It is argued that Multinational Enterprises must develop distinct capabilities if they are to gain competitive edge in managing people. Many enterprises pay attention to international human resource management models. There are many models such as multicultural model, supranational model, competent model, missionary model and so on. This paper will demonstrate how these can be achieved within an organization so enabling them to deliver competitive advantage.
II Literature review
2.1 The application of human resources management
Taking the four main problems into considerations, the final analysis is that there are two basic aspects that company should improve. Strategic management as a discipline originated in the 1950s and 1960s. It is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of ï¬rms in their external environments. It is a level of managerial activity under setting goals and over Tactics. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and is closely related to the field of Organization Studies.
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2.2 The function of Human resources department manager
Human resources department manager originally called the personnel manager. The biggest difference between them lies in human resources manager emphasis on the development of human resources, but the personnel manager focus on the use of human resources. A human resource (HR) manager helps operate an organization by recruiting right candidates. His duties and responsibilities may vary according to the size and structure of the organization. In large organizations, the duties of HR manager, and other managers, are clearly defined but in small organizations, they may have overlapping duties and responsibilities.
This makes it a highly complex function - because it deals with not just management issues but human ones as well. Whether a business develops healthy or not depends on the degree of attention to human resources management. Human resource means that to make the most use of the human potential. Taking the successful business as an example, such companies always have similar principles. For example, they use people-oriented approach and respect individuals' culture; they often estimate the needs of employees and investigate the degree of staff's satisfactions.
2.3 The importance of human resource management
The human resource management has gone from the traditional hire and fire role to a strategic partner at the table with finance, operations and other business centers that are not centers of profit for the organization. The job of HR, as is the job of all such departments, is to ensure that the business gets the most out of its employees. Another way to put this is that the human resource management needs to provide a high return on the business's investment in its people.
This makes it a highly complex function - because it deals with not just management issues but human ones as well. Whether a business develops healthy or not depends on the degree of attention to human resources management. Human resource means that to make the most use of the human potential. Taking the successful business as an example, such companies always have similar principles. For example, they use people-oriented approach and respect individuals' culture; they often estimate the needs of employees and investigate the degree of staff's satisfactions. Frequently in managing the people element of their business senior managers will only focus on one or two dimensions and neglect to deal with the others. Typically, companies reorganize their structures to free managers from bureaucracy and drive for more entrepreneurial flair but then fail to adjust their training or reward systems.
When the desired entrepreneurial behavior does not emerge managers frequently look confused at the apparent failure of the changes to deliver results. The fact is that seldom can you focus on only one area. What is required is a strategic perspective aimed at identifying the relationship between all four dimensions.
Modern management master Peter Ducker said "Man is the only real resource in the enterprise." That is the human resource is the lifeblood of enterprise development. How to maximize completes the human resources management, to mobilize the enthusiasm of the employees, each enterprise managers must take such problems into consideration.
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2.4 The model of multinational corporation HRM
The first is called region-centric principle which indicates that sorts the sub companies by regions, then coordinates the local human resource management policy and appoints a native people to be the manager in this sub company. The second mode is global-centric principle show that corporate headquarters and various sub companies form a global net which is regarded as an economic entity but not some sub companies amalgamate with the parent firms. With a marked growth in both the globalization of business and the specialization of talents, more and more companies attempt to enforce not only the management of macro operation, but also the micro-control called human resource management (HRM). HRM can be defined as the special analysis and supervision of employees, which would ultimately contribute to the interests of a company. Though it costs significantly, developing a formal HRM department is indeed necessary to a firm. Therefore, this essay will emphasize the grave concern about the importance of HRM and explain the reasons. So far, there are numerous brunches of HRM around the world, among which the international human resource management (IHRM) and the talent management should be the most famous and remarkable research. IHRM, which may be defined as the problems arising from the company and the strategies dealing with those problems, is considered to be a crucial factor, especially for multi-national corporations (Scullion, 1995). Meanwhile, IHRM has certainly played a unique role to tackle some special problems in those companies. When an organization has some different companies in different countries, for example, it will particularly recruit various types of labor including the parent-country nationals (PCNs), host-country nationals (HCNs) and third-country nationals (TCNs) (Scullion, H., 2005). IHRM is what this organization needs to identify and classify employees coming from different backgrounds so that each type of talent may perform the best in the company. Besides, In terms of the huge amount of burdens on working in HRM, building a formal IHRM strategy would improve the efficiency of management.
To achieve a fit between the strategic needs of the business and the people resources needed to execute against those needs, using HR policies, practices, and programs to gain that alignment. The goal of strategic human resource management is to execute today's strategy to be successful today. This part will introduce the two models.
3.1 Competent models
3.1.1 The definition of the competent model
It refers to use the way to definite and describe the requirement for staff to get the knowledge, skills, quality and operational capability. Through the different stages definition and the description of concert behavior, they can make sure that the core competent and the proficiency. These behaviors and skills can be judged and directive the personal performance and success of the staffs.
The competent model often contains three kinds of capabilities: common use competent, transferable competent and unique competent. The common use competent fingers that quality of all the staffs in the enterprises which are the representation of the enterprise culture and the requirement of the staffs. It can reflect that behavioral patterns which the enterprise recognized. The transferable competent is multi-characters in the enterprise need skills and methods, but the extent of importance and proficiency are different. The unique competent refers to the specific skills for some specific character and job. In general condition, the unique competent is set for the specific position. Generally speaking, not all the enterprises can adopt the competent model in human resource management the international enterprises in the world use this model. Of course, not the big enterprises can use this model. Otherwise, the high- technology department in technology-based and innovational enterprises can adopt the management model, and the labor-intensive enterprises do not suitable the human resource management model.
3.1.2 The objective of building the competent model
To build the core competent system for develop the competent of the staffs; the ultimate aim is to support the requirement for developing of the enterprises. If the enterprises want to build and develop competent model in their company, they will find the suitable people to accomplish the operate aim. At the same time, insider will be get the training from the human resource department. Staff's competent support the operation of enterprises and the development of enterprises requires high quality of staffs. Only depending on the two sides supplement each other, continuous renewal, the enterprise can develop and staff can improve their capabilities. No matter how short or long time, the enterprises setting the goal, the staff's competent is the governing principle for development.
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When they build up the competent model, they should know the long-term operate goal and business strategy of all the enterprises. Form the analysis above, the advantages of the model can be described as follows: what aspect of core competitive power can support the position of the enterprises? The key competent of enterprises depends on the staffs; this is the requirement for insider. The human resource management department should select the right person who can support the development of enterprises.
Thus, to find the management results is helpful for enterprises, to understand how to build and train this kind of competent.
3.2 The motivating organization model
Getting employees energized, directed, and sustained towards reaching the goal. Effort is a measure of intensity or drive. Direction is toward organizational goals. Need is personalized reason to exert effort. Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals.
3.2.1 The objective of the motivating organization model
Under the market economy, helping the staffs to find their potential and paid their money to satisfied them. The enterprises can set up the scientific and suitable salary system, and make the salary have relations with the economic benefit and achievement. To make the salary give full play to guarantee and encouragement, the enterprises can remove the enthusiasm for staffs. The motivating organization model plays the most important for developing the economic benefit. There have two ways to encourage the staff to work hard: reasonable salary and training. The human resource management department should organize the classes to train the staffs. When they find staff's potential, the staff may have confidence to them and work very hard for the enterprises. They can hold the classes to make the staffs to get the specific knowledge, skills every other week. They can also make a reasonable salary system to encourage the staffs. Enterprises can make the wage system for staffs. They can give those wages by the positions. For example, according to the position, we think the office worker's salary is the lowest wage in the enterprises. Suppose that his wages is X, and ensure the proportion of station and the minimum wages of office workers
Manage the range of the administrative staff in the enterprises
Host staff member
These are the reasonable example of salary system in enterprises, which have a motivating organization model.
Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Although some policies may have a good influence on development of the enterprises in the short-term, to achieve the long-term aim, it is necessary to study the foreign enterprises human management. After studying on the international human resource management, people should pay attention to the human resource management model. Through refers to the application of human resources management and the mode of multinational corporation human resource management, this paper describe two of the models to show the advantages of the international human resource management. As for enterprises, learn how to use model to operate is a good way to develop. The other models are also have deep influence on the human resource management.