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The most important factor to build in to the VBA's process design is constituted by dependability rather than the other operation objectives. It is because the achievements of this objective catalyze the achievements of the other objectives.
In the context of VBA process, Dependability refers to the situation when the technological resources and human competencies work as expected. The technology built into the process must work efficiently based on the level that the company expected and should contribute to the achievement of the particular goals of the organization.
The Human resources overseeing the company operations and directly acting in it should also meet their assigned tasks and must contribute to the overall operations of the company.
Dependability is defined asÂ "the collective term used to describe the availability of performance and its influencing factors: reliability, performance, maintainability performance and maintenance support performance.
Dependability is used only for general descriptions in non-quantitative terms and is a time-related aspect of quality. Therefore in the case of VBA, it involves the existence of performance reliability and maintenance of the desired level to ensure the continuous flow of daily operations of the flower auction company.
In the process design of VBA has dependability already been integrated into it, it should be easier for the company to achieve its other objectives such as ensuring quality of process and product output, the speed of process cycle completion, flexibility of the process due to the quality performance of technology and human resources, and the achievement of cost-efficiency because of minimal or zero mistakes and delays.
Quality is achieved through dependability. VBA requires quality in two major areas of operations. One is in its storage facility to ensure that the flowers delivered to the company for auction are preserved. The other is in its auction facility using the conveyor to display flowers and the timer system connected to a computer to process successful bidders. The quality of the transaction between the company and the bidders is achieved only if the auction system is reliable.
TASK 2 ANSWERS 2
Sketch the flow of flowers in the VBA operation. What do you think are the critical points in this flow?
The process flow of VBA is divided into the activities that occur in the sellers and buyers area. In the seller's area, four key activities define the process flow. The acceptance of the flowers delivered to the company by its suppliers is the first step. In this first stage, the orders are crosschecked with those that were delivered. It is done in order ensure that the company obtains the quantity and kind of flowers it needs to meet buyer demands. During this point, the company has an idea of the volume of flowers showing whether there will be shortage or surplus. Second is the referencing of the flowers according to kind and batch of its arrival. It is important because the company auctions the flowers based on its kind and its time of arrival to ensure the provision of various flowers to choose from and its freshness of flowers. Referencing is also important in pulling out flowers from storage for auctioning. The third part is inspection for quality and documentation of descriptions on the delivery forms which is attached to the flower trolleys. It speeds up the process as having a delivery form with the trolleys with a quality record and the description of the batch to be signed by the buyer and the releasing officer.
The Fourth part is the placement of the flowers in cold storage. The arrangement is important in this part to ensure the accessibility the flowers according to its type and batch. This supports efficiency since placement coincides with auction done by type and batch.
TASK 3 ANSWER 3
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT RELATES TO MODERN JOB DESIGN
The Process technology supports the achievement of the operations objectives of VBA by providing a tool that links and organises the different resources and systems of the company towards a cohesive and unified output directed towards the achievement of predetermined objectives. It is a necessary tool in the operations of VBA as the scale of its operation requires something to tie up the contributions of its employees, the operations of its machineries, the flow of its logistics, and transactions with the suppliers and buyers. Process technology in the business setting is defined as "the methods, techniques, and technologies supporting and coordinating different kinds of process-based activities".
It works through the process model that involves the explicit and detailed account of tasks, procedures and artefacts constituting the process to be followed in achieving the goals of the organisation. There are tools available to analyse and edit the detailed account of the elements of the process. After it has been tested to be valid this can then be put through a process engine that records, summarises and monitors the process flow. Through this technology, VBA is able to map out process design, check for viability, and enact the process with documentation and monitoring to track the limit that objectives have been met. Â
TASK 1 ANSWER 5
Business process reengineering (BPR) is to redesign and analyse the different operations within the workflow of the company. It's main Its main goal id to improve performance and reduce costs. It examines the goals of a business and to redesign work and business processes to attain more productivity and profits. Today in the world of Globalization BPR is driven by competition and open markets. BPR is not just eliminating jobs but to redesign the whole process to get better results. To initiate BPR one has to understand the fundamentals of the operation of the business like how it works, what are the procedures etc.
BPRÂ can be defined as the efficient and effective implementation of different policies and tasks necessary to satisfy the shareholders and stakeholders of the company like employees, customers, society and management. It focuses on the careful management of the processes involved in the distribution and production of goods and services. The main drawback of BPR is that it mainly targets the employees who have to suffer because of downsizing in order to sustain the company and more work pressure is given to them.
OBJECTIVES OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING
The managers carrying out BPR should focus on these points.
Focus on customer needs and market requirements and being flexible as per the customer needs.
Improve all business processes throughout the organization.
Use latest technology to redesign the process to make the improvements.
Always keep in mind the basic business and people values.
Reorganize the business into functional teams with responsibility for each process.
TECHNIQUES USED FOR BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING.
Statistical Process Control.
Scatter diagrams which help in identifying the relationship and influence within the process.
Flow Charts which helps to describe the nature of flow and making decisions with in the business.
Pareto diagrams which help to sort out few important causes from the 'trivial many' causes.
Why-Why analysis that helps to find out the root cause of the problem.
METHODS OF BPR
Simplify the new process and reduce the steps to save time and money.
Assign the work to different departments and give them responsibilities.
Train the staff in their relevant departments.
Check the progress of the new process.
Finally, present the new process to the bosses.
Modern software's are used in today's world in BPR to get maximum results like SAP, SILVERRUN'S, Protos software which helps in reduction of cost, better use of resources etc. It gives detail analysis of the structure and the methods needed to change to a better structre of the business.
Total Quality Management(TQM) is also a tool used for BPR, it is a mix of attitude, culture of a company to provide good customer service with its goods and services and aims to maintain a profitable business.
ADVANTAGES AND USE OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING
It helps in reducing the cost, time taken for a certain process
It helps in eliminating activities which are of unproductive and thereby increasing the productivity.
Removes the errors which are caused by the workers, helps in increasing the information between the departments and decreases the need for different layers of management.
BPR helps to improve the quality by reducing the unnecessary layers of work and thereby establishing clear idea for the process.
Workers gain responsibility and their work can be measured based on their individual performance which also helps in promoting and appreciation of the workers.
Though many companies big and small uses BPR every one is not successful because many employees find the BPR method as a way to eliminate jobs and increased work pressure but if carried out properly with the support from the employees can bring good results to the company.
TASK 1 ANSWER 6
Improving performance helps in preventing failures. Failures in some industries can be fatal example rails, planes etc so the operations need to be perfect and avoid failures. No process is perfect and failure does happen but the business needs to take actions to reduce the failures. There are some small failures and some big of which some are accidental, so businesses need to differentiate between these failures and take measures to prevent it.
DIFFERENT TYPERS OF BUSINESS FAILURES
Bad marketing, no matter how good is the product if the marketing is bad the product can fail.
Finance problem, if there is cash flow problem a business can fail, so a company needs to plan proper finances to run the business smoothly.
If there is no proper planning in all the different areas of business it can fail for example costing, sales, marketing, promotion plans etc.
Lack of market knowledge, technological changes and competitor's product can also lead to business failure.
Bad location is also a cause of failure for example if the factory is located at a place from where there is no proper transportation to distribute the products it can lead to business failure.
Inexperienced managers and other staff is also one of the major causes of business failure.
Sometimes even customers can cause a failure for example a customer who buys a laptop but misuses it can cause damage to the product, so it it also duty of the company to educate the customers how to use the product.
Design failure can also cause a business to fail for example even if there is a small mistake in a product or service, the business can fail.
Peoples errors(done by mistake) and violation(not following the correct procedure) can cause business failure.
If the supplier who is dealing with the company fails, the business can fail.
Environmental failure can also lead a business to fail for example floods can cause huge losses and property damage to the businesses.
THREE WAYS OF MEASURING FAILURES
THREE TASKS OF FAILURE PREVENTION RECOVERY
Detecting the failure
Improving system reliability (Stopping what's going wrong).
Recovering what's gone wrong.
WAYS TO PREVENT FALIURE
Proper business planning should be done in all areas like sales, marketing, finance to make sure everything is planned properly.
Managers and other heads of the company should know the current trend in the market and make and modify products accordingly.
Proper finance planning should be done to make sure that daily cash needs and other financial requirements are met.
Right people should be selected for the right job and proper training should be given to them so that there are no mistakes done.
Right location should be selected to make sure everything is accessible for the business needs.
Employees should be motivated to do the job properly and proper incentives should be given.
Right suppliers and distributors should be appointed to make sure there is no failure in future.
Failures should be considered as a opportunity to overcome the threats the company might face and the managers should be ready to deal with these failures. Thus a proper planning in all aspects of the business operations can prevent failures in business.
TASK 1 ANSWER 7
Planning and control is concerned with the operating those resources on a day-to-day basis and ensuring availability of materials and other variable resources in order to supply the goods and services which fulfil customers' demands.(put book name as per havard). Planning and control helps in managing the continuous process of the business to satisfy the customer needs. It helps in fulfilling the customer needs by using the operational resources. It helps in bringing the different aspects of demand and supply.
The difference between planning and control is that planning is a stage where things are planned for future but sometimes things planned may change as per the market needs where as control means the actions taken if the market situation changes and the ways to tackle these situation and to redo short term plan to fulfil the market and customer needs.
DIFFERENT STEPS OF PLANNING AND CONTROL
Identify the objectives and potential strategies and evaluate them.
Choose alternative course of action.
Implement a long term plan.
Respond to the changes from the plan make any changes and draw a short term plan to meet the customer needs.
Check the actual results and compare them with the plan.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLANNING
Strategic planning is used for long term planning
Oriental planning usually used for short term planning probably day to day planning.
CAPACITY PLANNING AND CONTROL OF A MIDSIZE RESTURANT
Capacity planning is the process which is used to determine what capacity is needed in order to manufacture the product or start production of the new product in order to meet the future demands. Different things affect the capacity planning like number of workers, machines, productivity etc. Capacity planning can be done both long term and short term.
As a business consultant for a midsized restaurant to look into capacity planning and control the main areas to look is whether the restaurant can cope up with the increasing demand of its services. Capacity planning is to see whether the restaurant can complete a particular work in given period of time to meet the customer needs. In this case study we will analyse the demand and supply of the restaurant this can be done by taking the daily intake of customers coming daily to the stores , the amount of each items required by the restaurant, staff availability, work schedule and other needs of the society. After drawing the details of the input and the demand which is done by calculating the number of the customers coming to the restaurant. There are two types of planning short term and long term planning. If there is a demand fluctuation for example if there is a birthday party organized in the restaurant a plan needs to drawn probably a short term plan how to tackle so many guests in the restaurant which can be done by calling extra workers, ordering extra items needed for the guests.
The long term planning can be done if the restaurant already knows that on a certain date there is a football match in the area so the restaurant needs to be prepared as many people will be visiting the area, the following things needs to be done in order to tackle large number of customers coming.
Make extra seating arrangements for the guests.
Arrange extra staff that can take care of the customers.
Order extra food for the extra customers.
ALTERNATIVE CAPACITY PLANNING
Chase demand plan, where capacity is adjusted to match the demand by using extra staff which can be done by overtime or by subcontracting.
Level Capacity plan, where capacity is kept constant.
Managing demand plan, where demand is kept same or changed in order to bring it closer to the capacity at any given time.
Depending on the case where there is sudden demand, chase demand plan can be used to tackle the customers.
TASK 1 ANSWER 8
Globalization is a series of social, economical, technological, cultural, and political changes that promote interdependence and growth. Globalization raises the standard of living in developing countries, spreads technological knowledge, and increases political liberation.
The International Monetary Fund defined "economic globalization" as: "a historical process, the result of human and technological progress. It refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows. The term also refers to the movement of people (labour) and knowledge (technology) across international borders."
Impacts of Globalization
Because of Globalization goods and services can be produced and sold in different parts of the world.
Because of Globalization companies and governments have increased their level of technology.
Increasing influence of organizations like World Bank, IMF and World Trade organisation is a also because of the impact of Globalisation.
Globalisation has also lead to sourcing of cheaper and competitive manpower from any part of the world.
Developing countries like India and China have benefited largely because of Globalization as many BPO are established in these countries because of Globalization and outsourcing.
Globalization is thus an important factor if a business wants to be successful. In today's world Trade organization encouraging free trade are creaking down the barriers of commerce example EU,NAFTA, SAARC etc. Globalization has changed the face of many developing countries in today's world.
There is a movement towards globalization as the tastes of people are changing to global brands. Companies also going global to take advantage of cheap labour, technology and various other factors example many companies sourcing its products from India, China, Pakistan because of cheap labour available in these countries.
Operations management is about carefully managing the process of producing, distributing goods and services and all other process related to the business. Globalization has affected Operations management in a bigger way.
EFFECTS ON OPERATION MANAGEMENT
Managers must recognize the shift of balance of powers in the consumers hand because of globalization.
Higher level of productivity has to be achieved in all areas of operation for example production, sales, marketing, finance etc.
Managers have to reduce cost, maximise profits and help the society as a whole.
Hire right people for the right job.
Compete with other companies by producing quality products at competitive prices.
Invest in social and environmental causes.
Operations management's role is to focus on adding more value through the transformational process where the inputs are converted to transformed process.
Retail banking is primarily targeted towards individual consumers. Retail banking is usually made available by commercial banks, as well as some local building societies and strictly focuses on individual consumers. It offers different services to the consumers like savings account, current account, loans, debit and credit cards etc. In today's time much of the retail banking is done through online banking, phone banking etc.
In today's world the scenario of retail banking has changed dramatically various products and services are been introduced to help the customers to meet their day to day needs. In this assignment we will analyse the major changes in process undertaken in the layout of products and services for the customers and how these changes are affecting customer service, efficiencies in operation and improvement in stakeholder value.
In today's Global world retail banking has changed dramatically. Different ways are introduced by banks to help the customers in their day to day banking needs, some of these changes are:
Banks Accounts- Various types of accounts are being offered by banks to meet customer needs like savings, current, cash card account, ISA etc.
Internet Banking - It help the banks will be able to save marketing and operational costs. The customer is given an unique ID and password he can log on to his internet banking from any part of the world check his balance, make purchases, transfer funds etc. Customer doesn't needs to go to bank for every small thing he can just do it from his home. It provides banks with economies of scale. More and more people are using Internet banking today which sometimes is considered as a negative thing as it reduces the interaction between the customers and the bank staff. Banks today are finding new ways to attract customers by making internet banking more east and more security features are added to prevent identity theft.
Phone Banking- Mostly all banks have the phone banking feature where customers can check his balance, make payments and do lot of stuffs just by the punching numbers on the phone.
Mobile Banking- Similar to phone banking but the added feature are those customers can receive text alerts like balance, cheque deposits etc.
Debit and Credit Cards- Carrying cash can be sometimes dangerous, banks have introduced debit and credit cards where we don't need to give cash payments can be made by debit and credit cards where the money is debited to their respective accounts. Banks have added more security features like the chip and pin which has reduced the fraud in the UK.
Cash Machines- Cash can be withdrawn from any part of the world using debit and credit cards which helps the customers from taking cash everywhere, they could simply use cash machines to withdraw cash.
Mortgages and loans- Buying house has became easy now days since banks provide majority of the `loan to buy a new house. Banks provide loans for almost everything with various payment options.
Insurance- Various insurance products like life insurance, car insurance, medical insurance are provided by banks to meet customers' needs.
TASK 2 ANSWER 2
Changes made by bank in today's world have helped customers a lot, efficiencies in operations and improvement in stakeholder's value in the following ways:
Banks can sell various products online like credit cards, accounts etc which saves time and money for the customer and the bank.
Banks can compete with other institutions by offering best value products to its customers.
Operations have become easier for the banks as most of the things are done online and save customer's time and the banks time.
More security features are added which prevents identity theft so customers don't need to worry about their details been passed to hackers.
Customers can find answers to most of their questions online.
Customer service is the main motto of banks today and it has changed a lot what it used to be in the earlier days.
IMPACT ON STAKEHOLDERS
Changes in the products and services have created a positive impact on all the stakeholders they are as follows-
Shareholders- Complete and accurate information is been given to all the shareholders which is possible because of the latest technology used and transparency.
Employees- Banks considered its employees as a most important asset of the company, great care is taken of all of its employees,
Customers- Banks takes care of the customers by giving best customer service, protecting their details and innovating new things.
Social and Environment- Banks knows it social responsibilities, it invests good money in environment, reports illegal business to the government and helps the society in everyway
Use of new technology has helped the company and stakeholders as a whole by bringing more profits, good relations with the customer, society, transparency in its operations. Changes in the retail banking process has helped the customers also as the banks spent a good amount of money on customer service as it is sometimes easy to get a new customer but hard to retain that customer.