The Hawthorne Studies Of Human Behavior Commerce Essay


The Hawthorne studies is the study of human behavior whereby subjects improve or modify an aspect of their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are being studied, not in response to any particular experimental manipulation. This study was carried out in the middle of 20th century by Henry A. Landsberger in Hawthorne Works factory. One of the major outcome of this experiment was that inspite of whatever experimental manipulation was conducted on the employees, there was always an increase in the production of the employees. This lead to a general conclusion that the workers liked the attention they received from the senior management and the researchers and hence responded with a positive outcome.

Kunal was talking to the workers and showing a good interest in them based on his understanding of the studies. He understood that his taking interest in the workers and being involved would increase the productivity of the workers as the workers would feel as social connect with their employers. Kunal's father was not very much aware of the Hawthorne studies and had assumed that they were about being nice to people. He has misunderstood Kunal's sense of involvement with the workers as being nice to them.

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If I had been Kunal I would first have explained it to my father what the Hawthorne theory was all about. I would have shared with him the experiments that were conducted on the workers in the past and the outcomes of them to illustrate the effect of the Hawthorne theory. I would then have explained him the difference in being nice and being involved. I would have explained how being involved bring affection and a feeling of oneness in the organization and helps in increasing the productivity at work because the workers start to feel that they are valuable to the organization.

I would have shared with my father, my findings of the working methodologies and conditions that I had observed in the past two days. I would then ask him to assemble all the productivity records he would have compiled in the previous years. I would have then did an analysis of the productivity of the employees vis a vis the working methodologies in the factory. Factors like increase in wages, changes in shift timings, break schedules, rotation of work would have been the key basis points for my measurement of working methodologies. Armed with these figures I would then ask my father to give me some more time to continue the way I am working. I would alongside continue my work of observing the productivity of employees with each day. At the end of a period of about 3-4 months I would have then gone to my father and show him the reports that I had made on the change in productivity of the workers thus far. Seeing the reports I believe my father would have the proof that the Hawthorne studies are themselves more than just being nice to people.

You are the Chief Product Manager of Info systems Inc. Mr. Ram Bihari, the General Secretary of Akhil Bhartiya Party has approached you with a different kind of project. He wants you to design an IT based Information System for his party which would help ABP in the forthcoming elections. In not more than 1000 words, identify the requirements and goals for such a system and give an IT based solution. Please remember that you are not a programmer, but an IT consultant. Hence you are not required to write codes.

Information technology has made its inroads into almost all other sectors in the world today. Politics which is one of the most competitive and elaborate race in the world, and is always on the lookout for ways to innovate and outrun the other cannot be left far behind.

For the election campaign of Akhil Bhartiya Party there are two key areas where Information Technology can be used to improve the party's chance in the upcoming elections.

Increase ABP's presence in people's eyes - Online and mobile campaigning.

Computation and Analysis of constituency composition

Increase ABP's presence in people's eyes - Online and mobile campaigning.

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As the popular saying goes, out of sight is out of mind. For effective campaigning it is every important that the party remains in public eye for all the time till the election process is over.

We plan to do the following activities to help remain in public light for the period:

Launch a website - We would launch a website for the Akhil Bhartiya Party. The website would consist of the structure of the party, the agenda and the manifesto for the coming elections. There would be a separate section highlighting the strengths of ABP and the important projects that it help deliver to the country in its last tenure. A section would contain the profiles of all the candidates who would be standing for candidature in the current elections. We would try to make the site as informative as possible.

Chat room with the candidates - A chat room where voters can directly chat with the candidates from the ABP party would be launched. This will help in increasing the reach of a candidate in not only his own constituency but all over India. It would also give the candidates a chance to float his agenda for his constituency.

Launch a grievance centre - An online grievance centre would be starting which would helppeople log complaints on the problems that they are facing with the current political setup. This will help us in two ways. One it will highlight and bring in mind the inefficiency of the current government. Second it would provide us with the information on the agenda's which are close to people and effecting their lives. We can then use them to realize how we can provide people with what the current government is lacking

Online advertisements - An online publicity campaign highlighting the strengths of ABP would be launched and would cover all the major sites on the web like email services and search portals. The campaign would be so designed that it would ask question from people about what they hope to see in the coming government to give them substance to think what the next government is capable of. There would be features like "Did you know?" where a highlight of ABP would be flashed each day.

Text messaging and emails - Regular text messages and emails would be send to people highlighting the key areas ABP has worked on in the past years. What we would do different here is that we would start the marketing a bit late in the campaign so that the highlights are fresh in the minds of the people. Besides, we will give them the option o unsubscribing to the messaging service to give them the indication that ABP does not force itself on the democracy of the country

Design a video campaign- A video campaign would be launched on all major web portals and extensive publicity done in this regard to promote the same. Video CDs of the same would be made and distributed in public rallies of ABP to expand the reach to all masses

Online surveys - Surveys would be send to online respondents for their feedback on the current government and the improvements they wish to see in the incoming party. The survey would be carefully drafted to include the strengths of ABP which are missing from the party in power currently.

Computation and Analysis of constituency composition

We would traverse through the latest available data on each and every constituency based on the population, sex ratio, caste divide, growth, key issues and concerns. We would be including surveys from third party agencies where ever required to help consolidate our records and ascertain their genuineness.

Based on the information received from the above sources, we would conduct a thorough analysis on who would be the best candidate for that particular constituency. Given the fickle nature of Indian vote bank and the fact that a lot of votes are based on caste and regionalism this kind of analysis is every important.

The second part of the analysis would consist of data on the past political records of ABP and other parties of the region. The trends of politics are very important to determine the importance of each constituency to each party so that we can draw a defined plan on each party.

Maruti Udyog Ltd , a joint venture between Suzuki Motors of Japan (eleventh largest vehicle manufacturer in the world and the fourth largest manufacturer in Japan) and the Indian government, is the leader in India's automobile market. Maruti has the widest product range among Indian car manufacturers, with ten basic models and more than 50 variants. In 2003, Maruti produced 359,960 vehicles, operating at a capacity utilisation of 103%, against the industry average of 57.8%. Even though Maruti is well ahead of its other rivals, its market share has been declining. As competition intensifies, Maruti has realised the importance of getting closer to its customers. Suggest a few (6-8) measures that Maruti can implement for the same.

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Maruti Udyog Limited is one of the most trusted brand names in India. It is known for its fuel efficient and value for money cars in Indi. Its wide network of dealers, its after sales service and easy availability of cost friendly spare parts and accessories have always been its scoring points and have kept many a competitors at bay for a long time in the Indian automobile market. It has the lion's share in the small car segment.

From the facts given above, we observe that Maruti Udyog is operating at a capacity utilization of 103% as against the industry average of 57.8%. This shows that Maruti is producing at full capacity. The automotive market is growing at a high rate and there is an increase in the demand for automobiles in the Indian market. Since Maruti is not able to supply cars to match the demand in the growing market leading to large waiting period on cars, customers are moving to other brands to meet their requirements. There are two ways by which Maruti can tide over this problem:

By setting up a new assembly line to increase production.

By removing bottlenecks in the current production assembly.

While the first solution requires both time and investment, the second can be solved by employing good operation management techniques to identify the key areas which are holding up the production and taking up steps to improve the same.

Maruti must also realize that the real reason for its success is its connect with the people and their abundant liking and trust for the makers of the first car in India. Hence, Maruti's growth strategy must be revolve around the consumer expectation from it. After sales service is one of the most crucial factors in determining the factors in the Indian urban consumer market. Maruti must employee techniques like elaborate after sales service, service at doorstep and increasing free period service to make sure its USP remains unparalleled by any competition.

With such a wide variety of products consisting of 10 basic models and more than 50 variants, its is quite evident that maruti has a very active R&D department which always tries to keep up with the changing tastes of the Indian market. For eg :it remodeled its premium hatchback Swift as the mid-sized Swift Dezire which is one of the biggest success in India. It must continue this trend and keep coming with good models to keep up with the competition.

What will be the best selection process for a B school? Discuss the pros and cons of all selection process that you have attended (minimum 3). Benchmark MDI's selection process and suggest suitable changes in the selection process of MDI with the aim of making MDI a school for THOUGHT LEADERS and CHANGE MASTERS.

The respect, honour and attractive remunerations that an MBA degree commands makes it one of the most sought after degrees in our country. However, a manager should possess certain skill sets become a successful manager. To select a manager the B-schools must gave an entrance criteria which judges the person on all the possible parameters that qualify a person to be a future manager. For this reason, B-school entrance exams are one of the most comprehensive nd hence challenging exams. They judge not only the intelligence and knowledge of person but also his personality and aptitude towards being a manager.

I have been appearing for MBA entrances ofr three years now and have seen interviews at a lot of premier colleges of the country. I have appeared at MBA interviews in 8 campus till now and would discuss the interviews at three of the campus of SIBM Pune, IIT-Delhi and IIFT Delhi vis a vis MDI Gurgaon to observe what changes we can suggest to our future alma mater to improve the quality of the process.

SIBM Pune starts the earliest with the MBA process which has both its advantages and disadvantages. The selection process consists of an entrance exam by the Symbiosis University and the shortlisted candidates then go through a personal interview, case study and a group task for final selection. The group task is the most unique feature of the process which judges a person's team work and leadership quality in an actual scenario. What i like most about the whole process is that they have a very active Aspirant relations team and it provides the aspirants a level of great comfort during the process which can be very intimidating for some.

IIT-Delhi conducts its exam via the JMET exam for MBA from any of the IITs and is followed by a group discussion and a personal interview. The group discussion usually consists of an abstract topic and the interview is very comprehensive covering the domain and technical knowledge as well as the personality of the candidate. IIT Delhi also has a very active aspirant relation team like SIBM

IIFT Delhi conducts its own exam and follows it with an essay writing, group discussion and personal interview. The group discussion at IIFT is the most comprehensive and also the most feared group discussion. The group discussion lasts for about 40 minutes where every student first speaks on the topic for around 2 minutes each and then the discussion starts.

According to me a selection process should judge a candidate on his aptitude, his general awareness, his willingness to learn, leadership skills and his ability to handle an unknown situation. The written exam that every college conducts is one of the surest ways to judge a person's aptitude and hence cover the first aspect of the selection. Interviews and group discussion judge the knowledge, general awareness, and to a certain extent his team handling and leadership skills. I think the IIFT way of conducting a GD is the best way as it gives an opportunity to everyone to put forth his/her views and also gives a solid pedestal on which furth discussion can take place.I think colleges should also include the group task in their selection process as it will judge the ability of a person to perform in a real life unknown situation.

Of all the processes of selection, the personal interview should carry the highest weightage followed by equal weightage for written exams and group activities. There should also be marks for previous marks scored in school and during graduation to appreciate the consistent hard work of the person. There should also be weightage for prior work ex as the person has gained the advantage of having a look at how the real world looks and would be able to relate better to the management knowledge being imparted to him.

I think MDI has a fairly decent admission process. It has all the necessary ingredients required for selection like a valued written exam, a personal interview and group discussion process. I think the two spheres where MDI can improve are

Decreasing the weightage given to the written score - Currently written score is the largest single contributor to the selection process but it judges only the aptitude of a person. The other process which judge the personality and management & leadership skills should get more say in the finl selection of the candidate.

An active Aspirant Relations team - The first impression a candidate gets of a B-school comes from the current students of that school. MDI should also form a students relations tem to help the students in the challenging situation. It also serves as a good strategy to impress the best brains of the country.