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The knowledge, skills, abilities are very important to determine potential candidate as well as previous job experience also matter. The responsibilities and duties of previous work can help a lot in understanding new work environment. The other characteristics like personality, attitude and intelligence also very important factors.
There are various factors i.e. education, job experience, cognitive ability tests, integrity test, personality tests, IQ tests, interview, references. (Dipboye, 1992; Randall and Randall, 1990).
The organization takes two considerations in order to select new employee. Firstly analyse the individual differences between applicants by comparing their knowledge, skills and abilities and secondly decide the most appropriate selection method. (R.D. Gatewood and H.S. Field,)
APPROPRIATE SKILLS AND ABILITIES
There are several stages of employee selection. First of all knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of applicant are determined, secondly highlight the contents of job and to determine whether the existing employee's skills are appropriate to job nature or not? This procedure is called job analysis. After job analysis the duties and responsibilities are described according to nature of job in documentary form call job description and then what type of human resource is required for that particular job called job specification. ( Gary Dessler )
The necessary skills, knowledge and abilities which are necessary to perform the job are called job requirements. These can be qualification, experience, training, aptitudes and abilities. (H.S. Field).
The knowledge, skills and abilities ( KSAs) are the basic important factor which is specially examined in the applicant in recruitment process. There are also other two important factors i.e. previous work experience and other characteristics.
The duties and responsibilities handled by previous jobs are very important to understand the work criteria and requirements. The experienced persons knowledge and skills are the great assets for organization and it is the main benefit of knowledgeable persons. Organizations take advantages of their developed personal relations due to previous job works so it is very beneficial for future growth of the organization.
The chairman of Bernard Holdane Associates, Jerry Weinger, says candidates should have strong record of distinctions and success in a challenging environment like down economies. (Human Resource Management by Alan Price 3rd edition, ch 14, p 337).
PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS:
The other characteristics refer to different personality traits as well as his professional attitude. Many organizations examine personal attributes of candidates, his communication style, presentation skills, oral and written competency of language, , confidence, behaviour adoptability etc. These all characteristics build up the personality of the candidate and organization have to seek best potential candidate who have good professional and personal attributes.
Toyata, a Japanese company give more importance to personal traits as compare to technical skills. (H uman Resource Management by Alan Price 3rd edition, ch 15, p 371).
CHOICE OF SELECTION METHOD:
After identifying the skills and abilities the organization have to take decision about the choice of selection methods. The organization can develop its own selection method to assess the applicant or can adopt selection method of other organizations.
The most important test include exercise of assessment centres, cognitive ability testing, integrity testing which are used to assess job performance (Campion et al". 1994; Howard, 1997; Randall, 1990; Salgado and Moscoso, 2002; Wright et al., 1989).
So there are various employee selection methods utilizing by different organizations but the most famous selection method is job interview. The other methods could be aptitude test, personality test, reference, assessment centres, background checking, cognitive ability test, drugs test etc.
All these methods are used to assess the applicant's skills and abilities and to determine any situation which is becoming the root cause of performance failure. The selection method must be appropriate to nature of job and it must be accurate as much as possible in providing the information. The accuracy of selection method depends upon reliability and validity of selection method.
VALIDITY OF SELECTION METHODS:
In the context of selection, validity means meaningfulness, the appropriateness, and usefulness of the inferences made about applicants during the selection process.( R.D. Gatewood and H.S. Field )
What is the validity of selection method and how it can be determined? These are the basic questions which arise in mind when we examine the validity. Actually the validity deals with the issue that whether the actual performance of the applicant is according to the expected performance which we incurred during the selection method. If the actual and expected performance is very close to each other then we can say the selection method for hiring new employee is valid and if both performances have gaps then the selection method must be change. Moreover there are also many other criterions by which validity of any selection method can be measured.
The organizations use various selection methods according to nature of job, size of organization and number of candidates. The organization can use one or more selection methods, it depends upon the reliable and valid so that expected performance of employee could be achieved.
In USA, the famous company Mazda is recruiting new employees by assessment of several selection methods. The methods include application forms, aptitude test, group problem solving, personal interview, and previous job experience. (Human Resource Management by Alan Price 3rd edition, ch 15, p 356).
The important methods can be described as:
Application Forms and CVs
Online Screening and Short Listing
Ability and Aptitude Tests
APPLICATION FORMS & CVs:
The application forms mostly use in public sectors. The application forms are prescribed in a formulated way which helps to know about important information of incumbents and this information can be examined during other tests and interviews. The main problem is that sometime the application forms are so lengthy and complicated
CVs are commonly used in private sector to gain initial and necessary information about the candidate's qualification, previous job experiences and other distinctions but the problem with CVs is that CVs are presented by applicant in way to which he consider himself more fit for the job. So it is difficult for employer to judge the candidate only by CV.
ONLINE SCREENING AND SHORT LISTING:Â
The Online screening is the quick procedure to filter potential incumbents among the huge number of applicants. Generally there are two criterions to short list the candidate by online screening, one is applicant's experience and other is qualification. In this method scores are set according to criterions and candidates are shortlisted on the base of those scores. This is very useful method to save valuable time by short listing the applicants in very short time but costly in a sense of implementation of software and uploading of online information for screening applicants. Sometime potential candidate missed the chance of getting opportunity of that required job due to inappropriate key words during search.
The one of the largest retailer in the market "Woolworth" is using web-based recruitment policy to hire new employees. Woolworth have 2800 staff in its 800 stores and used online screening method very successfully.(IRS 2005d :46- Julie Ch.6, p 206 )
The Cadbury Schweppes have introduced online verbal and numerical reason tests for its recruitment process and received about 4000 applications for just 20 places.( IRS 2005f :44- Julie Ch.6,P 210)
Psychometric testing refers to mental measurement. It helps in testing of ability and aptitude as well as personality profiling. Trained and qualified staff is necessary to arrange psychometric testing. Many organizations use these tests with the interview method as a part of selection process.
The Morgan &Banks recruitment consultancy conducted about 10 to 15 psychometric tests in selection procedure of hiring new employees. (Human Resource Management by Robins Kramar 3rd edition Ch 8 P 307)
BT company always consider psychometric test as important tool for hiring new employees. (Human Resource Management by Robins Kramar 3rd edition Ch 8 P 307)
AFR a famous organization is also conduction psychometric tests for its recruitment. (Human Resource Management by Robins Kramar 3rd edition Ch 8 P 307)
ABILITY AND APTITUDE TESTS:
The ability and aptitude tests are very useful to analyse general intelligence, spatial ability, verbal ability, sensory and motor abilities, clerical ability, numerical ability, mechanical ability, diagrammatical ability.
In USA ability test is conducted for entry level jobs and Govt. Is saving almost $15 billion per year.
( Managing Human Resource by Luis R Gomez ch 5 p198)
Personality profiling is also very important for acquiring of good job. Sometime personality of person is not suitable to job so it's difficult to handle that job for such a person. But if the individual can shift himself according to job criterion and suitability then it can be possible to get particular job.
A famous Company " Pret A Manager" which have 2800 employees on 118 shops, received 55000 application for 1500 places. According to recruitments strategy of Pret A Manger, the candidates have to show sociable personality, positive approach to life in interview. ( Carrington 2002, Julie Ch.6 P216)
HAYS human resource management department specially focus on candidate's personality and character profiling. (Human Resource Management by Robins Kramar 3rd edition Ch 8 P 308)
The presentation is the very effective selection method to examine the overall personality, confidence and communication skills of the candidate. In this method a topic is given to the candidate to deliver his ideas in a limited time. Some organization gives the topic with interview letter and some on the spot. This method usually used for senior jobs.
This selection method is used to filter a potential candidate among the group of applicants. The candidates have to debate on a topic or play a given role to show their knowledge, skills and abilities about the given topic. The observers gives scores to candidates according to set criterion.
The assessment centres refers to multiple testing methods. It include ability testing, group exercise, presentation, aptitude testing, personality profiling etc. This selection method gives the opportunity to the candidate to show his knowledge, skills and abilities and get higher marks irrespective of his previous academic background. This selection method must be fair and neutral.
GKN, the famous manufacturing company , having business in all over the world is using assessment centre selection method for recruiting new employees. It receive 1000 applications for just only 20 positions
( IRS 2005g centre of attention 47- Julie ch. 6 p 22)
The American Telephone and telegraph Company (AT&T) recruits employees on the basis of Assessment centres. ((Human Resource Management by Alan Price 3rd edition, ch 15, p 376).