarchy, individuals must have their lower level needs met by, for example safe working conditions and job security before they will be motivated by increased job responsibilities, status, and challenging work assignments. Despite the ease of application of this theory to a work setting, this theory has received little research support and therefore is not very useful in practice. Whereas, if we would like to motivate the employees under Maslow concept, we must first fulfil their basic physiological needs which are the most important needs for everyone. After this, only we provide the higher level of requirements to them. On the other hand, motivate by fulfilling their needs according to the level of hierarchy from the lowest to the highest. The lowest ones must be achieved before continue to the upper stages of needs. The job satisfactions are in the esteem needs. Besides, it means job achievement and achieves a statue in a job.
There are certain factors that tend to be consistently related to job satisfaction (motivational factor) and also there are certain factors which are consistently related to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factor). Under hygiene factor, they do not motivate employee if they present but will lead to dissatisfaction if absent. Whereas the motivation factors have a positive effect on job satisfaction and often results in increase of output. Motivation factors enhance morale, efficiency and productivity. If these factors are present they motivate but if absent does not lead to dissatisfaction. To motivate the employees, according to the theory, managers must focus on changing the intrinsic nature and content of jobs themselves by "enriching" them to increase employees' autonomy and their opportunities to take on additional responsibility, gain recognition, and develop their skills and careers. Hygiene factors are very important element to maintain an employees' job satisfaction, in order to motivate a person, to provide sufficient and proper hygiene factors first, then only we consider about the motivation factors to enhance the employees' productivity.
The employees will work harder to have great performance once they are interesting on the work.
Under social or belongingness and love needs, it says that the employees will have need on the good relationship between colleague and boss. Thus, it does motivate employee under good affiliation.
A good competitive can bring up certain stress, which can encourage the employees to more achievement, responsibility challenge and advancement.
ATTRIBUTES OF A GOOD LEADER
According to RICS (2010) stated that "...act with integrity and avoid conflict of interest... are inconsistent with their professional obligations."
Integrity is important in work organisation. Due to practice trustworthy in dealing with client communication is also one of bringing great level of personal integrity. At the same time, integrity can be formed as a set of morality or virtue and the rules of behaviour recognize in a particular profession. This also can be enhanced personal image which can encourage the employees to have better achievement and successful employees. However, good fulfilling with human needs, to form integrity and also to improve decision making within community.
Competence and Experience
According to RICS (2010) opined that "...skill, care and diligence with proper regard for the technical standard expected of them."
The importance of competence is considered the formal knowledge and experience, ability from the talent performance for decision making. On the other hand, experience is very essential for employee to enter in the work organisation and their applications through the working industry it is because employees perform with high experience can contribute with maximum work efficiently and achieve to the highest standard of quality work.
Emotional Intelligence and Expert
To improve intelligence organisation community, establish each professional person to consist of social skills to maintain relationship and good in communication, motivation, and self-regulation. Hence, it can improve the entire quality of the organisation work. For instance, professional members shall carry out with good relationship, spirit, care and with proper regard for organization change. Thus, both parties willing to work together such as manager and employees can be meets their needs and satisfaction of the particular situation.
Martinuzzi, B. 2012
To achieve professional responsibility behaviour must ensure right quality of care. The employees shall responsible for the job organisation which must achieve the client satisfactions and needs. For instance, a professional responsibility of employees will get motivated if they feel responsible on the job that have been done by them are appreciate by their manager. When employees felt that their work was appreciated, this will lead employees to work with greater performance and achieve with highest standard of quality work.
Every work organisation is essential to have creativity this is because peoples are able to perform their task with critical thinking to solve the critical problems simultaneously and strong imaginational to produce better work quality and opportunity.
Bewick, J. 2005
Skill and Knowledge
The professional manager is required to utilise his improvement skill and knowledge in working industry. The main purposes are to provide priority in human development as to continually improve human technical skills and exceptional high quality products. Besides, when problems arise the professional manager has ability to have problem solving skill. For instance, negotiate with management and exchange ideas to become a right decision making. Finally it is able to achieve the overall satisfaction decision.
Falconer, E. 2006
Moral and principles
Standard of right or wrong behaviour are very significant when a person is performing the good or right things as well as preventing what is bad or mistake occur in the future. At the same time, this is essential to carry out expectation for other peoples conduct.
Polonio, N. 2012
Management theories and approaches are emphasizing on how manager relate to their work organisation and how to motivate the performance of the employees in order to achieve the highest standard of work. Currently, the majority of the constructions industries are produce a foundation to which better understanding on how management approaches and theories when applied can establish better process of effectiveness.
Management approaches and theories help us to manage particularly construction industry. In different types of management approaches are able to utilise them in a given situation so, to establish a better effective and process of efficiency. In addition, the interrelationship between the management theory and practices and organisational behaviour it allow the manager to apply from various management approaches into suitable for the particular of the work organisation Hence, organisation structure perform with high experience, contribute with maximum work efficiently and achieve to the highest standard of quality work.